AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
|AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
A Copenhagen Metro train
|Number built||34 (as of 2010)|
Taipei Rapid Transit System
Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University
|Width||2.65 m (8 ft 8 in)
2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) (Rome)
|Height||3.4 m (11 ft)
3.85 m (12.6 ft)
|Maximum speed||80 km/h (50 mph) to 90 km/h (56 mph)|
|Electric system(s)||750 V third rail
1,500 V (Rome)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
The AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro is a class of driverless electric multiple units and corresponding signaling system. Manufactured by AnsaldoBreda in Italy, it is or will be used on the Copenhagen Metro, Princess Nora bint Abdul Rahman University, the Brescia Metrobus, the Thessaloniki Metro, Line 5 of the Milan Metro, Line C of the Rome Metro and the Yellow Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System. The first system to take the class into use was Copenhagen, which opened in 2002.
The rolling stock consists of two to six articulated cars, making the trains (two car length?), 39 to 109 meters (128 to 358 ft) long. All trains are 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) wide, except those of the Rome Metro that are 2.85 meters (9.4 ft) wide, and all use standard gauge. Each car has a power output of 210 or 256 kilowatts (280 or 343 hp), fed from a third rail at 750 volts (except in Rome where it is 1,500 V). The systems are fully automated, consisting of automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train supervision.
Rolling stock 
The rolling stock uses standardized car bodies, articulated together. The number of cars varies from the origins of the metro, but average three to six, making the trains from 39 to 109 meters (128 to 358 ft) long. They are 2.65 meters (8.7 ft) wide, except the Rome Metro-units, which are 2.85 meters (9.4 ft). The units vary from 3.4 to 3.85 meters (11 ft 2 in to 12 ft 8 in) tall. Each car has two doors on each side, which are 1.3 meters (4 ft 3 in) wide and 1.945 meters (6 ft 4.6 in) tall. The vehicles are designed by Giugiaro Design.
The three and four-car trains have six three-phase asynchronous motors per train, with each motor giving a power output of 105 and 128 kilowatts (141 and 172 hp), giving each train a power output of 630 or 764 kilowatts (840 or 1,025 hp). In each car, the two motors are fed by the car's own insulated-gate bipolar transistor. They transform the 750-volt (1,500 V in Rome) direct current collected from the third rail shoe to the three-phase alternating current used in the motors. The trains' top speeds are 80 or 90 km/h (50 or 56 mph), with an acceleration and deceleration capacity of 1.3 m/s2 (4.3 ft/s2). The track is standard gauge and has platform screen doors at underground stations.
|Brescia||—||2013||18||3||39.0||128.0||2.65||8 ft 8 in||630||840||80||50|
|Copenhagen||M1 and M2||2002||34||3||39.0||128.0||2.65||8 ft 8 in||630||840||90||56|
|Milan||Line 5||2011||—||4||39.0||128.0||2.65||8 ft 8 in||630||840||80||50|
|Rome||Line C||2011||30||6||109.4||359||2.85||9 ft 4 in||—||—||90||56|
|Taipei||Circular Line||2015||17||4||68.0||223.1||2.65||8 ft 8 in||—||—||80||50|
|Thessaloniki||—||2018||18||4||51.0||167.3||2.65||8 ft 8 in||764||1,025||90||56|
The systems are controlled by a fully automated computer system, located at the control and maintenance center. The automatic train control (ATC) consists of three subsystems: automatic train protection (ATP), automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train supervision (ATS). The ATP is responsible for keeping the trains' speed, insuring that doors are closed before departure and insuring that switches are correctly set. The system uses fixed block signaling, except around stations, where moving block signaling is used. The system has been designed and built by Union Switch & Signal.
The ATO is the autopilot that drives the trains after a predefined schedule, ensures that the train stop at stations and operates the doors. The ATS keeps track of all components of the network, including the rails and all trains on the system, and displays a live schematic at the control center. The ATC is designed so that only the ATP is safety-critical, and will halt trains if the other systems have faults. Other aspects of the system, such a power supply, ventilation, security alarms, cameras and pumps, are controlled by a system called "control, regulating and surveillance".
The most common repairs are the grinding of the wheels; more complicated repairs are made by replacing entire components that are sent to the manufacturer. By having components in reserve, trains can have shorter maintenance times. The center also has the system's work trains, including a diesel locomotive that can fetch broken trains. At any time, there are four people working at the control center. Two monitor the ATC system, one monitors passenger information, while the last is responsible for secondary systems, such as power supply. In case of technical problems, there is always a team of linemen that can be sent to perform repairs. Although the trains are not equipped with drivers, there are stewards that help passengers, perform ticket controls and assist in emergency situations.
The Brescia Metrobus is a system which opened in March 2013 in Brescia, Italy. The 18-kilometer (11 mi) system will be built in three stages, and have 23 stations. The system will feature a 90-second headway. ASM Brescia have ordered 18 trains for the Metrobus.
The Copenhagen Metro, Denmark, consists of two lines, M1 and M2, that run 20.5 kilometers (12.7 mi) serving 22 stations. The system opened between 2002 and 2007, and connects the city center to the areas of Frederiksberg and Amager, and Copenhagen Airport. The next extension, the City Circle Line, is under construction, and planned to open in 2018. Metroselskabet took delivery of 34 three-car units between 2002 and 2007, and operates with a headway of between two and twenty minutes, including an all-night service. In April 2008, the Copenhagen Metro won the award at MetroRail 2008 for the world's best metro.
The Honolulu Rail Transit project will be a 20 mi (32 km) elevated rail route which will connect the city of Honolulu on the island of Oahu in Hawaii with outlying suburban cities and areas. The project is planned to open in phases starting in 2015, will the entirety of the initial 21 station route to be completed in 2019. Current plans call for AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro rolling stock for the system. Hawaii leaders and construction crews broke ground on the project on February 22, 2011 in Kapolei, Hawaii. As of October 2012, construction of columns and foundations have been completed for the first 0.5 mi (0.80 km) mile of the route. In the future, extensions to the route have been planned, which include spurs to the route, and 15 additional stations. Construction of the project is currently on standby. Litigation resulting from Kaleikini v. Yoshioka bars continuation of the project until the City and County submits a complete archeological survey to the State Historic Preservation Division of the entire line. 
The Milan Metro's Line 5, currently under construction, will connect the suburbs of Bignami to San Siro Stadium through Porta Garibaldi station. The line will be built in several steps: the first opened in 2013 and the last planned to open in 2015. Further extensions are in planning. The first stage, of 5.6 kilometres (3.5 mi), will cost €500 million. The headway will be 75 seconds.
An 11·5 km metro serving the Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University on the outskirts of Riyadh opened in 2012.
Rome Metro's Line C, currently under construction, will be 25.5 kilometers (15.8 mi) long, of which 17.6 kilometers (10.9 mi) will be underground. The line will have 30 stations, of which 21 will be underground, and carry up to 24,000 passengers per hour in each direction. Metropolitana di Roma has taken order of thirty six-car units, which are 20 centimeters (7.9 in) wider than the other systems' vehicles, and capable of carrying 1,200 passengers per train. Average speed on the system will be 35 km/h (22 mph), with the headway varying from three to twelve minutes. Construction of the system is estimated to cost €3 billion, and will open in four stages, in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2020.
The Yellow Line or Circle Line of the Taipei Rapid Transit System, Taiwan, will serve as a cross-link between existing lines. The 52-kilometer (32 mi) system will feature 46 stations. The 15.5 kilometers (9.6 mi) phase 1 will have 17 stations and is planned for completion in 2015. The Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation has ordered 17 trains for this phase.
The new Thessaloniki Metro in Greece has been under construction since 2006, and is scheduled to open in late 2014 after costing €800 million. The 9.5-kilometer (5.9 mi) line will be entirely underground and feature 13 stations. To operate, Attiko Metro will use 18 three-car units. The system will afterwards begin constructions of two 5-kilometer (3.1 mi) five-station extensions, creating a two-line metro.
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