|— Prefecture-level city —|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|City Seat||Tiedong District|
|Districts and Counties|
|• CPC Anshan||Zhang Jiehui
|• Mayor||Gu Chunli|
|• Prefecture-level city||9,252 km2 (3,572 sq mi)|
|• Land||8,563 km2 (3,306 sq mi)|
|• Water||689 km2 (266 sq mi) 7.4%|
|• Urban||624 km2 (241 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,141 m (3,743 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||2 m (7 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,645,884|
|• Density||390/km2 ( 1,000/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,500/km2 ( 6,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Administrative division code||210300|
Anshan (Chinese: 鞍山; pinyin: Ānshān; literally "saddle mountain") is the third largest prefecture level city in Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. Situated in the central area of the province, Anshan is about 92 kilometres (57 mi) south of Shenyang, the provincial capital. Anshan is on the boundary between the Mountains of eastern Liaoning and the plains of the west. The prefecture has a population of 3,584,000 people and covers an area of about 9,252 km2 (3,572 sq mi). The distance from the east to the west of the prefecture is 133 km (83 mi). The area contains the famous Qianshan National Park. The city's name is derived from the shape of a nearby mountain that resembles the shape of a horse's saddle, which can be seen on the left (west) about five minutes before the northbound train arrives at Anshan Station. Anshan is home to the Anshan Iron and Steel Group, one of the largest steel producers in China.
Anshan has a population of 3.65 million at the 2010 census. Anshan holds one third of the worlds supply of talcum Anshan holds a quarter of the worlds reserves of magnesite Anshan also produced the largest ever jade stone, now a local tourist attraction carved as a Buddha. The built up area encompassing 4 Anshan urban districts (1,529,350 inhabitants) and urban Liaoyang is home to more than 2.17 million inhabitants in 2010.
The area of Anshan has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The area remained of little significance, a small city in Liaodong province, overshadowed by neighbouring Liaoyang city, until the mid 20th Century. In 1587 Anshan was fortified by the Ming Dynasty to combat the growing power of the Manchu. The city was burnt down during the Boxer Rebellion, and was destroyed again in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). As a result of this war, Japan had gained influence in Liaoning and was engaged in industrialising the region. Anshan lay beside the new South Manchuria Railway line that ran from the port of Dalian to the major city of Shenyang. As a joint Sino-Japanese venture, Anshan Zhenzing Iron Ore Company Unlimited was started in Anshan in 1918. After the Mukden Incident in 1931, Japan occupied the northeast of China. The mills were turned into a Japanese owned monopoly. In 1933, the site was expanded to include steel production and the company was renamed Showa Steel Works. Anshan became part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Additional industries developed around the iron and steel mills. The city of Anshan grew significantly in size around this new industrial site.
Anshan had become one of the largest producers of iron and steel in Asia if not the world. It was therefore of strategic importance in the Pacific War, and was subject to constant attack by B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers of the USAAF. Japanese Army detached the 1st Chutai (unit) of 104th Sentai (squadron) of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, to Anshan, with other air squadrons for industrial defense purposes. Although this unit was equipped with modern Nakajima Ki-84 Ia (Manshu Type) Hayate "Frank" fighters, manufactured by Manshūkoku Hikōki Seizo KK, the plant suffered heavy damage from the air raids, losing up to 30% of its capacity.
At the end of the war, Soviet Red Army forces launched Operation August Storm, which captured Manchuria form the Japanese. The Soviets looted the ruins of Shōwa Steel Works for anything that could be taken back to the Soviet Union. With the defeat of Japan in 1945, Anshan was returned to China along with the rest of Chinese Manchuria. However, peace had not yet arrived. Civil war continued between the Chinese Nationalist Government and the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA). The city of Anshan was the scene of one of the battles of this war. The city was liberated by the PLA on February 19, 1948. A monument in Lieshishan park commemorates the battle.
The northeast of China was marked out to become a major industrial centre for the new People's Republic of China. Anshan was set to become a key part of this industrial development. The steel mills had been damaged during the wars. In December 1948, the Anshan Iron and Steel Company - also known as Angang - was founded. Production in the newly repaired steel plant resumed on July 9, 1949. The plant was expanded to become the largest steel producer in China. Other industries setup alongside the steel plant including mining for coal, iron and other minerals. This industrial wealth had an environmental cost. The open-hearth furnaces of the steel mill created large amounts of dust and other pollution. Along with its growing reputation as a major steel producer, Anshan was also gaining a reputation as a dirty, smelly town.
Anshan became a formal administrative region under the Northeastern People's Government (later renamed as the Northeastern Administration Commission) in November, 1949. On March 12, 1953, the city became a municipality under the Central Government direct administration. Haicheng County and Xiuyan County were subordinated to Liaodong Province. Tai'an County was subordinated to Liaoxi Province. August 22, 1954, the central government decided that Anshan should be administered by Liaoning Province. The State Council confirmed that Anshan should be in charge of Xiuyan County and Haicheng city in 1985.
The furnaces of the steel plant were changed in the 1980s to designs which blow oxygen in from the front. This increased the production and also reduced the pollution. In the 1990s, they were additionally altered to blow oxygen in from the top as well. This further increase production and reduced pollution. In December 2000, all three production lines of Anshan Iron and Steel company switched from mould-casting to continuous casting. This new technology has significantly reduced the dust and other pollution in the city. The new plant equipment is also much less labour intensive. This has meant a reduction in the workforce has caused an unemployment problem in the city. A new drive to market Anshan as a tourist destination is hoped to help bolster the cities economy.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Sited on the edge of the Liao River plains, Anshan has wide flat lands in the west and central regions that develop into hilly and the mountainous terrain on the eastern fringes. The area is rich in mineral wealth including iron ore, coal, magnesite, talcum and jade. The plains of western Anshan are good for agriculture. The large flat fields make it ideal for modern agricultural methods. In total, Anshan contains 24480 hectares of arable land accounting for 26.4% of the total land area. One agricultural product that Anshan has become well known for is the production of Nangua Pears.
Anshan has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) characterised by hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon, and rather long, cold, and very dry winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons here are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August. The monthly 24-hour average temperatures ranges from −8.6 °C (16.5 °F) in January to 25.0 °C (77.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 9.60 °C (49.3 °F). Sunshine is generous and amounts to 2,543 hours annually, while relative humidity averages 58%, ranging from 47% in March and April to 75% in July and August. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −30.4 °C (−22.7 °F) up to 36.9 °C (98.4 °F).
|Climate data for Anshan (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.8
|Average low °C (°F)||−12.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||7.4
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.6||3.5||4.6||7.0||8.5||11.1||13.2||11.0||7.5||6.6||5.2||3.7||85.5|
|Source: Weather China|
Administrative divisions 
Anshan is divided into 4 districts, 1 town, 1 county and one autonomous county.
|Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Tiedong District||铁东区||Tiědōng Qū||490,000||30||16,333|
|2||Tiexi District||铁西区||Tiěxī Qū||290,000||34||8,529|
|3||Lishan District||立山区||Lìshān Qū||420,000||55||7,636|
|4||Qianshan District||千山区||Qiānshān Qū||260,000||503||517|
|5||Haicheng City||海城市||Hǎichéng Shì||1,130,000||2,732||414|
|6||Tai'an County||台安县||Tái'ān Xiàn||380,000||1,393||273|
|7||Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County||岫岩满族
The north east of China is a major industrial zone and Anshan is one of the key sites of the north east. The city is renowned as "China's capital of iron and steel." Prior to the development of the Iron and Steel industries, Anshan was a relatively small city of little importance. As the steel mills expanded, so to did the city. Spin off industries developed alongside the steel plant making the area a centre of heavy industry.
As a joint Sino-Japanese venture, Anshan Zhenzing Iron Ore Company Unlimited was started in Anshan in 1918. When Japan occupied Northeast China in 1931, these mills were turned into a Japanese owned monopoly. Anshan subsequently became part of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and additional industries developed around the iron and steel mills. Due to its mills, the city became a significant strategic industrial hub during World War II and as such, was subject to constant Allied bombing during the war.
Total production of processed iron in Manchuria reached 1,000,000 tonnes in 1931-32, of which almost half was made by Shōwa Steel in Anshan. Iron production grew to 7,000,000 tonnes in 1938 and by 1941, Shōwa Steel Works had a total capacity production of 1,750,000 tonnes of iron bars and 1,000,000 tonnes of processed steel. By 1942, Anshan's Shōwa Steel Works total production capacity reached 3,600,000 tonnes, making it one of the major iron and steel centers in the world.
In 1945 the steel plant was looted by soviet forces. The Republic of China government partially repaired the site but it was destroyed again during the Chinese civil war that saw the Communist forces victorious. The mills were once again repaired and Anshan Iron and Steel Company (Angang) was founded in 1948. Form then to 2001, the company produced 290 million tons of steel, 284 million tons of pig iron and 192 million tons of rolled steel. Until relatively recently,[when?] when a new steel plant opened in Shanghai, Angang was the largest steel producer in China. Today, Angang consists of three steelworks with 13 rolling mills plus supporting plants which produce coke, refractory materials and machinery for the steel plants. The company has an annual production capacity of 10 million tons of pig iron, 10 million tons of steel and 9.5 million tons of rolled steel. A quarter of China's total iron ore reserves, about 10 billion tons, are located in Anshan ensuring that the city will remain an important steel producer well into the future.
Anshan is rich in other mineral wealth too. The southern and south eastern areas of Anshan are rich in magnesite. Reserves of magnesite here are equivalent to a quarter of all world wide reserves. Anshan also has the worlds largest reserve of talcum accounting for fully one third of the entire world supply. The Xiuyan area of Anshan is known for the production of the precious stone, Jade. The largest single jade stone ever found came from Xiuyan, now carved into the form of a Buddha, it is a major tourist attraction in the area.
Anshan is serviced by Shenyang airport, about 90 kilometers to the north, and by two major highways linking it with Shenyang and Dalian.
The government of Anshan established a five-year plan in 2000 with the aim of turning the city into a strong modern industrial city with plenty of tourism. It also aimed to make the city GDP reach 100 billion RMB by 2005 and to build a modern industrial city by using advances in technology to transform the traditional industries. Attracting foreign investment is also another main idea in the plan. The Anshan government anticipates the foreign investment assets would be around 80 billion RMB by 2005.
Anshan has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China. The opportunities for engaging Anshan's consumers have been documented by the ethnographer Michael B. Griffiths.
Out of the 3,584,000 people living in Anshan prefecture, 519,400 are ethnic Manchu, a holdover from northeast China's historical rule by the ethnic group. They are mainly in or around the Xiuyan Man regional ethnic autonomy area which is within Anshan's borders. During the last years of the Qing dynasty, large numbers of Han people migrated to the north east in search of work. This pattern continued into the 20th century. The development of Anshan as a large industrial center during and after world war II caused the city's population to increase rapidly, and the new arrivals began to significantly outnumber the local Man people. As of the last census data, Anshan was home to 48 Chinese ethnic groups. The Han people make up the lion's share at 3,020,500 people. Next, after the Han and Man people, come the Hui and the Chaoxian with 23,400 and 10,000 people respectively. The Hui population is widely dispersed but the Chaoxian population is mostly concentrated in Teixi (West district) and Qianshan district.
Anshan has a population of 3.65 million at the 2010 census. As the city has expanded, the area between Anshan and the neighbouring city of Liaoyang has become urbanised, with little or no farmland visible on route between them. According to the 2010 census, the conurbation of urban Anshan and urban Liaoyang districts contains 2.17 million inhabitants.
The city of Anshan can be divided into districts. The East district, Tiedong has a population of 452,900. The western district, Tiexi has 311,600 people. These two districts are demarcated by the railway lines that run north to south through the city. The north western portion of the city is dominated by the large steel works of Angang. The district of Lishan houses 425,600 people and the suburbs of Qianshan district have 366,200 soles. Within Anshan prefecture lies the subordinate city of Haicheng which accounts for 1,181,100 people. The neighbouring subordinate town of Tai'an has 354,700 people.
Anshan has no river or sea port. The nearest commercial airport is Shenyang Taoxian International Airport (SHE), about 90 km (56 mi) to the north. The city is beside the Shenyang–Dalian Expressway (part of the G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway), a privately funded eight-lane tolled highway and the first road of its kind in mainland China. Anshan is also connected to the Chinese rail network with rail routes to Beijing, Dalian, and to the north-eastern provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang as well as to eastern Inner Mongolia and Russia. Long-distance coaches run to all the main cities of the province as well as to Beijing.
Local transportation is primarily by bus or taxi. Anshan used to have a single tram line along Zhonghua Avenue but this has been closed and the tracks removed. Due to the flat topography of the city centre, bicycles are popular. Almost all roads have a wide cycle lane on each side. Often this lane is further protected by a traffic island that separates the bikes from larger motor vehicles.
Tourist attractions 
In recent years, Anshan has been trying to throw off its image as a heavy industrial town along with the dirt and pollution that goes with such industry. It has remodeled itself as a tourist destination.
Foremost among the attractions in Anshan is Qianshan National Park (千山) which is about 18 km, by road, to the south east of the city. Qianshan literally means, 'Thousand Mountains'. The name is actually and abbreviation of 'Thousand lotus flower mountains'. The peaks were said to resemble the petals of the lotus flower which had been dropped to earth by a goddess. The park area of 44 square kilometers, is filled with both Buddhist and Taoist temples, monasteries and nunneries. It is one of few locations where both religions are found sharing the same site.
Motor cars are not allowed within the park. Tourists must either walk or hire one of the electric taxis. Many foot paths climb steeply up the hillsides through thick forest. These foot paths lead past steles honoring the dead, small shrines, pagodas and temples. For those who are less fit, three cable car routes can convey you up the hill sides. However, none of the cable cars will take you the whole way, leaving you some climbing to do by yourself. One mountain in the park is shaped in such a way that it resembles a Matria Buddha. It is claimed to be the largest naturally occurring image of Matria Buddha in the world. Several temples have been built on the peaks of the overlooking hills. Near the Matria Buddha is a large net enclosed area which contains a bird park.
Another major tourist location is Anshan's 219 park. The name of the park commemorates the liberation of Anshan by the People's Liberation Army on the 19th of February 1948. The park contains the Dongshan (East Mountain) scenic area as well as numerous lakes. Of particular note is the Jade Buddha temple (Yufo yuan). This large Buddhist temple complex of 22,104 square metres, houses the worlds large statue of Buddha made of Jade (It is called jade in Chinese, but in English it is Serpentine). It is a single piece of jade stone measuring 6.88 metres in width, 4.10 metres front to back and 7.95 metres high. The jade stone weighs 260.76 tons. The front of the stone has been carved with an image of Sakyamuni (aka. Gautama) Buddha. On the back of the stone Guanyin (aka. Avalokitesvara) Buddha has been carved. The jade stone was found in 1960 in Xiuyan County. It was declared a treasure of the State and listed as a protected property by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. Anshan city government commissioned the carving which took a team of 120 sculptures 18 months to complete. The temple complex was opened on the 3rd of September 1996. The building that houses the Jade Buddha statue is 33 metres tall, representing the 33 layers of heaven in Buddhism. It claims to be one of the tallest buildings of ancient Chinese architectural style in China.
Anshan contains naturally hot spring water spas. There are four spas/hotels in Anshan. Visitors may shower and bathe in the spring water. At Tanggangzi Spa, once frequented by the Qing Emperors of China, visitors may have mud treatment where they are buried in hot volcanic sand, which has been infused with the spring water. The geothermal energy is also used to provide hot steam and water for winter heating throughout the area.
Education system 
The city contains two large Universities.
Famous residents 
The famous Chinese philanthropist, Guo Mingyi was born and lives in Anshan. He works at a mining company belonging to Angang Iron and Steel Group. Anshan was the birthplace of Ann Hui (born 1947), a Hong Kong-based film director, one of the most critically acclaimed amongst the Hong Kong New Wave. Hui's 2006 film The Postmodern Life of My Aunt was partly set and filmed in Anshan.
International relations 
Twin towns — sister cities 
Anshan City is twinned with:
- Amagasaki, Hyōgo, Japan, 1983
- Sheffield, United Kingdom, 1983
- Bursa, Turkey, 1991
- Lipetsk, Russia, 1992
- Birmingham, Alabama, United States, 1996
- Ansan, South Korea, 1997
- Holon, Israel, 2000
- "China Briefing Business Reports". Asia Briefing. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-08.[dead link]
- Yoshihisa Tak Matsusaka, The Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932 (2001), p.222-3.
- Beasley, W.G. (1991). Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822168-1.
- Astor, Gerald (2004). The Jungle War: Mavericks, Marauders and Madmen in the China-Burma-India Theater of World War II. Wiley. p. 312. ISBN 0-471-27393-7.
- Huang, Youyi; Xiao Siaoming, Li Zhenguo, Zhang Zouku (2006). Liaoning, Home of the Manchus & Cradle of Qing Empire. Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, China. p. 227. ISBN 7-119-04517-2.
- THE RISE OF THE ‘CHAMPS’ - NEW REPORT MAPS BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY IN CHINA’S FASTEST GROWING CITIES
- Griffiths, Michael. B., Flemming Christiansen, and Malcolm Chapman. (2010) 'Chinese Consumers: The Romantic Reappraisal’. Ethnography, Sept 2010, 11, 331-357.
- Griffiths, Michael. B. (2010) ‘Lamb Buddha’s Migrant Workers: Self-assertion on China’s Urban Fringe’. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs (China Aktuell), 39, 2, 3-37.
- "Population and Nationality". Anshan Municipal Government. Archived from the original on 02-11-2007. Retrieved 05-12-2007.
- "Anshan Municipal Government - Jade Buddha Park". Anshan Municipal Government. Retrieved 2008-10-03.[dead link]
- "International Links". Sheffield City Council. Archived from the original on 12 November 2005. Retrieved 2005-12-27.
- http://www.anshan.gov.cn/ - Official website of Anshan