Another World (TV series)

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Not to be confused with Another Life.
Another World
Anotherworld96.jpg
Genre Soap opera
Drama
Created by Irna Phillips
William J. Bell
Starring Series cast
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 35
No. of episodes 8,891
Production
Executive producer(s) Allen M. Potter (1964–69, 1983–84)
Charles Fisher (1965–69)
Paul Robert (1965–69)
Mary Harris (1965–71)
Paul Rauch (1971–84)
Stephen Schenkel (1984–86)
John Whitesell (1985–88)
Michael Laibson (1988–94)
John Valente (1994–95)
Jill Farren Phelps (1994–97)
Charlotte Savitz (1996–99)
Christopher Goutman (1998–99)
Running time 30 minutes (1964–75)
60 minutes (1975-79, 1980–99)
90 minutes (1979–80)
Broadcast
Original channel NBC
Original run May 4, 1964 (1964-05-04)  – June 25, 1999 (1999-06-25)
Chronology
Followed by
Related shows

Another World (often shortened to AW) is an American television soap opera that ran on NBC for 35 years from May 4, 1964 to June 25, 1999.[1][2] It was created by Irna Phillips along with William J. Bell, and was produced by Procter & Gamble Productions at NBC Studios, 1268 East 14th Street in Brooklyn.

Set in the fictional town of Bay City, the show in its early years opens with announcer Bill Wolff (1964–1987) intoning its epigram, “We do not live in this world alone, but in a thousand other worlds,” which Phillips said represented the difference between “the world of events we live in, and the world of feelings and dreams that we strive for.” [3] Another World focused less on the conventional drama of domestic life as seen in other soap operas, and more on exotic melodrama between families of different classes and philosophies.

In 1964, Another World was the first soap opera to talk about abortion when such subjects were taboo. It was the first soap opera to do a crossover, with the character of Mike Bauer from Guiding Light, which was also created by Irna Phillips, coming from Springfield to Bay City. It was also the first to expand to one hour, then to ninety minutes, and then back to an hour. It was the first soap to launch two spin-offs, Somerset and Texas, as well as an indirect one, Lovers and Friends, which would be renamed For Richer, For Poorer. Another World was also the first soap opera with a theme song to chart on the Billboard Hot 100, "(You Take Me Away To) Another World" by Crystal Gayle and Gary Morris, in 1987. In 1999, it was announced that NBC had cancelled Another World. Shortly after its conclusion, it was replaced by another soap opera, Passions.

Development[edit]

Irna Phillips envisioned Another World as a spin-off of her popular soap opera As the World Turns, but CBS did not have room for it and would not allow a spin-off to air on a competing network. Phillips instead sold the show to NBC (eager to snap up a show by the successful Phillips), removing references to ATWT '​s Oakdale and cancelling plans to have character crossover appearances by the Hughes family. (Ironically, two characters from another CBS soap, Guiding Light—attorney Mike Bauer and his daughter Hope—would cross over from Guiding Light to Another Word in 1966, remaining for a year before returning to GL). Despite the severed connections to As the World Turns, the name Another World remained, as a reference to its origins. Expectations were so high that Another World had six weeks of commercial time sold in advance.[4]

On November 22, 1963, a group of executives (including Executive Producer Allen M. Potter and director Tom Donovan) met at the Young & Rubicam ad agency in New York to discuss the show’s opening story, the death of William Matthews, when they heard the news of another death in Dallas: the assassination of President Kennedy.[5]

After opening with a death in the core Matthews family, Irna planned to follow up with an out-of-wedlock pregnancy, a septic abortion, a shooting, and murder trial. As Allen M. Potter explained, “Irna just didn’t want to take a chance on waiting for the ratings. She felt that with this kind of showy story she could build an audience more quickly.” [6] Said Tom Donovan, “In construction, Irna was attempting to follow the structure of As the World Turns. Irna would never conceive of a story not based on a family.” [7]

1960s[edit]

Another World '​s most-well-known title sequence, seen from June 1966 to September 4, 1981, making it one of the longest-running continuous title sequences on television.

The first episode was the aftermath of the funeral of wealthy William Matthews. His widow Liz (most notably played by Audra Lindley and later Irene Dailey) did not like his working-class brother Jim (John Beal, Shepperd Strudwick, later Hugh Marlowe) or his family. The fights between upper-class Liz and her middle-class in-laws started the show. As the '60s went on, the lives and loves of Jim's children (Russ, Alice, and Pat) took center-stage. Jim's wife, Mary (Virginia Dwyer), usually intervened when there was a crisis, which was most of the time.

In the first year, the show had a controversial storyline involving teenager Pat Matthews, having an illegal abortion after becoming pregnant. This was the first time that American television had covered the subject. In the story, the abortion made her sterile, and the shock from the news caused her to find her ex-boyfriend and shoot him in cold blood. Pat was eventually brought to trial and acquitted. She then fell in love and married her lawyer, John Randolph (Michael M. Ryan).

Another notable early storyline revolved around the star-crossed romance of Bill Matthews (Joseph Gallison) and Melissa Palmer (Carol Roux). Liz Matthews did not consider Melissa good enough for her son and was constantly interfering in their relationship. After many trials and hardships, Bill and Melissa were finally married, but their happiness was short-lived, as Bill later drowned in a boating accident.

After a one-year run, NBC was expected to cancel the program. But instead, former soap opera actor James Lipton was hired to write the show. His ideas included pushing the Matthews family into the background and introducing the Gregory family. Agnes Nixon, who was then the Head Writer of CBS's Guiding Light, was hired to write for the program. Beverly Penberthy replaced Susan Trustman in the role of Pat Matthews Randolph. Trustman had been on nearly every show while Miss Phillips was the writer, and she was exhausted. Nixon created the roles of hairdresser Ada Lucas Davis (Constance Ford) and her daughter Rachel (Robin Strasser), which were immediate successes. Ada would sit in her kitchen on Bowman Street and drink coffee. Rachel was a schemer who grew up in a lower-class background, and fought for what she wanted, even if it meant she had to resort to underhanded means. Her mother Ada was much more honest and down-to-earth, and provided a good foil for Rachel, as Ada was the only person Rachel really loved, besides herself.

The next year, businessman Steve Frame (George Reinholt) was introduced. A shrewd businessman, he grew up in a poor background and earned everything he worked for. He and Rachel immediately bonded over their respective pasts, but he also became involved with Alice Matthews (Jacqueline Courtney), who was more sophisticated, shy, and demure, something he really looked for in a wife. They courted and were to marry in 1969, but the marriage was called off when Rachel, who was married to Alice's brother Dr. Russ Matthews (Sam Groom), crashed the engagement party with the news that she was carrying Steve's child. She gave birth to a son, James (later referred to as Jamie), in November.[8][9]

1970s[edit]

Steve, Alice, and Rachel[edit]

The show's popularity shot up, thanks to a love triangle revolving around Steve, Alice, and Rachel.

Steve and Alice are married, 1971.

As 1970 began, Alice had a breakdown and went to live in France. Steve and Rachel bonded yet again, this time over their child, but Alice eventually returned and she married Steve the next year.

After the departure of Agnes Nixon (who left the show in order to create One Life to Live for ABC), Robert Cenedella was briefly hired to replace her. He also created the spin-off series Somerset. After having left Somerset to concentrate on Another World, Cenedella stepped down as head writer, and sponsor Procter & Gamble hired a newcomer, playwright Harding Lemay, to write the program. Lemay's screenplays took the form of tragic plays, as they were carried out in five dramatic acts. As the show rose higher in the ratings, NBC brass wished to expand the show to an hour; the first regularly scheduled hour-long episode was telecast on January 6, 1975.

Thoroughly convinced that her child (Jamie Frame, played by Robert "Bobby" Doran from 1971–1978) would be instrumental in breaking up the new Frame marriage and snagging her Steve once and for all, Rachel enlisted the help of her drifter father, who tricked Alice into finding Steve and Rachel in a compromising position. She filed for divorce and again left town. Fed up with Alice's wavering ways, and already feeling an attachment to Rachel and a duty to have more of a role in his son's life, Steve married Rachel (now played by Victoria Wyndham, who succeeded Strasser and Margie Impert in the role). When Alice returned from Europe for a second time, she exposed Rachel and her father's scheme, which accidentally sent Steve to prison as an accomplice to embezzlement. When he was released, Steve reunited with Alice; although she had sent him away, he was too alienated against Rachel to rekindle any feeling.

As Steve and Alice were finally allowed to be together (they were married for the second time on the tenth-anniversary telecast), Rachel continued to scheme, even trying to evict Alice from the house Steve had given to her; Rachel tried to say that Steve had given her the house. After Alice had another mental breakdown, and Steve sided with Alice, Rachel decided to reform herself.

Rachel tried her best to stay away from the couple, and even found love with an older, wise magazine editor, Mackenzie "Mac" Cory (Douglass Watson). This was in tune with Wyndham's wish that Rachel be played with more facets to her character—for many years, her character was totally "black" in personality, compared to "white", good Alice. Both Lemay and Wyndham, who were at the time new to the series, wanted to change the character of Rachel as she was so blindly hated by many fans, who wrote to the NBC studios wishing that she be killed off.

Mac, Rachel, and Iris[edit]

The marriage of Mac and Rachel. Ralph Camargo, the actor who played the justice of the peace, is the real-life father of Victoria Wyndham (Rachel). This was the first time father and daughter had acted together.

Originally, Mac and Rachel were not planned to have a romantic coupling. Harding Lemay noticed the chemistry between actors Douglass Watson and Victoria Wyndham, and wrote a slow-developing love story for them. Fearing backlash from viewers who may have found an older man-younger woman relationship tasteless, Lemay penned chance encounters for the two characters, which led to innocent yet intimate conversations. By the time the characters had their first kiss, the story had gone on for six months. Continuing on the slow path, Mac and Rachel's relationship blossomed until they were wed.

Mac and Rachel were married by a justice of the peace in Mac's New York City townhouse on Valentine's Day 1975. The drama produced by their marriage and Mac's insanely jealous daughter, Iris Carrington (portrayed at this time by Beverlee McKinsey) fueled the storylines for most of the late 1970s. Iris, who was spoiled and wanted to be the only woman in her father's life, resented Rachel, who also happened to be her same age. Iris' many schemes to drive Rachel away from Mac often backfired, driving a wedge between father and daughter, instead of bringing them together.[10] The presence of the Cory maid, Louise (Anne Meacham), proved for sometimes comedic relief in an otherwise dramatic storyline. Other times, Louise served as a stern confidante and a sometime voice of reason for Mac during fights with either Rachel or Iris.

The Matthewses and the Randolphs[edit]

Steve was presumed dead in 1975 when his helicopter supposedly crashed in Australia. Alice became a backburner character for the first time in 11 years, in tune with Lemay's wish that Jacqueline Courtney leave the show. She was replaced by actress Susan Harney. Over time, Alice became a registered nurse, and cared for her adopted daughter, Sally (first played by Cathy Greene). While Alice's story finally calmed down, her siblings' stories expanded. Her sister Pat Randolph experienced marital problems with her husband John. He ended up divorcing Pat and marrying the maniacal Olive (Jennifer Leak).

The ratings for Another World had declined since its final peak at #1 in 1978. To keep the spot, executive producer Paul Rauch pitched the idea to NBC to make the show longer. Although not at its peak, the show was still the most successful soap in NBC's lineup, so they agreed. Lemay (with the help of Tom King), penned a special effects-laden storyline involving the fiery death of Michael M. Ryan's character John Randolph, who had appeared on the show since 1964. The storyline, which was meant to be kept secret from the press, was leaked a month before the scenes aired, prompting both Guiding Light and The Edge of Night to counteract with their own shocking episode to air in the same time slot: the rape of Holly by her husband Roger and the shocking murder storyline of Wade Meecham, respectively.

The 90-minute experiment/Iris' move to Texas[edit]

John's death on March 6, 1979, as he was saving his former sister-in law Alice from a burning building, coincided with the move to 90-minute episodes each weekday. It was at that time that Lemay, who had written since 1971, decided to hand over his duties to Tom King, citing overwork. While the ratings got a slight boost, most viewers did not like the change to longer episodes. The episode duration opened up space for many new characters to be introduced to the storyline; but most of these did not catch on with the audience.

In the final months of the 90-minute experiment, many characters debuted on Another World in storylines that focused on the character of Iris, played by Beverlee McKinsey, as she planned a move to Houston, Texas.

This fictional move was incorporated in the new spinoff serial Texas in 1980. The initial concept was for a show set in the Antebellum South entitled Reunion, but NBC wanted something more in line with the hugely successful primetime soap Dallas.[11] Series producer Paul Rauch then chose to have Texas revolve around the popular Another World character Iris Cory Carrington, played by Beverlee McKinsey. Iris initially set out to visit her grown son Dennis (Jim Poyner), who had relocated from Bay City to Houston. Within a matter of weeks, Iris became involved with her first love, Alex Wheeler (Bert Kramer).

A range of new characters who had been introduced in the storyline connected to Iris' move, also moved to the new series. To accommodate Texas, Another World went back to 60 minutes, and was moved from the three o'clock hour to two o'clock. Another two million viewers defected, partly due to McKinsey's departure, partly due to the time change, and partly due to the influx of new characters who then moved to Texas. Because of the audience erosion, the move to 90-minute installments is generally regarded as a failure.

1980s[edit]

Mac, Rachel, Janice, Mitch (and again) Steve and Alice[edit]

Mac and Rachel had their own marital troubles, mostly regarding Rachel's decision to work full-time as a sculptress. Rachel did not want to pursue a career at first, thinking she could simply live off Mac's earnings as a publisher, but Mac encouraged her to find work in a field that interested her. When she found that she was very good at sculpting, it took up more and more of her time, even after giving birth to their daughter, Amanda, in 1978. After Rachel falsely accused Mac of infidelity (Mac was unfaithful years before, but this time he wasn't), Mac became involved with the editor of his Brava magazine, Janice Frame (now played by Christine Jones), and in 1979, Rachel asked for a divorce. To crack a scheme that Rachel suspected Janice was spearheading, Rachel slept with photographer Mitch Blake (William Gray Espy). The long-running Mac/Rachel/Janice/Mitch storyline carried on for a year until it culminated in a scene taped on location in St. Croix, in which Janice Frame's plan to kill Mac and acquire his estate was found out by Rachel. After a scuffle involving a knife, the two women fell into a swimming pool, and Rachel came out alive, having killed Janice.

Mac and Rachel were married again, but Rachel was mortified to find out that she was pregnant—with Mitch's child. She was prepared to keep the secret until Mitch burned to death in a fire caused by Rachel. Rachel went on trial and was forced to admit on the witness stand that the child in question was Mitch's. She was then sentenced to eight years in prison for Mitch's murder, and Mac started divorce proceedings, all the while believing that something wasn't right. After giving birth Rachel first arranged for her son Matthew - whom she named in honor of the Matthews family - to be raised by ex-husband Dr. Russ Matthews (David Bailey) and his new wife, singer Tracy Merrill (who was subsequently killed in a mob hit). However, Mac protested, desiring to raise Matthew himself. Following his intuition, he and son Jamie Frame, along with an escaped Rachel, who had been let out of prison for a day to attend stepfather Charlie Hobson's funeral, tracked down Mitch, who was alive and didn't remember any events surrounding his supposed death. Mac freed Rachel from prison and even dropped the divorce, but he was always jealous of Mitch, who had returned to Bay City to be closer to his son. In the end Rachel chose Mitch, over the objections of both Ada and Jamie, and she and Mac divorced a second time.

Once again, Mac and Rachel fought over custody of daughter Amanda, and the breakup caused conflict with Jamie, who had been named Mac's heir and given significant responsibilities at Cory Publishing. Further straining Cory family relationships was the discovery of Alexander "Sandy" Cory (Christopher Rich), a son Mac was unaware of. Jamie and Sandy first became friends, until Jamie's scheming wife Cecile (Nancy Frangione) left him for Sandy and subsequently gave birth to Mac's second grandchild, Maggie Cory. During this time Mac was briefly engaged to Rachel's former rival Alice Frame (Vana Tribbey, then Linda Borgeson), who returned to Bay City and had served as Mac's private nurse following a near-fatal gunshot wound. Alice was struggling to raise adopted teen-age daughter Sally (Jennifer Runyon), after failed romances with brother-in-law Willis Frame and Dan Shearer, ex-husband of her cousin Susan Matthews Shearer, and a brief marriage to Ray Gordon (first played by Ted Shackelford) (Sally's biological uncle and ex-husband of Olive). In mid-1982, the Matthews family also mourned the passing of long-time patriarch Jim Matthews, following the death of veteran actor Hugh Marlowe earlier that year.

Steve Frame was "resurrected" in 1981 and returned from Australia, first masquerading at the mysterious, wealthy Edward Black (it was revealed that he did not die in 1975, but had suffered amnesia; he received a new look in the form of David Canary taking over the role). His original plan was to reunite with Alice and son Jamie. His presence caused Alice to break off her engagement with Mac, and Rachel left Mitch in San Francisco, as Steve toyed with both her and Alice. Once again, things went sour with Alice; she left Bay City, and Steve proposed to Rachel. On their wedding day in February 1983, a car accident claimed Steve's life—for good. Rachel survived, and Mac told Rachel how much he loved her. A double wedding was planned in summer 1983, with Mac's son Sandy (Christopher Rich) and his fiancée Blaine Ewing Frame (Laura Malone), ex-wife of brother Jamie Frame. Alice, once again played by Jacqueline Courtney, returned for one last extended time in the mid-1980s. Now a doctor, she tended to Rachel after her bout with amnesia, during which Rachel struggled with not knowing her past and how it included her misdeeds toward Alice. Eventually, her memory returned and she officially reunited with Mac.

A new Another World[edit]

As the show went through the 1980s, the Love family became more prominent, at the expense of the core Matthews family. In 1982, Beverly Penberthy and character Pat Matthews Randolph was written out of the show. Marianne Randolph left Bay City, attempting to resurrect her marriage with Rick Halloway, Russ Matthews departed for Seattle, and Alice eventually left again, too, leaving only Aunt Liz remaining in Bay City, where she continued on and off as Mac Cory's private secretary.

The Love family was headed by tyrannical patriarch Reginald (John Considine), who had either allied with or alienated all of his children, especially after he came back from the dead in 1987 with his wife, Marissa, who was none other than Mary McKinnon, suffering from amnesia. His daughter Donna (Anna Stuart) started off as a snobbish troublemaker, a la Iris Cory, but mellowed somewhat when she married the love of her life in stable boy-turned-businessman Michael Hudson (Kale Browne). However, the fact that she was raped years ago by Michael's brother John (David Forsyth) complicated matters for years. Donna had twins, Marley and Victoria, who ended up reunited after many years apart. Victoria's nanny, Bridget Connell (Barbara Berjer), who raised her after the death of her adoptive parents, ended up moving in with the Hudsons and took care of the family until her character died. Other Love siblings included Peter, originally a good guy who became rather scheming after being dumped by Sally Frame and marrying the troubled Brittany Peterson, and Nicole, a model addicted to cocaine who dated Jamie and eventually fell in love with Cass Winthrop. Peter faded from the show in 1987 and Nicole was sent to a mental institution after shooting Jason Frame to death.

Romance hits and misses[edit]

Love stories of the 1980s included Felicia Gallant's (Linda Dano) storybook wedding to Mitch Blake (who came back to town), and the pairing of John Hudson with Sharlene Frame (Anna Kathryn Holbrook). Also, the triangle of Vicky Hudson (Anne Heche) trying, and succeeding, to steal Rachel's son Jamie Frame (Laurence Lau) from Felicia's niece Lisa Grady (Joanna Going) interested many viewers.

One aborted love story was the impending marriage between M.J. McKinnon (Sally Spencer) and Adam Cory (Ed Fry). After a videotape surfaced, showing M.J. in her prostitute days having sex with a client, Adam dumped her, and she left town. Adam, and M.J.'s old flame, and her former pimp, Chad Rollo (Richard Burgi), both left Bay City a year later.

In 1987, the series introduced Dawn Rollo (Barbara Tyson), Chad's sister and a love interest for Scott LaSalle (Hank Cheyne). Dawn soon learned, however, that she had contracted HIV from a blood transfusion, and died in 1988. This was the first AIDS-related storyline to air on a daytime soap opera in the United States.[12]

Mac's death[edit]

In the late 1980s, Mac and Rachel's children came back as young adults (Amanda recast in the form of Sandra Ferguson and Matt Crane in the role of Matthew). Amanda was married to Sam Fowler, a budding artist, and Matthew started a relationship with Sharlene Frame's daughter Josie Watts (at that time the role was played by Alexandra Wilson). While these characters proved to be fan favorites, the importance of the Cory family on the show was shaken when Douglass Watson unexpectedly died while on vacation in Arizona in spring 1989. At the time of Watson's death, Another World was about to celebrate its 25th anniversary, which writers had scripted in the form of a 25th anniversary celebration for Brava magazine. The Corys, minus an absent Mac, hosted a gala celebration that featured the return of several veteran characters, including Russ Matthews (David Bailey), Alice Frame (Jacqueline Courtney), Pat Randolph (Beverly Penberthy), Dennis Carrington (Wheeler) (Jim Poyner), Gwen Parrish Frame (Dorothy Lyman), and Robert Delaney (Nicolas Coster). It also featured a mystical sequence with Rachel coaxed back from near-death by ghost Steve Frame (George Reinholt), thwarting sister Janice Frame's (Christine Jones) attempt to lure Rachel "into the light".

Shortly after, it was revealed that the absent Mac had died off-screen while in Maine. Rachel and her family tearfully buried him on the June 16, 1989 episode. With Watson's passing, the show was left without a unifying center, as for the next few years, the character of Rachel tried to adjust to life without Mac, and sometimes stumbled on her way. Although actress Victoria Wyndham tried to fill the void left by Watson's absence, much of her central role shifted to Jensen Buchanan, who, by the early 1990s, had taken over for Anne Heche as scheming Vicky Hudson.

Mac's daughter Iris Carrington Wheeler (now played by Carmen Duncan) had returned to Bay City from Europe late in 1988, having lost her last husband Alex Wheeler (and following the demise of the spin-off series Texas) some years earlier. When it was revealed she had been behind a plot to take over Cory Publishing, Mac was devastated and he left town prior to the Brava 25th anniversary to ponder the implications, dying without having ever reconciled with her. This set up a series of conflicts between Iris, Amanda and Rachel, who had been left equal shares of Cory Publishing, as Rachel now attempted to head the company and counter Iris's continued interference. Mac's death also ushered in the appearance of yet another daughter, Paulina (first played by Cali Timmins), who fought to prove her legitimacy as a Cory and win over Rachel and her family, while constantly at odds with Iris.

1990s[edit]

Age of Supercouples[edit]

As the show moved into the 1990s, Felicia and Mitch got a divorce due to both of them straying from their marriage vows. Felicia found the love of her life in the form of Lucas Castigliano (John Aprea), who hunted her down in an attempt to find the daughter she thought had died at birth. They discovered that their daughter, Lorna Devon, had moved to Bay City in 1991.

Felicia and Lorna (Alicia Coppola) had become enemies quickly, especially after Lorna went behind the scenes at Felicia's talk show and switched live footage with a videotape of a pornographic video Felicia's adoptive daughter Jenna Norris (Alla Korot) had unwittingly made. Felicia and Lorna ended up repairing their relationship, especially after Lucas' death.

Jenna found true love with rocker Dean Frame (Ricky Paull Goldin); their happiness, and Dean's success as a rock star, was chronicled in the nighttime special Summer Desire. After his first wife Kathleen McKinnon (Julie Osburn) was pronounced dead in a plane crash, Cass Winthrop (Stephen Schnetzer) grew close to Reginald Love's daughter Nicole (Anne Howard). When Nicole Love was institutionalized for the murder of Jason Frame (Chris Robinson), Cass slowly became attracted to Frankie Frame (Alice Barrett), who came to town to investigate her uncle's murder. After many hindrances (including Kathleen's return to Bay City after being in the Witness Protection Program), Cass and Frankie were finally wed. They honeymooned on the Orient Express.

Jake McKinnon (Tom Eplin) came back to town for good in 1988, with his wife Marley Hudson. Their marriage broke down and the two were forced to get a divorce. After a reconciliation two years later, Jake asked Marley to marry him again. However, she had found out that he was in the midst of an affair with Paulina Cory (Cali Timmins, but by 1991, the role had gone to Judi Evans Luciano). Marley turned down his proposal, and Jake raped her. Then, Jake was shot and near death, and Marley was forced to go on trial for his attempted murder. In the end, it was proven that Paulina shot him. Jake and Marley were officially over, but it was just beginning for Jake and Paulina. Over the next five years, Jake and Paulina were married and divorced twice. While they still had a good partnership, Paulina was fed up with Jake's cons, swindles, and lies, and tied the knot with Joe Carlino (Joseph Barbara).

Amanda (Christine Tucci) saw two marriages crash and burn. The first, to Sam, didn't work out due to Amanda's affair with Evan Frame (son of villainous Janice Frame); the second, to Grant Harrison (Mark Pinter) due to Grant's infidelity with Lorna Devon (Robin Christopher). Matthew had developed a May–December romance with Donna Love, who had been very grateful that Matt helped get her savings back. Matt and Donna became a very popular couple and were broken up due to then-executive producer Jill Farren Phelps's insistence that Matt be paired up with someone his own age, and Donna likewise.

Rachel's mother, Ada Hobson, died in summer 1993 (veteran actress Constance Ford had died earlier that year), and she needed support more than ever; she found it in the unlikeliest source; a new love (and a new marriage) with Mac's former enemy, reformed villain Carl Hutchins (Charles Keating). Mac's daughter Iris didn't like this news one bit, and was prepared to startle the wedding crowd by firing blanks at Carl. Evan Frame (who had returned to town after a four-year absence) placed real bullets into Iris's gun, causing Iris to gravely wound Carl. She was convicted of the crime and sentenced to prison time, and she was never heard from again.

Liz Matthews (Irene Dailey) returned periodically, and also for one last run, Russ (once again played by David Bailey), as they united to shelter Russ's daughter Olivia (Allison Hossack), who had a child with Dennis (Carrington) Wheeler (now played by Chris Bruno). This marked the last appearances by the members of the Matthews family prior to the demise of the series.

The final years: 1993-1999[edit]

The show was renewed in 1993 (The considerably lower rated Santa Barbara was given the axe instead). But the ratings still weren't good. The odds weren't in the show's favor that it would be renewed again in 1999. Early in 1995, news at the top signaled a change in executive producer. Jill Farren Phelps, who had won Emmy awards for her work on Santa Barbara, was given the job. Veteran cast members were fired; both cast members over the age of 55 (Barbara Berjer and David Hedison) had their contracts terminated, in an attempt to move the show in a more youthful direction. Show matriarch Rachel Cory Hutchins was placed in a storyline involving an evil lookalike countess, Justine Duvalier, who was the ex-wife of Hedison's recently axed character, Spencer Harrison. The Justine storyline was panned by the soap press as being worthy of a Mystery Science Theater 3000 level of ridicule. While in a scuffle, Grant Harrison killed his brother Ryan (played by fan favorite Paul Michael Valley), causing Justine to be shoved in front of a train. Justine did not die, and she caused more terror before finally being finished by Carl Hutchins and his letter opener. Actress Victoria Wyndham was quoted as liking the storyline at first, but after it was played out, she stated that she wished she had never appeared in it.

Budget cuts caused Phelps to institute a serial killer storyline, culminating in the death of Dr Courtney Evans, as well as the gruesome murder of Frankie (Alice Barrett). The story had actually called for Donna to be offed, but massive fan protest caused Phelps to rewrite the episodes. Phelps decided to then kill off either Frankie or Paulina, and when a focus group responded lukewarm to Frankie but warmer to Paulina, Phelps gave the greenlight to axe Frankie. However, this caused another massive rampage of upset protest from loyal viewers of the show and fans of Frankie, and Phelps quickly asked then-head writer Margaret DePriest to re-write Frankie's exit so that the character would at least still live. DePriest, eager to satisfy her wish to see Cass return to his former rogue ways, vehemently refused and left Frankie's death as written.

Rachel gave birth to twins, even though she was well into her fifties. Although the believability of this story was debated by fans, it was a nod back to when her mother, Ada, gave birth to Rachel's sister Nancy late in life. Robert Kelker-Kelly, who was just coming off of a popular run as Bo Brady on Days of Our Lives, was lured back to the show in a different role from Sam Fowler, in which Vicky falls for the man (Bobby Reno) who was given Ryan's corneas in a transplant. The storyline became convoluted as the man's mystery identity was rewritten and his former wife came to town to reclaim him. Lila Roberts (Lisa Peluso) ended up bedding Matthew Cory and having his baby (Jasmine) before falling in love with Cass. Cass and Lila became engaged.

In 1999, NBC decided not to renew Another World and canceled it.[2] Many reasons abounded for Another World '​s cancellation, one of the more notable events occurring in the summer of 1998: San Francisco's then-NBC affiliate KRON, one of the highest-rated in the nation, dropped the show off its schedule altogether, knocking it out of two million homes (it was later picked up by smaller independent station KICU).[13] Another reason was that a new soap opera owned by NBC, Passions, was in production and slated to begin its airing on the network within a few months. As no time slot was available for Passions, NBC necessarily had to make room for it at the expense of an existing program. Rumors abounded that Days of Our Lives might be the serial dropped, as renewal talks between NBC and Columbia Pictures Television were going poorly at the time, and there were rumors that ABC would cancel Port Charles to make room for Days. There were also rumors that Sunset Beach would be cancelled due to its low ratings (being the lowest-rated of NBC's three daytime serials at the time). At the eleventh hour, given its much higher ratings, Days of our Lives was renewed, and it was the fate of Another World that was sealed. Sunset Beach was picked up for another six months due to its slightly better ratings in the younger demographics; that series was ultimately cancelled in December 1999.

The final episode of Another Word aired June 25, 1999. Cass and Lila and got married in the final episode of the show; they were the last couple to wed in Bay City. After a series of 35th anniversary episodes, Rachel reminisced with Carl, remarked, "All's well that ends well," and the show ended with a still frame shot of Mac Cory.

After the final episode[edit]

On January 3, 2000, the show's former NBC studio in Brooklyn became the home to As the World Turns, which had moved from CBS Broadcast Center.

Irna Phillips's original plan of crossovers with As the World Turns was finally realized—after Another World was canceled. Another World characters Lila (Lisa Peluso), Cass (Stephen Schnetzer), Vicky (Jensen Buchanan), Marley (Ellen Wheeler), Donna (Anna Stuart), and Jake (Tom Eplin) all moved into ATWT storylines. By 2002, Vicky and Jake had been killed off violently in separate incidents, and the crossover experiment had, for the most part, ended. Schnetzer continued to make occasional appearances, as his character of Cass was used as a "visiting lawyer" in As the World Turns trials. The character of Cass also appeared in a few episodes of Guiding Light in 2002.

The show was commemorated in print twice in 1999. Another World, the 35th Anniversary Celebration, by Julie Poll, was a coffee-table style book chronicling the show's history on- and off-screen. Another World was the last of all the long-running soap opera programs of the time to be preserved in this way. The other book was decidedly different; The Ultimate Another World Trivia Book, by Gerard J. Waggett, listed several juicy tidbits about the show's stars and what happened behind-the-scenes. Many fans have treated Poll's book as they would a high school yearbook, getting Another World performers to sign their autographs in the book along with messages of appreciation or thanks for the fans' continued support in watching the program.

From July 2003 to April 2007, SOAPnet, an ABC channel, started rerunning old Another World episodes that originally aired from July 1, 1987 to May 10, 1991. The contract was not renewed to continue airing Another World, so that SOAPnet could begin airing episodes of both One Tree Hill and The O.C.. A lackluster The Another World Reunion aired on the channel on October 24, 2003. Hosted by Linda Dano, the special program reunited fan favorites such as Stephen Schnetzer, Sandra Ferguson, John Aprea, Alicia Coppola, Kale Browne, and Ellen Wheeler. On the special, Dano interviewed the members of the assembled cast, one by one, interspersed with classic Another World clips. Before and after commercial breaks, Another World quiz questions were posed to the audience at home, and audience members told the viewers at home their favorite Another World moments, supplemented with clips from the actual episodes (for example, one viewer said her favorite Another World moment was from 1980, in which Rachel, on the stand for Mitch's murder, was forced to tell Mac that Matthew was not his child. Another viewer cited Ryan marrying Vicky while in Heaven). This special was nominated for a Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Special Class Special in 2004. The Another World Reunion was rerun in May 2004 to commemorate AW's 40th anniversary.

In 2006, Procter & Gamble began making several of its soap operas available, a few episodes at a time, through America Online's AOL Video service, downloadable free of charge.[14] Reruns of older Another World episodes began from August 1, 1980. As of January 2009, Procter & Gamble announced that Another World and three other of its cancelled soap operas would no longer be streamed on AOL Video. The notice referred to exploring other options to make the shows available for viewing.[15]

On July 29, 2008, episodes also became available on the video streaming website Hulu. The episodes begin with the May 10, 1991 episode - the last one that ran on SOAPnet. There were 24 episodes made available initially, with the promise of 3 more each week. As of December 2009, the same episodes seen through Hulu were also available through YouTube. Hulu stopped airing episodes of the soap on October 21, 2010. The last AW episode to air on the site was October 5, 1992.

TeleNext Media also introduced a new website in April 2009. Anotherworldtoday.com essentially picks up 10 years after AW's last episode left off, in a blog/fan fiction format. Readers can submit story ideas to help form the story angles and pacing of the so-called 'sequel'. Each webisode comes out weekly, and the website also show classic clips of the original TV scenes of Another World. As of July 2011, the site is no longer affiliated with TeleNext Media and is now independently run.

List of firsts[edit]

Another World was the first soap opera:

  • To discuss abortion. In 1964, the subject was a taboo and it was nine years before the Roe v. Wade decision made abortion legal for women in all 50 U.S. states.
  • To expand to an hour-long format (1975). At one point, AW expanded to 90 minutes (March 1979), but eventually returned to the hour-long format in August 1980, where it remained until the show was cancelled in 1999.
  • To spin off new shows. AW's Missy Matthews, Ricky Matthews, Sam Lucas, and Lahoma Lucas, relocated to Somerset from 1970 until 1976. Subsequently, on August 4, 1980, NBC aired its second spinoff by introducing Another World characters Iris Cory, Dennis Carrington, Reena Bellman Cook, Dr. Kevin Cook, and Vivien. Those Bay City characters relocated to Houston and launched the hour long serial Texas, which was initially aired in the 3:pm eastern time slot (against the then-ratings powerhouses General Hospital and Guiding Light). Following the premiere of Texas, Another World was shortened from 90 minutes to 60 minutes, and aired in the time slot directly preceding its spin-off series. Although Texas was axed due to poor ratings in December 1982, the storylines would impact Iris Cory Wheeler, who had been living in New York since leaving Houston in November 1981, on the mother show AW for the next two decades.

Broadcast history[edit]

For most of a 15-year period between 1965 and 1980, Another World was NBC's highest-rated soap opera. During that time, NBC ran a 90-minute drama block consisting of Days of Our Lives, The Doctors and Another World, all of which enjoyed great ratings and critical success before declining at the end of the 1970s.

The 1960s[edit]

Another World did not take long to establish itself as NBC's highest-rated daytime drama, although it was still behind the then-dominant CBS lineup which would usually occupy the first six places on the ratings chart. Making its debut at 3 p.m. Eastern/2 Central, Another World slowly chipped away at ABC's General Hospital and CBS' daytime version of To Tell the Truth. Its efforts resulted in a swift rise to second place in 1967-1968; the show would remain in the upper end of the ratings chart until 1978. CBS later tried The Secret Storm, a soap opera that reputedly served as the model for Another World, against it, but to no avail.

The 1970s[edit]

On March 30, 1970, AW became the first daytime soap to produce a spinoff series, Somerset, which ran until 1976. For Somerset's first year, the two shows shared the same branding, with the mother show titled Another World in Bay City and the daughter show Another World in Somerset. NBC and Procter and Gamble discontinued this after a year; Somerset eventually veered away from Another World's romantic and domestic storylines, developing into more of a crime drama. Title references to one-another were dropped, as were crossover stories.

With the arrival of Harding Lemay, Another World would consolidate its place as not only the most popular and critically acclaimed soap opera on NBC, but one of the highest-rated soap opera of the decade. Between 1973 and 1978, it consistently attained second place in the ratings chart and tied with As the World Turns (its Procter and Gamble sister) for first place twice—in the 1973-1974 and 1977-1978 television seasons. The earlier triumph was no mean feat when one considers that CBS put up its star game The Price is Right against it for two years.

When the one-hour 10th anniversary special in spring 1974 proved a massive ratings success, NBC and Procter and Gamble made the decision to expand to 60 minutes permanently on January 6, 1975, replacing the original version of the game show Jeopardy, in a scheduling shuffle with the in-house-produced How to Survive a Marriage. Another World became the first serial to broadcast one hour daily, only some six years after the last two 15-minute soaps (CBS' Search for Tomorrow and Guiding Light, also Procter and Gamble shows) finally doubled their daily lengths.

The show took over the entire 3-4 pm/2-3 Central period, the latter part of which witnessed it beating back, to some degree, CBS' huge Match Game, then daytime's most popular program. However, starting in 1978, Another World began to experience an erosion in ratings caused mainly by the surge in popularity of General Hospital. Another World fell from a first-place tie in 1978 to eighth in 1979 (a drop from 8.6 to 7.5), but remained NBC's highest-rated daytime drama. Despite the fall in ratings, Another World became the first, and thus far only, soap opera to expand to 90 minutes, a move that proved unsuccessful—it remained in eighth place in the 1979-1980 television season.

Expansion to 90 minutes and its impact on ratings[edit]

Although it is widely thought that Another World '​s expansion to 90 minutes was a cause of ratings erosion, the decision to expand the show was made at a time when its ratings (and that of NBC's other serials) were already in steady decline. During the period when Another World ran daily for 90 minutes it remained NBC's highest-rated soap opera, as it had been for a decade. In the second half of 1980, after the show returned to 60 minutes, Another World and fellow NBC serials Days of our Lives and, most dramatically, The Doctors, experienced a collapse in ratings from which NBC's daytime lineup never fully recovered. It would not be until 1984 that both Days of Our Lives and Another World would recover some of their lost ground.

The 1980s[edit]

It is possible that the 90-minute format was intended to be temporary, with the added time used to prepare a storyline for a spinoff, Texas in 1980. For upon its debut, the mother show contracted to 60 minutes again, this time moving to 2/1 Central, where it settled for the remaining 19 years of its run. Texas, starring the hugely popular Beverlee McKinsey and attempting to cash in on the Dallas craze, while itself not a success, may have caused further erosion of Another World '​s viewership, to the point that it was no longer NBC's highest-rated serial, losing that position to Days of our Lives (which itself, along with the rest of NBC's daytime lineup, was in serious ratings trouble). Another World fell from eighth to as low as 11th in the ratings chart, and by the 1981-1982 television season it sunk so low in the Nielsens to 4.7 (a drop of 3.9 points in four seasons). Much like General Hospital winning the 3/2 slot for ABC, One Life to Live came in strong at 2/1, with CBS attempting to get its new Capitol off the ground during that period.

After five years of sharply declining ratings, Another World experienced something of a mini-revival, and for the 1983-1984 television season, the show jumped to ninth place and 5.6 (compared with 10th place and 4.8 in 1983). The ratings increase was attributed to the emergence of couple Sally Frame (Mary Page Keller) and Catlin Ewing (Thomas Ian Griffith), the addition of Linda Dano as chic romance novelist Felicia Gallant, and the return of actress Jacqueline Courtney as Dr. Alice Matthews Frame, who had been fired from the show nine years earlier despite being immensely popular with viewers. The show remained in ninth place through the decade (occasionally moving up to eighth), pulling in generally stable numbers against One Life to Live (which was a big ratings hit at the time) and its Procter and Gamble sister soap As the World Turns. The show received some of its strongest critical acclaim during the 1980s as well. Many soap critics praised the show for keeping its focus on relationships and family crisis. However, like many soaps at the time, the show did dive into occasional action/crime storylines such as the Sin Stalker murders in 1987 as a response to the popularity of the action/adventure oriented soap General Hospital during the decade.

The 1990s[edit]

In common with other daytime soaps, Another World experienced a gradual erosion of viewership but, amazingly enough given its turbulent history, held on to ninth place on the ratings chart from the mid 1980s until the end of its run. While it never showed signs of moving up through this period, it was for the most part never in danger of falling to last place.

In March 1996, Another World was the first daytime soap to eliminate the full-screen closing credits crawl in favor of the one-third screen credits/promo combination.

Between 1974 and 1999, Another World won the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series only once (in 1976), a stark contrast to five wins for The Young and the Restless and six for General Hospital within that time frame.

Spin-offs[edit]

The show spawned two spin-offs: Somerset (1970–1976) and Texas (1980–1982). (In 1970, the two shows were known as Another World: Bay City and Another World: Somerset before reverting to their unique names.) One primetime special aired in 1992: Another World: Summer Desire.

A "viewer-directed," text-based continuation of the series called Another World Today exists online, sanctioned by TeleNext Media, the production arm of Procter & Gamble.[16]

There had also been rumors among fans that the show would be revived as a web series for Hulu, much like other canceled soaps All My Children, and One Life to Live. However, there has been no confirmation from Procter & Gamble or any other production company on this matter.

Airtimes[edit]

While individual NBC affiliates had the right to air any show whenever they wished, most of the affiliates (almost all of them, in the earlier days of television) aired the show when it would be transmitted to the network's direct affiliates.

In the mid-to-late 1990s, when AW was in its final ratings slump, many affiliates swapped AW's time slot with Days of Our Lives, which usually aired an hour earlier. Others affiliates transferred AW to their morning schedule.

The network aired the show at the following times throughout its history:

  • May 4, 1964 to January 3, 1975: 3:00-3:30 PM
  • January 6, 1975 to March 2, 1979: 3:00-4:00 PM
  • March 5, 1979 to August 1, 1980: 2:30-4:00 PM
  • August 4, 1980 to June 25, 1999: 2:00-3:00 PM

Notable alumni[edit]

Before they were stars[edit]

Many well-known film and television actors and celebrities launched their careers on the show:

Guest stars[edit]

Many well-known celebrities made cameo appearances on the series, including:

Awards[edit]

Daytime Emmy Award wins[edit]

Drama series and performer categories[edit]

Category Recipient Role(s) Year(s)
Outstanding Drama Series 1976[17]
Lead Actor Douglass Watson
Charles Keating
Mackenzie Cory
Carl Hutchins
1980,[18] 1981[19]
1996[20]
Lead Actress Laurie Heineman
Irene Dailey
Linda Dano
Sharlene Frame
Liz Matthews
Felicia Gallant
1978[21]
1979[22]
1993[23]
Supporting Actress Anna Kathryn Holbrook Sharlene Frame 1996[20]
Younger Actress Ellen Wheeler
Anne Heche
Marley Hudson/Vicky Hudson
Marley Hudson/Vicky Hudson
1986[24]
1991[25]

Other categories[edit]

  • 1995 "Outstanding Achievement in Music Direction and Composition for a Drama Series"
  • 1995 "Outstanding Original Song"
  • 1994 "Outstanding Achievement in Hairstyling for a Drama Series"
  • 1994 "Outstanding Achievement in Costume Design for a Drama Series"
  • 1993 "Outstanding Achievement in Hairstyling for a Drama Series"
  • 1992 "Outstanding Drama Series Directing Team"
  • 1992 "Outstanding Achievement in Hairstyling for a Drama Series"
  • 1990 "Outstanding Achievement in Hairstyling for a Drama Series"
  • 1990 "Outstanding Achievement in Costume Design for a Drama Series" (tied with All My Children)
  • 1989 "Outstanding Achievement in Costume Design for a Drama Series"
  • 1975 "Outstanding Drama Series Writing"
  • 1974 "Outstanding Art Direction or Scenic Design" (tied with The Young and the Restless)

Other awards[edit]

Head Writers/Executive Producers[edit]

Head writer(s) Years Executive Producer(s)
Irna Phillips with William J. Bell May 1964 – March 1965 Allen M. Potter
James Lipton March – October 1965 Doris Quinlan
Agnes Nixon November 1965 – January 1969 Allen M. Potter; Charles Fisher; Paul Robert; Mary Harris
Robert Cenedella February 1969 – August 1971 Mary Harris; Lyle B. Hill
Harding Lemay August 1971 – May 11, 1979 Paul Rauch
Tom King May 14, – November 1979 Paul Rauch
Tom King and Robert Soderberg November 1979 – December 1980 Paul Rauch
L. Virginia Browne December 1980 – November 1982 Paul Rauch
Robert Soderberg November 1982 Paul Rauch
Robert Soderberg and Dorothy Ann Purser November 1982 – December 1983 Paul Rauch
Dorothy Ann Purser December 1983 – February 1984 Paul Rauch; Allen M. Potter
Richard Culliton March – June 1984 Stephen Schenkel
Richard Culliton and Gary Tomlin July 1984 – January 1985 Stephen Schenkel
Gary Tomlin January – July 1985 Stephen Schenkel
Sam Hall and Gillian Spencer August 1985 – March 1986 Stephen Schenkel and John Whitesell
Margaret DePriest March 1986 – January 1988 John Whitesell
Sheri Anderson February – April 1988 John Whitesell; Michael Laibson
Donna Swajeski (WGA Strike) April – September 1988 Michael Laibson
Harding Lemay September 12, 1988 – November 10, 1988 Michael Laibson
Donna Swajeski November 1988 – November 1992 Michael Laibson
Peggy Sloane, Samuel D. Ratcliffe November 1992 – November 1994 Laibson; Terri Guarnieri; John Valente
Carolyn Culliton November 1994 – August 1995 John Valente; Jill Farren Phelps
Tom King and Craig Carlson August 1995 – May 1996 Jill Farren Phelps
Margaret DePriest May 1996 – January 1997 Phelps; Charlotte Savitz
Elizabeth Page
Tom King
Craig Carlson
January – March 1997 Charlotte Savitz
Tom King and Craig Carlson March – April 1997 Charlotte Savitz
Michael Malone April – December 1997 Charlotte Savitz
Richard Culliton December 1997 – May 1998 Charlotte Savitz
Richard Culliton
Jean Passanante
May – July 1998 Charlotte Savitz
Jean Passanante July 1998 Charlotte Savitz
Leah Laiman and Jean Passanante July 1998 – June 1999 Charlotte Savitz; Christopher Goutman

On location filming[edit]

Another World went to a few exotic places for on location filming. Some of these places:
St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
Wyoming, USA
Lake Louise, Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wolk, Josh (April 20, 1999). "End of the World". Entertainment Weekly. EW.com. Retrieved February 19, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Angulo, Sandra P. (June 25, 1999). "Soap Dish". Entertainment Weekly. EW.com. Retrieved February 19, 2009. 
  3. ^ LaGuardia, Robert (1974). The Wonderful World of TV Soap Operas, page 288. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25482-1.
  4. ^ Lackmann, Ron (1976). Soap Opera Almanac, page 23. New York: Berkley Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0-425-03234-5
  5. ^ LaGuardia, Robert (1974). The Wonderful World of TV Soap Operas. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25482-1
  6. ^ LaGuardia, Robert (1974). The Wonderful World of TV Soap Operas, page 169. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25482-1.
  7. ^ LaGuardia, Robert (1974). The Wonderful World of TV Soap Operas, page 170. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25482-1.
  8. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=reBEonQAzsk
  9. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EmD8imO_DI
  10. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQ5ScTKbXFU
  11. ^ Grunwald, D: "Who Shot Texas", pages 23-27. TV Guide (Canadian edition), March 5, 1983.
  12. ^ "Soap Operas and AIDS: From Tragedies to Triumph". Daytime Confidential, December 1, 2010.
  13. ^ `Another World' Finds New Home on KICU
  14. ^ "AOL to Launch New Video Portal," WebWire.com, July 31, 2006.
  15. ^ "PGP Classic Soap Channel," pgpclassicsoaps.com, January 1, 2009.
  16. ^ "Another World Today". Another World Today. 1970-01-01. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  17. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1976". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  18. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1980". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  19. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1981". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  20. ^ a b "Daytime Emmys - 1996". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  21. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1978". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  22. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1979". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  23. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1993". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  24. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1986". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  25. ^ "Daytime Emmys - 1991". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 

External links[edit]