Anson Chan

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This is a Chinese name; the family name is Chan (married name) and Fang (maiden name).
The Honourable
Anson Maria Elizabeth Chan
GBM, GCMG, CBE, JP
陳方安生
Ansonchanenlarged.jpg
Anson Chan in 2005
Chief Secretary for Administration
In office
1 July 1997 – 30 April 2001
Succeeded by Donald Tsang
Chief Secretary of Hong Kong
In office
29 November 1993 – 30 June 1997
Preceded by Sir David Robert Ford
Succeeded by Herself (as Chief Secretary for Administration)
Member of the
Legislative Council of Hong Kong
In office
5 December 2007 – 30 September 2008
Preceded by Ma Lik
Succeeded by Regina Ip
Constituency Hong Kong Island
Personal details
Born (1940-01-17) 17 January 1940 (age 74)
Shanghai, China
Nationality Chinese (Hong Kong)
Spouse(s) Archibald Chan Tai-wing (m. 1963–2010) (deceased)
Relations Fang Shin-hau (father)
Fang Zhaoling (mother)
Harry Fang (uncle)
Children Michelle Chan Wai-ling
Andrew Chan Hong-wai
Alma mater Sacred Heart Canossian College
St. Paul's Convent School
University of Hong Kong
Tufts University
Religion Roman Catholicism
Anson Chan
Traditional Chinese 陳方安生
Simplified Chinese 陈方安生

Anson Maria Elizabeth Chan Fang On-sang, GBM, GCMG, CBE, JP (born 17 January 1940) is the former Chief Secretary in both the British colonial government of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government under the Chinese rule. She was also an elected member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong for Hong Kong Island between 2007 and 2008.[1][2][3][4]

Early life[edit]

Born one of twins in Shanghai, China, Anson Chan was educated at Hong Kong's Sacred Heart Canossian College (formerly known as Italian Convent School and Sacred Heart School) and the University of Hong Kong. She also studied at Tufts University in Massachusetts in the United States.

Chan's father, Fang Shin-hau (方心誥), a textile manufacturer, moved the family to Hong Kong in 1948. Her mother Fang Zhaoling was a Chinese painting master. Her grandfather, Fang Zhenwu, was a Kuomintang general who fought against the Japanese invasion. Her uncle, Sir Harry Fang Sin-yang was a well-known orthopaedic surgeon and served as an appointed member of the Legislative Council from 1974 to 1985.

When she was only ten, Chan's father died suddenly aged 36, leaving her mother with eight young children: twins Anson and Ninson and six brothers. With the support of Chan's grandmother, her mother not only shouldered the responsibility of raising her children, but also tried to pursue her career as an artist. She took two of her sons to study in England, leaving Chan and her five other siblings in Hong Kong with their grandmother and Uncle Harry.

Under her grandmother's strict discipline and high expectations, Chan learned that she had a duty towards the family and the community and was expected to be upright, diligent and righteous. She put herself through university by working as a private tutor and for a year as a clerk at Queen Mary Hospital. In 1959, Chan entered the University of Hong Kong to study English literature.[1] Along with studies, she was keen on amateur dramatics, and it was through this that she met her future husband, Archibald (Archie) Chan Tai-wing.

She began work on a social work diploma, but later changed her mind and joined the Hong Kong Civil Service in 1962, one of only two women to join the civil service at that time. The following year, she married Archie, who became a science teacher at St Joseph's College.[1]

British administration career[edit]

Chan joined the civil service as an administrative service cadet in 1962. Her salary was reportedly one-quarter that paid to men of equivalent grade.[1]

Afterwards, she progressed to the Economics Section of the Finance Branch in 1962, followed by the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, then the Department of Commerce and Industry, and later back to Finance. In 1970, she became Assistant Financial Secretary in the Finance Branch of the Colonial Secretary, the first woman to attain that post.[1]

She became a senior administrative officer in 1970. During this period she helped set up the Association of Female Senior Government Officers to fight for better rights for women civil servants, notably pushing for wage parity with men.[1]

Director of Social Welfare[edit]

Chan became the first female civil service director when appointed Director of Social Welfare in 1984. During her tenure, she was severely criticized by media for her handling of a child custody case in 1986, popularly known as the Daughter of Kwok-A Incident.[5] An investigation by Unofficial members of the Executive Council found that Chan had "acted within the law" in respect of her extreme powers, but recommended changes to the law and to the Social Welfare Department's procedures to prevent re-occurrence of similar cases. She later admitted that the media pressure had made her "very upset" and this led to keep her distance from the press, at least for a few years.[6][7]

Chief Secretary[edit]

From 1987 to 1993, she was Secretary for Economic Services, becoming the 30th and last Chief Secretary, the head of the Hong Kong civil service, in 1993. She mainly oversaw the localisation of the civil service during her time in this position. From 1994, she headed the Airport Development Steering Committee overseeing the construction of the new Chek Lap Kok Airport.

Chan was the first woman and the first ethnic Chinese to hold the second-highest governmental position in Hong Kong. The highest governmental position, the Governor, was always held by Britons before Hong Kong's handover to People's Republic of China. Chan was often described during this era as an "Iron Lady", with "an iron fist in a velvet glove". Chan was lauded as the most powerful woman in Asia for her role as the deputy of British Governor Chris Patten, and later Tung Chee-hwa. She was considered most trusted high official in Hong Kong by both the UK and PRC government to appoint her to the head of the civil service, before and after the handover of Hong Kong.

In the run-up to the handover of Hong Kong, she was often the 'face of Hong Kong', dispatched to reassure the wider world that the territory would not implode upon its return to China and that civil liberties would be upheld. Her confidence reassured many around the globe.[8]

Within Hong Kong she had wide public support to be the first Chief Executive in the new administration but announced in October 1996 that she would not seek the role.

SAR administration career[edit]

After Hong Kong's handover to China on 1 July 1997, Chan stayed on as head of the civil service under then Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa, a valuable sign of stability and continuity for the new administration. She was always highly regarded: one British-born civil servant said that "nothing would work without her", also noting that "Tung needs her more than she needs him."[8]

Chan was loyal in the main but her public utterances were occasionally at odds with Tung. It was enough to earn her a certain independence and the epithet of "Hong Kong's Conscience". In contrast to the more conservative Tung, Chan showed the greater support for democracy and freedom, and advocated a faster pace of democratisation.

In 1998, Chan was somewhat criticised for her role in the monitoring of the new Hong Kong International Airport construction at Chek Lap Kok. The airport had logistical difficulties upon its opening, and some blamed Chan for her lack of supervision.[9]

Defense of press freedom[edit]

When pro-government figures in Hong Kong attacked the Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK) for being too critical of the Hong Kong and Chinese governments, Chan flew to its defence.[10]

Practise their profession after 1997 as they have practised it, continue to write the stories and editorials that deserve to be written, responsibly, objectively without fear or favour... How well they do their job after the transition will to a very large extent decide how well our other freedoms will be protected.[11]

—Anson Chan on Hong Kong journalists' role after the handover

In the summer of 1999 RTHK became a platform for Taiwan-Mainland China discussions. A local member of the PRC's National People's Congress, Tsang Hin-chi, urged the government-owned radio station to exercise self-censorship and not to provide a platform that express the splitting of China; Xu Simin, a member of Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, urged RTHK to not allow Taiwan's president broadcasts.[10]

On 12 April 2000 Wang Fengchao delivered a speech titled "The Principle of One China and the Taiwan Issue". Wang hinted that Basic Law Article 23 should be enacted as quickly as possible in Hong Kong to protect China against treason and subversion.[12] Chan spoke in a four hour speech after Wang on the importance of press freedom and publication, as she believed in genuine press freedom without external pressures.[12]

The constant criticism of mainland officials and policies was perceived by many to be one of the main reasons for Beijing to view Chan as a malefactor in Hong Kong politics. In what the Hong Kong media saw as a dressing down for Chan, PRC Vice Premier Qian Qichen told her at a function in Beijing to "better support Tung", after there had been reports of disagreements between the two over the appointment of officials.[10][13] Chan agreed in 1999 to delay her retirement until June 2002. However, Chan announced her resignation in January 2001, and officially stepped down in April of the same year.[9]

Post-civil service career[edit]

Chan marching for democracy in 2006

After retiring from the civil service, Chan did not often show up in public. However in December 2005, Chan participated in the protest march for democracy, against Donald Tsang's constitutional reform package[14] and has since participated in subsequent marches for universal suffrage.[15]

In July 2006, she criticised the Commission on Strategic Development, chaired by Donald Tsang, for being "rather slow and unsatisfactory", and announced her intention to start a "Core Group" to push for taking forward the debate on Hong Kong’s constitutional reforms.[16] It was later announced that the group would consist of heavyweights including Allen Lee, Christine Loh, Elizabeth Bosher, Professor Johannes Chan, Chandran Nair and Lily Yam Kwan Pui-ying.[17]

On 23 September 2006, in a news conference, Chan proclaimed that she would not run for the position of Chief Executive in 2007.

On 24 April 2013, Anson Chan launched a group called Hong Kong 2020 on the basis of the former "Core Group" to monitor and comment on the constitutional reform progress to achieve full universal suffrage for election of the Chief Executive in 2017 and all members of the Legislative Council by 2020.[18]

Legislative Council by-election[edit]

On 11 September 2007, Chan announced that she would run in the December 2007 by-election for the Hong Kong Island seat made vacant by the death of former DAB chairman Ma Lik.[19][20] During the campaign, she was criticized by Alex Tsui, a former ICAC official who accused Chan of obtaining a 100% mortgage to purchase a flat in 1993 when she was Chief Secretary, suggesting an abuse of power. A City University commentator said the issue marked the start of a smear campaign against Chan,[21] although Chan did not engage in smear-free politics either, accusing her rival Regina Ip, the former Secretary for Security supported by Beijing government, of being a "fake democrat".

Chan was also revealed of having been also taken a seat in the board of Richemont, (where a board member is former legionnaire Taipan Simon Murray) the manufacturer of name brand luxury items, but which at that time also owned a 23% share of British American Tobacco. When this news of her board membership was revealed she immediately resigned from the board of Richemont.

In the early hours of 2 December 2007, Chan was elected in the by-election with 175,874 votes, securing about 55% of the vote. Regina Ip, Chan's main rival, had 137,550 votes.[22]

For this election, Chan spent HK$1.81 million, $330,000 more than Ip. Her two main donors were Sir Quo-wei Lee and his wife, and Hong Kong Democratic Foundation chairman George Cautherly, who donated HK$250,000 each. Next Media chairman Jimmy Lai donated HK$200,000, and the Democratic Party gave HK$65,840 "for services".[23]

On 6 July 2008, Chan announced that she would not be seeking re-election to the Legislative Council at the expiry of her term.[24][25]

Personal life[edit]

Among her seven siblings, twin sister Ninson ran a travel agency; brother Philip Fang Shun-sang (b. 1941) worked as a Chinese interpreter at the United Nations in Geneva until 1999 (and died in 2013 after jumping from his home in Lantau).[26] Another brother, David Fang Jin-sheng, was a former orthopaedics lecturer and head of the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine; and another brother, John Fang Meng-sang, is a lawyer.[1] In 2006, John became embroiled in a controversy over the death of his former lover in mysterious circumstances in a flat owned by him in 1995. A coroner's inquest unanimously ruled her death accidental or by misadventure.[27]

She was married to Archibald ("Archie") Chan Tai-wing from 1963 until his death in 2010. Six years her senior, Archibald was a director of Caltex Oil and taught science at St. Joseph's College, his alma mater. He was also in the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police from 1987 to 1996, when he retired as a commandant.[28]

The couple had two children, son Andrew Chan Hung-wai and daughter Michelle Chan Wai-ling, and four grandchildren.[1]

Honours[edit]

In recognition of her 34 years of public service to the British Crown, Chan was awarded the Hong Kong Grand Bauhinia Medal in 1999.[9]

She was then appointed by Queen Elizabeth II as Honorary Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in 2002 in recognition of her service with the Hong Kong government before the handover. Such award was usually given only to Governors of Hong Kong before the return of sovereignty.[9]

She is an honorary fellow of SOAS. [29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Vanessa Gould, "The Iron Lady with a soft centre", The Standard, 13 January 2001
  2. ^ Pares, James. Hoare, Susan. [2005] (2005). A Political And Economic Dictionary Of East Asia. Routledge publishing. ISBN 1-85743-258-4; p. 35
  3. ^ Chan resigned her British citizenship just prior to starting as Chief Secretary for Administration in the Chinese Hong Kong government. The formerly substantive appoints as Dame Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (2002) and Commander of the Order of the British Empire are reduced in rank to honorary appointments allowing use of the post-nominal letters GCMG & CBE but without the appellation of "Dame".
  4. ^ Anson Chan Core Group profile
  5. ^ Liu, Louis (4 July 1986). "Another demand for resignation of SWD chief". South China Morning Post. 
  6. ^ "Lonely girl' review backs welfare chief". South China Morning Post. 30 July 1986. 
  7. ^ "The Iron Lady with a soft centre". The Standard. 13 January 2001. 
  8. ^ a b Anson Chan, The Best Bellwether In Hong Kong Businessweek, Aug 1997
  9. ^ a b c d Pares, Susan. Hoare, James E. A Political And Economic Dictionary Of East Asia. (2005). Routledge East Asia. ISBN 1-85743-258-4.
  10. ^ a b c Hsiung, James Chieh. Hong Kong the Super Paradox: Life After Return to China. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-22293-9.
  11. ^ Williams, Louise Williams; Rich, Roland (2000). Losing Control: Freedom of the Press in Asia. Asia Pacific Press. ISBN 0-7315-3626-6. 
  12. ^ a b Wong, Yiu-Chung. One Country, Two Systems in Crisis: Hong Kong's Transformation Since the Handover. Lexington books. ISBN 0-7391-0492-6.
  13. ^ To, Martin (27 September 2000). "Satisfaction all round with move to defuse row". The Standard. 
  14. ^ David Kootnikoff, Thousands March for Democracy in Hong Kong, ohmynews, 5 December 2005
  15. ^ Anson Chan to attend 1 July democracy march, AsiaNews.it, 28 June 2006
  16. ^ Chan, Carrie (20 July 2006). "Anson in steps to democracy". The Standard. 
  17. ^ "Membership of Anson Chan’s Core Group Announced". Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  18. ^ Chan, Anson (24 April 2013). "Press Conference to Launch ‘Hong Kong 2020’ Opening Statement". Hong Kong 2020. 
  19. ^ "陳方安生宣布參加立會補選". Retrieved 11 September 2007. 
  20. ^ "Anson Chan Will Run in Hong Kong Council Election". Bloomberg. 11 September 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007. 
  21. ^ Carrie Chan, Victor Cheung and Nickkita Lau, Probe call supported amid fears of smear, The Standard, 21 November 2007
  22. ^ "Election Result of the 2007 LegCo Hong Kong Island by-election". 
  23. ^ "Anson outspends Regina on campaign trail". Retrieved 5 February 2008. 
  24. ^ "Anson gives way to young candidates". Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  25. ^ "Hong Kong's top democracy lawmaker will not seek reelection". Retrieved 6 July 2008. 
  26. ^ Mok, Danny; Cheun, Gary (5 November 2013). "Death of Philip Fang Shun-sang, brother of Anson Chan Fang On-sang". 
  27. ^ Mitchell, Justin (23 March 2006). "Pang's sisters call for ICAC probe over evidence". The Standard. 
  28. ^ "Anson sorrow as husband dies". The Standard. 1 June 2010. 
  29. ^ "SOAS Honorary Fellows". SOAS. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Piers Jacobs
Secretary for Economic Services
1987–1993
Succeeded by
Gordon Siu
Preceded by
Edward Barrie Wiggham
Secretary for the Civil Service
1993
Succeeded by
Michael Sze
Preceded by
Herself
as Chief Secretary of Hong Kong
Chief Secretary for Administration
1997–2001
Succeeded by
Donald Tsang
Government offices
Unknown Director of Social Welfare
1984–1987
Succeeded by
Elizabeth Wong
Preceded by
Sir David Robert Ford
Chief Secretary of Hong Kong
1993–1997
Succeeded by
Herself
as Chief Secretary for Administration
Legislative Council of Hong Kong
Preceded by
Ma Lik
Member of Legislative Council
Representative for Hong Kong Island
2007–2008
Served alongside: Martin Lee, Yeung Sum, Choy So-yuk, Audrey Eu, Rita Fan
Succeeded by
Regina Ip
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Wong Po-yan
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal
Hong Kong order of precedence
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal
Succeeded by
Yang Ti-liang
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal