Anomodont

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Anomodonts
Temporal range: Middle Permian to Late Triassic (Possible Early Cretaceous record.)[1]
Lystrosaurus 1.JPG
Mounted skeleton of Lystrosaurus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Synapsida
Order: Therapsida
Clade: Neotherapsida
Suborder: Anomodontia
Owen, 1859
Subgroups

Anomocephalus
Patranomodon
Venyukoviidae
Dromasauria
Dicynodontia

Anomodontia is an extinct group of non-mammalian therapsids containing many species from the Permian and Triassic periods (possibly continuing into the Early Cretaceous),[2] most of which were toothless herbivores.[3] Anomodonts were very diverse during the Middle Permian, including primitive forms like Anomocephalus and Patranomodon and groups like the Venyukovioidea, the Dromasauria, and the Dicynodontia. Of these only the dicynodonts survived beyond the Middle Permian. Dicynodonts became the most successful and abundant of all herbivores in the Late Permian and Triassic, filling ecological niches ranging from large browsers down to small burrowers. Few dicynodont families survived the Permian–Triassic extinction event, but one lineage evolved into large, stocky forms that remained the dominant terrestrial herbivores right up until the Late Triassic, when changing conditions caused them to decline.

Classification[edit]

Taxonomy[edit]

Phylogeny[edit]

Cladogram modified from Liu et al. (2009):[2]

Therapsida 
unnamed

Biarmosuchia



Gorgonopsia



unnamed

Dinocephalia


 Anomodontia 

Biseridens


unnamed

Anomocephalus


unnamed
 Venyukovioidea 

Otsheria


unnamed

Ulemica



Suminia




 Chainosauria 

Patranomodon


unnamed

Galeops



Eodicynodon









Below is a cladogram from Kammerer et al. (2013).[4] The data matrix of Kammerer et al. (2013), a list of characteristics that was used in the analysis, was based on that of Kammerer et al. (2011), which followed a comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon.[5] Because of this, many of the relationships found by Kammerer et al. (2013) are the same as those found by Kammerer et al. (2011). However, several taxa were added to the analysis including Tiarajudens Eubrachiosaurus, Shaanbeikannemeyeria, Zambiasaurus and many "outgroup" taxa (positioned outside Anomodontia), while other taxa were re-coded. As in Kammerer et al. (2011), the interrelationships of non-kannemeyeriiform dicynodontoids are weakly supported and thus vary between the analyses.[4]


Biseridens





Anomocephalus



Tiarajudens





Patranomodon



 2 

Suminia




Otsheria



Ulemica




 3 


Galepus



Galechirus





Galeops


 4 

"Eodicynodon" oelofseni





Eodicynodon oosthuizeni



Colobodectes





Lanthanostegus




Chelydontops




Endothiodon




Pristerodon


 5 
 6 
 7 

Diictodon




Eosimops




Prosictodon



Robertia





 8 

Emydops


 9 
 10 

Dicynodontoides



Kombuisia





Myosaurus


 11 

Cistecephalus




Cistecephaloides



Kawingasaurus









 12 














1 Anomodontia, 2 Venyukovioidea, 3 Chainosauria, 4 Dicynodontia, 5 Therochelonia, 6 Diictodontia, 7 Pylaecephalidae, 8 Emydopoidea, 9 Kistecephalia, 10 Kingoriidae, 11 Cistecephalidae, 12 Bidentalia

12 
 13 

Keyseria




Daqingshanodon



 14 

Oudenodon




Tropidostoma



Australobarbarus







Odontocyclops



Idelesaurus




 15 

Rhachiocephalus



Kitchinganomodon



 16 

Syops


 17 

Aulacocephalodon




Pelanomodon




Geikia elginensis



Geikia locusticeps











 18 


Interpresosaurus




Elph



Katumbia






Gordonia





Basilodon



Sintocephalus





Dicynodon lacerticeps




"Dicynodon" huenei





Delectosaurus



Vivaxosaurus






Daptocephalus




Dinanomodon



Peramodon






Jimusaria




Turfanodon



 19 

Euptychognathus




Lystrosaurus murrayi




"Lystrosaurus" declivus




"Lystrosaurus" curvatus




"Lystrosaurus" maccaigi




"Lystrosaurus" hedini




TSK 2



Kwazulusaurus










 20 












12 Bidentalia, 13 Cryptodontia, 14 Oudenodontidae, 15 Rhachiocephalidae, 16 Geikiidae, 17 Geikiinae, 18 Dicynodontoidea, 19 Lystrosauridae, 20 Kannemeyeriiformes

20 

Angonisaurus



 21 


Tetragonias



Vinceria





Shansiodon



Rhinodicynodon






Dinodontosaurus





Shaanbeikannemeyeria




Kannemeyeria lophorhinus



Kannemeyeria simocephalus







Parakannemeyeria



Xiyukannemeyeria






Dolichuranus




Rechnisaurus



Uralokannemeyeria






Rabidosaurus




Sinokannemeyeria





Rhadiodromus



Wadiasaurus



 22 
 23 

Zambiasaurus




Moghreberia



Placerias




 24 

Stahleckeria





Eubrachiosaurus



Sangusaurus





Jachaleria



Ischigualastia














20 Kannemeyeriiformes, 21 Shansiodontidae, 22 Stahleckeriidae, 23 Placeriinae, 24 Stahleckeriinae

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ *Thulborn, T. & Turner, S. 2003. The last dicynodont: an Australian Cretaceous relict. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270, 985-993. Abstract.
  2. ^ a b Liu, J.; Rubidge, B.; Li, J. (2009). "A new specimen of Biseridens qilianicus indicates its phylogenetic position as the most basal anomodont". Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277 (1679): 285–292. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0883. PMC 2842672. PMID 19640887. 
  3. ^ Chinsamy-Turan, A. (2011) Forerunners of Mammals: Radiation - Histology - Biology, p.39. Indiana University Press, ISBN 0253356970. Retrieved May 2012
  4. ^ a b Kammerer, C. F.; Fröbisch, J. R.; Angielczyk, K. D. (2013). Farke, Andrew A, ed. "On the Validity and Phylogenetic Position of Eubrachiosaurus browni, a Kannemeyeriiform Dicynodont (Anomodontia) from Triassic North America". PLoS ONE 8 (5): e64203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064203.  edit
  5. ^ Kammerer, C.F.; Angielczyk, K.D.; Fröbisch, J. (2011). "A comprehensive taxonomic revision of Dicynodon (Therapsida, Anomodontia) and its implications for dicynodont phylogeny, biogeography, and biostratigraphy". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31 (Suppl. 1): 1–158. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.627074.