Late Cretaceous-Holocene, 66–0Ma
|Magpie Goose, Anseranas semipalmata|
|Range of the Waterfowl and allies|
Anseriformes is an order of birds. It comprises about 150 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the Magpie Goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 140 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
All species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface. All are web-footed for efficient swimming (although some have subsequently become mainly terrestrial).
The earliest known Anseriform is the recently discovered Vegavis, which lived during the Cretaceous period. It is thought that the Anseriformes originated when the original Galloanserae (the group to which Anseriformes and Galliformes belong) split into the two main lineages. The extinct dromornithids represent early offshoots of the anseriform line, and so maybe Gastornis (if it is an Anseriform). The ancestors of the Anseriformes developed the characteristic bill structure that they still share. The combination of the internal shape of the bill and a modified tongue acts as a suction pump to draw water in at the tip of the bill and expel it from the sides and rear; an array of fine filter plates called lamellae traps small particles, which are then licked off and swallowed.
All Anseriformes have this basic structure, but many have subsequently adopted alternative feeding strategies: geese graze on plants, the saw-billed ducks catch fish; even the screamers, which have bills that seem on first sight more like those of the game birds, still have vestigal lamellae. The prehistoric wading presbyornithids and the huge and possibly carnivorous dromornithids were even more bizarre.
Anatidae systematics, especially regarding placement of some "odd" genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not fully resolved. See the Anatidae article for more information, and for alternate taxonomic approaches. Some unusual fossil groups, such as the Gastornithidae and Dromornithidae, are often found to be at the base of the Anseriformes family tree, or at least their closest relatives.
- Order Anseriformes
- †Family Dromornithidae?: mihirungs
- †Family Gastornithidae?: "diatrymas"
- Anseres (true anseriformes)
- Family Anhimidae: screamers
- Family Anseranatidae: the Magpie Goose
- Superfamily Anatoidea
- Family Anatidae
- Subfamily Dendrocygninae: Whistling ducks (sometimes given full family status as the Dendrocygnidae).
- Subfamily Thalassorninae: the White-backed Duck.
- Subfamily Anserinae: Swans and geese.
- Subfamily Stictonettinae: the Freckled Duck.
- Subfamily Plectropterinae: the Spur-winged Goose.
- Subfamily Tadorninae: Shelducks and sheldgeese - probably paraphyletic
- Subfamily Anatinae: Dabbling ducks and moa-nalos
- Subfamily Aythyinae: Diving ducks (sometimes included in Anatinae)
- Subfamily Merginae: eiders, scoters, mergansers and other sea-ducks.
- Subfamily Oxyurinae: Stiff-tailed ducks and allies.
- †Family Presbyornithidae: several genera of wading-"geese"
Some fossil anseriform taxa not assignable with certainty to a family are:
- Anatalavis (Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene - Early Eocene) - Anseranatidae or basal.
- Proherodius (London Clay Early Eocene of London, England) - Presbyornithidae?
- Romainvillia (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - Anseranatidae or Anatidae
- Paranyroca (Rosebud Early Miocene of Bennett County, USA) - Anatidae or own family?
In addition, a considerable number of mainly Late Cretaceous and Paleogene fossils have been described where it is uncertain whether or not they are anseriforms. This is because almost all orders of aquatic birds living today either originated or underwent a major radiation during that time, making it hard to decide whether some waterbird-like bone belongs into this family or is the product of parallel evolution in a different lineage due to adaptive pressures.
- "Presbyornithidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Barun Goyot Late Cretaceous of Udan Sayr, Mongolia) - Presbyornithidae?
- UCMP 117599 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA)
- Petropluvialis (Late Eocene of England) - may be same as Palaeopapia
- Agnopterus (Late Eocene - Late Oligocene of Europe) - includes Cygnopterus lambrechti
- "Headonornis hantoniensis" BMNH PAL 4989 (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) - formerly "Ptenornis"
- Palaeopapia (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England)
- "Anas" creccoides (Early/Middle Oligocene of Belgium)
- "Anas" skalicensis (Early Miocene of "Skalitz", Czechia)
- "Anas" risgoviensis (Late Miocene of Bavaria, Germany)
Crested screamer (Chauna torquata)
Studies of the mitochnodrial DNA suggest the existence of four branches - Anseranatidae, Dendrocygninae, Anserinae and Anatinae - with Dendrocygninae being a subfamily within the family Anatidae and Anseranatidae representing an independent family. The clade Somaterini has a single genus Somateria.
- Clarke et al. (2005)
- Murray, P. F. & Vickers-Rich, P. (2004)
- Angolin, F. (2007)
- Livezey, B. C. & Zusi, R. L. (2007)
- Gonzalez J, Düttmann H, Wink M (2009) Phylogenetic relationships based on two mitochondrial genes and hybridization patterns in Anatidae. J Zoolog 279: 310–318. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00622.x
- Liu G, Zhou L, Zhang L, Luo Z, Xu W (2013) The complete mitochondrial genome of Bean goose (Anser fabalis) and implications for anseriformes taxonomy. PLoS One 8(5):e63334. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063334
- Agnolin, F. (2007) Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes (Aves) gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, Argentina. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. 9:15-25.
- Clarke, J. A. Tambussi, C. P. Noriega, J. I. Erickson, G. M. & Ketcham, R. A. (2005) Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the Cretaceous. Nature. 433: 305-308. doi:10.1038/nature03150
- Livezey, B. C. & Zusi, R. L. (2007) Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zoological Journal of the Linnen Society. 149: 1-95.
- Murray, P. F. & Vickers-Rich, P. (2004) Magnificent Mihirungs: The Colossal Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime. Indiana University Press.
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|The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Anseriformes|