||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (December 2007)|
||This article uses bare URLs for citations. (August 2012)|
Ansar al-Islam (AAI) (Supporters or Partisans of Islam) was a Sunni Islamist group of Iraqis, promoting a radical interpretation of Islam, close to the official Saudi ideology of .... with strict application of Sharia. The group was formed in the northern provinces of Iraq near the Iranian border, and previously had established bases occupying Biyara to the northeast of Halabja. The US Treasury Department has called the organization a Kurdish-based terrorist organization which is linked to, and is a known as an affiliate of the Al-Qaeda terror network.
Members of Ansar al-Islam mostly reside in Iran after a joint mission by the Kurdistan Regional Government's Armed Forces and US Army Special Forces destroyed the group's stronghold in 2003. Since then, the group has allegedly launched frequent attacks against the Kurdistan Region in attempt to reestablish themselves in the region. Kurdish authorities allege that the group frequently aids Iran in its border incursions against Kurdish rebels along the Iran-Iraq border.
In 2007 after major defeats by the KRG's Peshmerga's forces, Ansar al-Islam largely disbanded and splinter groups were formed, including al-Qaeda Kurdish Battalions. However Ansar al-Islam is still believed to be active in northwest Iran.
On December 15, 2011 Ansar al-Islam announced a new emir, Sheikh Abu Hashim Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman al Ibrahim
Ansar al-Islam was formed in September 2001 as a merger of Jund al-Islam (Soldiers of Islam), led by Abu Abdallah al-Shafi'i, and a splinter group from the Islamic Movement of Kurdistan led by Mullah Krekar. Krekar became the leader of the merged Ansar al-Islam, which opposed an agreement made between IMK and the dominant Kurdish group in the area, Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). The group later made an allegiance to al-Qaeda and allegedly received direct funds from the terror network.
Villagers under their control were subjected to harsh sharia laws; musical instruments were destroyed and singing forbidden. The only school for girls in the area was destroyed, and all pictures of women removed from merchandise labels. Sufi shrines were desecrated and members of the Kaka'i (a religious group also known as Ahl-e Haqq) were forced to convert to Islam or flee. Former prisoners of the group also claim that Ansar al-Islam routinely uses torture and severe beatings when interrogating prisoners. Beheading of prisoners has also been reported.
Ansar al-Islam initially comprised approximately 300 men, many of these veterans from the Soviet-Afghan War, and a proportion being neither Kurd nor Arab. During its stay in the Biyara region the group would have needed logistical support from Iran, prompting allegations of support from "powerful factions in Iran."
Operations after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq
US Special Activities Division (SAD) Paramilitary teams entered Iraq before the 2003 invasion of Iraq. SAD teams then combined with US Army Special Forces and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Peshmerga to defeat Ansar al-Islam. This battle was for territory along the Iranian border that was controlled by Ansar al-Islam, and was executed prior to the invasion in February 2003. The US side was carried out by Paramilitary Officers from SAD and the Army's 10th Special Forces Group. It resulted in the deaths of a substantial number of militants and the uncovering of a chemical weapons facility at Sargat. Sargat was the only facility of its type discovered in Iraq.
Ansar al-Islam detonated a suicide car bomb on March 22, 2003, killing Australian journalist Paul Moran and several others. The group is also thought to have been responsible for a September 9, 2003 attempted bombing of a United States Department of Defense office in Arbil, which killed three people.
On February 1, 2004 suicide bombings hit parallel EID-celebrations arranged by the two main Kurdish parties, PUK and Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq (KDP), in the Kurdish capital of Arbil, killing 109 and wounding more than 200 partygoers. Responsibility for this attack was claimed by the then unknown group Ansar al-Sunnah, and stated to be in support of "our brothers in Ansar al-Islam."
On February 24, 2004, the US Treasury Department issued an order labeling Abdul Majeed al-Zindani a "Specially Designated Global Terrorist". The Department said that Zindani had a "long history of working with bin Laden, notably serving as one of his spiritual leaders", and that he "served as a contact for Ansar al-Islam (Al), which called the organization a Kurdish-based terrorist organization linked to al-Qaeda".
While many former activists in Ansar al-Islam have joined the Ansar al-Sunnah and similar groups, Kurdish authorities claim the organization is still active in Iraqi Kurdistan. In September 2006, 11 alleged members of Ansar al-Islam were hanged in Arbil.
Ansar al-Islam has an extensive network in Europe organizing finance and support for armed attacks within Iraq. Several members of such groups have been arrested in European countries such as Germany and Sweden.
In December 2007 the Ansar al-Sunnah formally acknowledged being derived from the Ansar al-Islam, and reverted their name to the original.
In November 2008 an archbishop in Mosul received a threat signed by the "ansar al-islam brigades", warning all Christians to leave Iraq or else be killed.
The Senate Report on Pre-war Intelligence on Iraq concluded that Saddam "was aware of Ansar al-Islam and al-Qaeda presence in northeastern Iraq, but the groups' presence was considered a threat to the regime and the Iraqi government attempted intelligence collection operations against them. The DIA [Defense Intelligence Agency] stated that information from senior Ansar al-Islam detainees revealed that the group viewed Saddam's regime as apostate, and denied any relationship with it." The leader of Ansar al-Islam, Mullah Krekar, has also called Saddam Hussein his sworn enemy.
Furthermore, in a "Special Analysis" report dated July 31, 2002, the Defense Intelligence Agency concluded the following regarding alleged connections between Saddam's regime and Ansar al-Islam:
"Should regime support to Ansar al-Islam be proven, this will not necessarily implicate the regime in supporting al-Qaeda. Ansar al-Islam is an independent organization that receives assistance from al-Qaeda, but is not a branch of the group. The Iraqi regime seeks to influence and manipulate political events in the Kurdish-controlled north and probably has some type of assets in contact with Ansar al-Islam, either through liaison or through penetration by an intelligence asset."
However, in February 2003, then United States Secretary of State Colin Powell told the United Nations Security Council, "Baghdad has an agent in the most senior levels of the radical organization, Ansar al-Islam, that controls this corner of Iraq. In 2000 this agent offered Al Qaida safe haven in the region. After we swept Al Qaida from Afghanistan, some of its members accepted this safe haven." The general consensus of experts, as well as the conclusion of the intelligence community and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, is that Saddam was infiltrating the group but that the two parties remained hostile to each other and did not establish a collaborative relationship.
Colin Powell has since acknowledged that his speech presented no hard evidence of collaboration between Saddam and al-Qaeda; he told reporters at a State Department press conference that "I have not seen smoking gun, concrete evidence about the connection, but I do believe the connections existed." However, after Powell left office, he acknowledged that he was skeptical of the evidence presented to him for the speech. He told Barbara Walters in an interview that he considered the speech a "blot" on his record and that he feels "terrible" about assertions that he made in the speech that turned out to be false. He said, "There were some people in the intelligence community who knew at that time that some of these sources were not good, and shouldn't be relied upon, and they didn't speak up. That devastated me." When asked specifically about a Saddam/al-Qaeda connection, Powell responded, "I have never seen a connection. … I can't think otherwise because I'd never seen evidence to suggest there was one."
Swedish fund-raising case
Ali Berzengi and Ferman Abdulla, the owner of a falafel stand in Stockholm, raised money for what they claimed was poor children and Muslims. The money was then transferred through Abdulla's food stand, using the hawala transfer system. The Swedish Security Service was informed in 2002 that people in Sweden had transferred money to Ansar al-Islam. On April 19, 2004, Berzengi and Abdulla were arrested along with another Iraqi, Shaho Shahab, and Lebanese-born Bilal Ramadan. Ramadan was released in September after a court found that there wasn't enough evidence to keep him in custody. Shahab was released in December after the government decided to deport him to Iraq. However, since Shahab risks receiving the death penalty in his home country, the deportation has not been carried out. In Abdulla's apartment the police found a letter from a man who claimed to have been in contact with Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq, as well as a detailed manual on how to use coded language.
On May 12, 2005, Abdulla and Berzengi were convicted by the Stockholm District Court for "planning of terrorist offences" (Swedish: förberedelse till terroristbrott) and "planning of public devastation" (Swedish: förberedelse till allmänfarlig ödeläggelse) according to Swedish law. Accord to the court they had transferred approximately one million SEK to Ansar al-Islam. According to the court there was strong evidence that the collected money had the specific purpose of financing terrorist attacks. Much of the evidence presented consisted of secret wire-tappings from U.S. and German intelligence sources. In the recordings Abdulla and Berzengi used coded language to describe the attacks. Berzengi, who according to the court was the leading of the two, was sentenced to seven years of imprisonment and Abdulla to six years. The Svea Court of Appeal later reduced the sentences to five years for Berzengi and four and a half year for Abdulla. The appeal to the Supreme Court was denied. The both are also to be deported back to Iraq after serving their sentences in Sweden. Abdulla is currently serving his sentence at the Norrköping Prison.
The conviction of Berzengi and Abdulla was the first since the new Swedish terrorism legislation was taken into effect on July 1, 2003. It was also the first ever conviction in Western Europe of people financing terrorism.
- "Ansar al-Islam". Fas.org. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- Schanzer, Jonathan. Al-Qaeda's armies: Middle East affiliate groups & the next generation of terror. Specialist Press International. New York, 2005.
- "Rudaw in English The Happening: Latest News and Multimedia about Kurdistan, Iraq and the World - Kurdistan Deploys Troops Along Border As PJAK-Iran Fighting Intensifies". Rudaw.net. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- Long War Journal 01/05/2012
- Terrorism & It's Effects. Sanchez, Juan. Global Media, 2007.
- Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan (Human Rights Watch Backgrounder, )
- [dead link]
- Plan of Attack, Bob Woodward, Simon and Schuster, 2004.
- Tucker, Mike; Charles Faddis (2008). Operation Hotel California: The Clandestine War inside Iraq. The Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-59921-366-8.
- An interview on public radio with the author
- "United States Designates bin Laden Loyalist". Ustreas.gov. August 13, 1995. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- [dead link]
- "Ansar al-Sunnah Acknowledges Relationship with Ansar al-Islam, Reverts to Using Ansar al-Islam Name". Counterterrorism Blog. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- "مەکتەبی راگەیاندنی یەکێتیی نیشتمانیی کوردستان". PUKmedia. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- "No Operation". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- Senate Intelligence Committee Report p.92-93.
- Mullah Krekar Interview, Insight News TV
- DIA, Special Analysis, July 31, 2002, cited in Postwar Findings about Iraq's WMD Programs and Links to Terrorism and How they Compare with Prewar Assessments, pg. 71.
- "U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell Addresses the U.N. Security Council". 2003-02-05.
- NBC, MSNBC, AP, "No proof links Iraq, al-Qaeda, Powell says," MSNBC News Services (8 January 2004).
- ABC News: Colin Powell on Iraq, Race, and Hurricane Relief
- (Swedish) Lönnaeus, Olle, Orrenius, Niklas, Magnusson, Erik (2006-02-12). "Kiosken var en terrorbank". Sydsvenskan. Retrieved 2007-01-24.
- (English) Swedish Security Service 2005 (PDF). Swedish Security Service. 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-22.[dead link]
- (English) "Two Iraqis charged in Sweden with transferring money to al-Zarqawi". USA Today/Associated Press. 2005-05-04. Retrieved 2007-01-22.
- (Swedish) Lisinski, Stefan (2005-05-12). "Långa straff för terrorbrott". Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 2007-01-22.
- (Swedish) "Terrorister fick sänkta straff i hovrätten". Ekot. 2005-10-03. Retrieved 2007-01-22.
- (Swedish) "HD prövar inte terroristmålet". Ekot. 2005-11-21. Retrieved 2007-01-22.
- The Rise and Fall of Ansar al-Islam, Christian Science Monitor
- Ansar al-Islam terrorist attacks
- Human Rights Watch: Ansar al-Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan
- Radical Islam in Iraqi Kurdistan: Ansar al-Islam
- Zarqawi and the 'al-Qaeda link', February 5, 2003.
- Mullah Krekar arrested ( mirrored version ), March 21, 2003.
- Ansar al-Islam: Postmortem or Prelude to More Attacks?, April 3, 2003.
- Time.com article on first AI suicide attack, February 26, 2003
- Ansar al-Islam: Iraq's al-Qaeda Connection, January 15, 2003
- State Department Designation of Ansar Al-Islam,February 20, 2003
- Foreign Terrorist Organizations: Designation of Ansar al-Islam (Al), Redesignation of Three Others (State Department, March 22, 2004
- Athena Intelligence Advanced Research Network on Insurgency and Terrorism
- The Great Terror, The New Yorker
- The Unknown: The C.I.A. and the Pentagon take another look at Al Qaeda and Iraq, The New Yorker
- Mullah Krekar Interview