Answers in Genesis
|Type||Creationist apologetics ministry|
|Purpose||Young Earth creationism, Creationist apologetics,
|Headquarters||Petersburg, Kentucky, USA|
|Revenue||$19,411,429 USD (2012)|
Answers in Genesis (AiG) is a non-profit, fundamentalist, creationist apologetics ministry with a particular focus on supporting young Earth creationism (YEC), rejecting the scientific consensus on the reality of common descent and on the age of the Earth. It also advocates a literal interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative and claims the correct understanding of natural phenomena reveals its interpretation of Genesis to be scientifically accurate. The organization has offices in the United Kingdom and the United States. It had offices in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, but in 2006 these seceded to form Creation Ministries International (CMI).
- 1 History
- 2 Views on science
- 3 Morality and social issues
- 4 Creation Museum
- 5 Ark Encounter
- 6 Criticism
- 7 Controversies
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Answers in Genesis resulted from the merging of two Australian creationist organizations in 1980. One was founded in the late 1970s by John Mackay, Ken Ham, and others as Creation Science Educational Media Services. Its founders believed that the established Christian church's teaching of the Bible was being compromised. The group merged with Carl Wieland's Creation Science Association in 1980, becoming the Creation Science Foundation (CSF) that later became Answers in Genesis.
In 1987, Ken Ham was seconded by CSF to work for the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) in the United States, then in 1994 left ICR to found Answers In Genesis-USA. Later that year, CSF in Australia and other countries changed their names to Answers In Genesis so that all the sister organizations would share the same identity. The branches of AiG remained legally separate, since they were incorporated in different countries. However, they were still very closely related. For example, Ham served on the board of AiG Australia, while several members of AiG Australia's board served on the AiG USA board.
Due to a "miscommunication, understanding regarding document submittals back in August of 2002," according to then-CFO Bill Wise, Answers in Genesis-USA did not meet all of the Better Business Bureau's accountability standards for 2003. Answers in Genesis-USA has now been listed as meeting each of the Better Business Bureau's 20 standards for charitable accountability.
Following turmoil in 2005, the AiG network split in 2006. The US and UK branches retained the AiG name and control of the AiG website under Ham's leadership. The Australian, Canadian, New Zealand, and South African branches rebranded themselves as Creation Ministries International, under the leadership of former AiG CEO Carl Wieland. After some of AiG's comments in late 2006, Answers in Genesis became involved in a legal dispute with CMI. CMI has accused AiG-USA of damaging and publicly defaming their ministry. In 2007, CMI filed suit against AiG-USA alleging a variety of wrongdoings.
CMI opened offices in the UK and US during 2006, initially as a distribution point for their periodicals, Creation magazine and the Journal of Creation. In June 2006, Answers in Genesis launched Answers as a replacement to CMI's Creation magazine. AiG-USA and AiG-UK no longer distribute Creation or the Journal of Creation in the United States or the United Kingdom. Answers in Genesis started an on-line journal, Answers Research Journal, in 2008 which was widely criticized in the media and in scientific circles. Also in 2006, the National Religious Broadcasters awarded Answers in Genesis their Best Ministry Website award.
In May 2007, AiG launched the Creation Museum in the United States, a 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) museum designed to promote a young Earth creationist perspective, and criticism of Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory. The museum received criticism from groups like National Center for Science Education and petitions of protest from the mainstream scientific community.
In December 2010, AiG announced plans to build a full-scale version of Noah's Ark as part of the Ark Encounter "themed attraction" in Northern Kentucky. The Ark Encounter will be built and managed by a for-profit corporation called Ark Encounter, LLC, at a total cost of $150 million. Currently, the attraction is set to open in the spring of 2016.
Financing and fundraising has been an important part of the ministry. Its US revenue in 2005 was nearly $13.7M. According to Charity Navigator, in FYE 2006, Answers in Genesis had $13,675,653 in total revenue and $12,257,713 in expenses. In 2006, Answers in Genesis was also listed by Ministry Watch, an independent organization which reviews Christian ministries for transparency and financial accountability among other things, as one of their Shining Lights "top thirty" exemplary ministries.
AiG employs a staff of Christian evangelicals, two of whom have doctorates from secular universities, including AiG's science director Georgia Purdom in genetics (Ohio State University, 2000), and David Menton in biology (Brown University, 1966). AiG previously employed Jason Lisle, who earned a Ph.D. in astrophysics. Lisle left AiG in 2012 to become the new Director of Research for the ICR.
Views on science
|Part of a series on|
Answers in Genesis rejects modern scientific consensus on archeology, cosmology, geology, linguistics, paleontology and evolutionary biology in favor of a worldview which sees the universe, the Earth and life originating about 6,000 years ago. AiG claims their views of origins, based on a literal interpretation of the Bible, define what should be considered good science. They also contend that the creation story is foundational to all Christian doctrine, and it is impossible to defend any other doctrine without believing the creation story is literal history.
They consider it positive that the intelligent design movement has produced resources supporting the biblical creationist viewpoint, but are critical of intelligent design for failing to mention the Christian God and the age of the Earth. They are also critical of old Earth creationists, saying that those who interpret the days in the creation story as years or ages are "undermining the very Word of God itself."
The scientific community considers young Earth creationism to be pseudoscience which "shares none of the essential characteristics of scientific theorizing." Consequently, scientific and scholarly organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., Paleontological Society, Geological Society of America, Australian Academy of Science, and the Royal Society of Canada have issued statements against the teaching of young Earth creationism.
The Bible—the "history book of the universe"—provides a reliable, eye-witness account of the beginning of all things, and can be trusted to tell the truth in all areas it touches on. Therefore, we are able to use it to help us make sense of this present world. When properly understood, the "evidence" confirms the biblical account.
Since their methodology rejects naturalistic scientific explanations of the origin of the universe in favor of the supernatural, creation science is considered to be a religion by the National Academy of Sciences.
Cosmological views and the distant starlight problem
Answers in Genesis believes that all stars and planetary bodies, including the Earth, were created around 6,000 years ago. They reject most of the mainstream scientific thinking behind dominant theories of physical cosmology.
A young universe is challenged by the distant starlight problem, which presents the dilemma of how light from objects millions or billions of light years away could be observed in a young universe. Some creationists have attempted to answer this with explanations involving God creating light en route, or by claiming that the speed of light was faster in the past, an argument also referred to as c-decay. Answers in Genesis rejects both of these proposed solutions and tentatively prefers a model proposed by creationist physicist Russell Humphreys called "White Hole Cosmology." This creationist cosmology requires that the Milky Way lie near the center of the universe, a suggestion which AiG believes is supported by claims of quantized redshifts.[unreliable source?] Creationists Hugh Ross and Samuel R. Conner have rejected Humphreys' model on scientific grounds.
The idea of the Milky Way existing near the center of the universe is similar to modern geocentrism, but AiG has intentionally distanced themselves from claims that the planet Earth is the exact center of the universe. AiG believes that the creationists' distant starlight problem is similar to the historically significant "horizon problem" of the Big Bang theory. While the general consensus of cosmologists is that the horizon problem is solved by inflationary theory as a model for the universe, there is no creationist consensus on the solution to the distant starlight problem.
Origin of life and evolution
Answers in Genesis’ position on the separation of evolution from abiogenesis is that the two processes must be "differentiated in technical resources" but that they are "connected in philosophical assumptions and are not entirely separate as some evolutionists claim." In science, abiogenesis is an independent hypothesis from evolutionary theory, which takes it as axiomatic that self-replicating life existed in the distant past, whatever its origin. Answers in Genesis include in their critique of evolution the claim that a naturalistic origin of life is virtually impossible, where life is defined as the first cell. They refer to the idea of spontaneous generation of cells being all but abandoned after Louis Pasteur's work, and conflate it with abiogenesis. They calculate the probability of a cell spontaneously coming into existence as less than 1 in 101057800, similar to estimates of some other creationists, such as Michael Denton, and believe this requires a better explanation than what they call "mere chance." As is common, they cite a calculation by astrophysicist Fred Hoyle. Critics assert these calculations and claims are based on a number of errors, calculating on the basis of "mere chance" which is not part of the relevant theory, misunderstanding what probability calculations mean, underestimating the possibilities and inevitably failing to produce a meaningful calculation.
Answers in Genesis believe that evolution by natural selection or genetic drift can only cause variability by reducing the genetic information or shifting existing information around. Answers in Genesis has written a number of articles about natural selection. They state that "It cannot be stressed enough that what natural selection actually does is get rid of information," citing an example of natural selection removing genes for short fur in cold climates. Biologists hold that mechanisms such as gene duplication and polyploidy provide new information and that duplicate genes can mutate rapidly, which may change their function. Answers in Genesis denies that copying genes provides new, usable information, arguing that such duplicated genetic information is merely an additional copy of the original information.
Novel adaptations corresponding to what Answers in Genesis creationists would claim necessarily require an "increase in information" appearing in an organism's genome have been described by scientists, one example being nylon-eating bacteria that evolved a new enzyme to digest nylon, a polymer that wasn't invented until 1935. Scientists repeated these results in the laboratory when they forced a strain of Pseudomonas to evolve nylon-digesting enzymes by leaving them in an environment which contained no nutrients other than the man-made by-products of nylon.
AiG believes evolutionary theory "will inevitably lead to a magnification of the effects of sin," such as is the cause of social problems including abortion and racism. Ham argues that those who believe in evolution believe that man is "accountable to no-one," and therefore evolution has directly contributed to the loss of society's Christian foundation. Since the 1980s, he has given presentations that depict evolution and creation as two castles—a presentation that he has since refined to depict evolution as "autonomous human reasoning" and creation as "Revelation—God's Word."
The organization has accused Hollywood of using subtle tactics to slip in "evolutionary content." Movies and television programs they have criticized for doing this include Noah (2014), The Munsters, Ice Age (2002), Lilo & Stitch (2002), Bugs Bunny cartoons, Fantasia (1940), and Finding Nemo (2003).
Answers in Genesis does not support laws or school board standards that would force the teaching of creationism in public schools. It is their position that forcing a teacher to present the idea of creation will only result in it being distorted by those who don't believe in it. Instead of trying to change how evolution is taught in the public schools in what former Answers in Genesis CEO Carl Wieland calls "top-down attempts" by "battering away at the education system, or the politicians, or the media," he would prefer to see influence driven by the "changing the hearts and minds of people within ‘God’s army’, the Church." AiG is opposed to what they consider censorship of educators who want to teach evidence they consider contradictory to the theory of evolution or why there is controversy regarding this subject. They also want Christian colleges to expand the teaching of creationism.
Abortion, stem cell research, euthanasia and death penalty
Answers in Genesis describes themselves as "pro-life," being strongly opposed to the legalization of abortion because they regard individual life as beginning at fertilization. Thus they argue that the circumstances of the fertilization are irrelevant to its status as a human life which should be protected, so oppose abortion for rape and any other case. They are also strongly opposed to euthanasia, and embryonic stem cell research, but support somatic/adult stem cell research which does not require the destruction of fetuses. AiG supports the death penalty.
In claiming that homosexuality is a sin, Answers in Genesis has cited writings by the Apostle Paul in Romans 1:26-27 and 1 Corinthians 6:9 as well as the Old Testament Law given to Israel which called for the punishment by death for those who commit homosexual acts in Leviticus 20:13. Answers in Genesis believes that the punishments described in the Old Testament, such as Leviticus 20:13, were only valid under Old Testament law and served at that time to demonstrate what a serious departure these sins were from God's design. AiG "reject the implication that we are proposing any sort of ill-treatment of anyone, or rejection of the sinner, as opposed to the sin."
Evolution and race
AiG states that belief in evolutionary theory contributed to eugenics and racial theories which supported the policies of Nazi Germany in its prosecution of The Holocaust. AiG also claim Joseph Stalin's reading of Darwin influenced his brutal leadership of the Soviet Union. However, according to Robert Conquest, there is a consensus among historians that the later Soviet claim that Stalin read On the Origin of Species (1859) is not true as the story fails on "several obvious" accounts.
In dealing with Christendom's own violent history, Jonathan Sarfati asserts that anyone using the Bible to justify the "occasional atrocities committed by professing Christians" (such as those committed during the Crusades, the colonization of the New World, pogroms and the Inquisition, the burning and hanging of witches, and the Wars of Religion) are "completely contrary to the teachings of Christ, while the atrocities of 20th century Nazis and Communists were totally consistent with evolutionary teaching."
AiG's Creation Museum is a controversial museum displaying a young Earth and has received much criticism from the scientific and religious communities. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Answers in Genesis in the United States started planning and constructing a Creation Museum in Petersburg, Kentucky, near the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport. According to Ham, "One of the main reasons we moved there was because we are within one hour's flight of 69 per cent of America's population."
Amongst its various displays and exhibits, the museum includes life-size animatronic (animated and motion-sensitive) dinosaurs, large movie screens showing a young-Earth history of the world, and a planetarium depicting creationist cosmologies and creationist interpretations of quantum physics. Model dinosaurs in the Garden of Eden are also depicted, as well as dioramas depicting humans and dinosaurs co-existing peacefully. A. A. Gill reported on his visit, "This place doesn't just take on evolution—it squares off with geology, anthropology, paleontology, history, chemistry, astronomy, zoology, biology, and good taste. It directly and boldly contradicts most -onomies and all -ologies, including most theology."
The Museum opened May 27, 2007, at a cost of $27 million raised entirely by private donations. The museum displays were created by Patrick Marsh, known for work on Universal Studios Florida attractions for King Kong and Jaws.
In 2012, it was reported that the "public fascination" with the Creation Museum was "fading." In November 2012, the AiG reported that attendance for the year ended June 30 came to 254,074, which was a 10 percent drop from the previous year and is the museum's "fourth straight year of declining attendance and its lowest annual attendance yet."
In December 2010, Answers in Genesis announced a project to build an 'Ark Encounter' theme park around a full-scale interpretation of Noah's Ark, at a proposed site in Grant County, Kentucky. Steve Beshear, the governor of Kentucky, stated that he was in favour of tax incentives for the project, and investors submitted an application for sales tax reimbursements under the state's new tourism development initiative.
Beshear's announcement of potential incentives for the park cited a feasibility study predicting 1.6 million visitors in the first year. However, it was later revealed that neither Beshear, nor state officials, had seen the Ark Encounter, LLC-commissioned study. Following policy, the Tourism Development and Finance Authority commissioned its own study that was paid for by Ark Encounter, LLC. Consultant Rob Hunden, of Hunden Strategic Partners, said the project is expected to draw nearly 1.4 million visitors a year, and may require the state to widen the Interstate 75 interchange at Williamstown, Kentucky, at an additional cost to the state of about $11 million.
In May 2011, the Kentucky Tourism Development Finance Authority voted unanimously to grant sales tax rebates of up to 25 percent of project capital costs over a 10-year period up to $43.1 million for the $172 million project that's otherwise being financed by a group of private investors. Ark Encounter will not receive any money up front, but will get a rebate of the sales tax collected after the first year and every year after that for ten years. Groundbreaking for the $172 million Ark Encounter project is expected in August 2011, at the Grant County site because of approval for tax rebates.
Organizations concerned with the separation of church and state are divided on the question of subsidies for the project. The Americans United for Separation of Church and State state that "The government should not be giving tax incentives for religious projects. Religion should be supported by voluntary donations, not the government." The American Civil Liberties Union state "Courts have found that giving such tax exemptions on a nondiscriminatory basis does not violate the establishment clause, even when the tax exemption goes to a religious purpose."
In an editorial in late December 2010, The Courier-Journal questioned the potential cost to the state government of the project, including highway upgrades and the likelihood that increases to hospitality industry infrastructure would seek further subsidies.
Groundbreaking was supposed to start in 2011, but in 2012 after two previous push backs, it was announced construction would start in 2014. AiG cited fundraising problems and declining interest in the Creation Museum as reasons for the delay.
On May 1, 2014, the Creation Museum hosted a special Ark Encounter event called the "Hammer and Peg Ceremony" in the Legacy Hall of the Creation Museum. The private ceremony celebrated the launching of the ark project. Attendees included several leaders of the ark project along with state and local officials. Funding is in place for the Ark Encounter construction to begin. Funding for the project was spurred on by the Bill Nye–Ken Ham debate. The Troyer Group, the construction management team, will begin the bidding process for different facets of the project.
The scientific community considers creation science to be pseudoscience which "shares none of the essential characteristics of scientific theorizing." Consequently, scientific and scholarly organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences, Paleontological Society, Geological Society of America, Australian Academy of Science, and the Royal Society of Canada have issued statements against the teaching of creationism. As a result, the National Center for Science Education, a science advocacy group, criticize AiG's promotion of non-science. In direct response to AiG, No Answers in Genesis is a website maintained by members of the Australian Skeptics and retired civil servant John Stear for the purpose of rebutting claims made by AiG. In June 2005, AiG-Australia staff accepted an invitation for an online debate with representatives from the Australian Skeptics in Margo Kingston's section of the Sydney Morning Herald. Also the website talk.origins includes scientific responses to claims made by AiG's authors.
The Courier-Journal reported, "Cincinnati Zoo and the Creation Museum launched a joint promotional deal last week to draw attention to their holiday attractions." But following an outcry of criticism, the zoo ended the relationship after two days.
Ham's beliefs and tactics have also been criticized by other creationists. Answers in Creation, an old Earth creationist website, has called Ham willfully ignorant of evidence for an old Earth and said he "deliberately misleads" his audiences on matters of both science and theology. Astronomer Hugh Ross's organization Reasons To Believe, a progressive creationist organization, is a critic of Answers in Genesis. Ross has publicly debated Ham on the age of the Earth and the compatibility of an old Earth with the Bible, as well as other AiG staff. Young Earth creationist Kent Hovind criticized AiG after the group called his claims "fraudulent."
The BioLogos Foundation, which promotes the compatibility of science and religion, as well as evolutionary creationism, has stated that the views of Answers in Genesis have "force[d] many thoughtful Christians to lose their faith," while The Biologos Foundation "protect[s the Christian] faith."
Richard Dawkins interview
In 1998, Answers in Genesis filmed an interview with Richard Dawkins, a prominent evolutionary biologist at Oxford University. Segments of the interview were included in From a Frog to a Prince (2000), a video distributed by Answers in Genesis, and posted on their web page. AiG asserts the video shows Dawkins nonplussed and pausing for 11 seconds when asked by the interviewer to "name one example of an evolutionary process which increases the information content of the genome." The video then shows Dawkins apparently giving a long, convoluted answer that fails to answer the question.
This is discussed in the essay, "The 'Information Challenge,'" published in A Devil's Chaplain (2003), a collection of selected essays by Dawkins, as follows:
In September 1997, I allowed an Australian film crew into my house in Oxford without realising that their purpose was creationist propaganda. In the course of a suspiciously amateurish interview, they issued a truculent challenge to me to "give an example of a genetic mutation or an evolutionary process which can be seen to increase the information in the genome." It is the kind of question only a creationist would ask in that way, and it was at this point I tumbled to the fact that I had been duped into granting an interview to creationists — a thing I normally don't do, for good reasons. In my anger I refused to discuss the question further, and told them to stop the camera. However, I eventually withdrew my peremptory termination of the interview as a whole. This was solely because they pleaded with me that they had come all the way from Australia specifically in order to interview me. Even if this was a considerable exaggeration, it seemed, on reflection, ungenerous to tear up the legal release form and throw them out. I therefore relented.
My generosity was rewarded in a fashion that anyone familiar with fundamentalist tactics might have predicted. When I eventually saw the film a year later, I found that it had been edited to give the false impression that I was incapable of answering the question about information content. In fairness, this may not have been quite as intentionally deceitful as it sounds. You have to understand that these people really believe that their question cannot be answered!...
The Australian Skeptics claim the film was carefully edited to give the false appearance that Dawkins was unable to adequately answer the question and that the segment that shows him pausing for 11 seconds was actually film of him considering whether to expel the interviewer from the room (for not revealing her creationist sympathies at the outset). Dawkins reported to the Australian Skeptics that the interviewer shown in the finished film was not the same person as the person who had originally asked the questions. Dawkins and Barry Williams also said that the question had been subsequently changed to make it look like Dawkins, who was answering the original question put to him, was unable to answer.
Gillian Brown, AiG producer of the segment, responded in the 1998 Prayer News article: "Skeptics choke on Frog: was Dawkins caught on the hop?" Brown claimed Dawkins had been made aware of the interviewer's creationist sympathies. AiG also claim that the raw footage shows that Dawkins, after pausing for 11 seconds, asks that the recording company stop recording the video. On the AiG video, the question is asked by a person who was not present at the recording. According to Brown, this was not deceit, but "Because my question was off-camera and off-mike (though clearly audible on the tape), it could not be used in the finished production. That is why the presenter was recorded later, repeating my question as I had asked it."
Legal controversy with Creation Ministries International
On May 31, 2007, Creation Ministries International filed a lawsuit in Supreme Court of Queensland against Ken Ham and Answers in Genesis seeking damages and accusing him of "unbiblical/unethical/unlawful behaviour" in his dealings with the Australian organisation.
Prior to the split, the Australian group had been producing periodicals, Creation magazine and Journal of Creation, which were then distributed within other countries by local groups. The Australian group had no access to the list of subscribers in the US. AiG discontinued the distribution arrangement, and produced a new magazine of their own, called Answers, and represented that to subscribers as a replacement. Creation Ministries International is claiming $252,000 (US) in damages for lost revenue by misleading and deceptive conduct in relating to lost subscriptions. The case also concerns use of the trademark "Answers in Genesis" within Australia, and misuse by Ken Ham of his position as a director for the Australian group to cause them detriment.
In comments to news reporters, Ken Ham dismisses CMI's accusations as "totally preposterous and untrue." Creation Ministries has made a large collection of documents available detailing their side of the case. An editorial analysis of the situation, including reference to estranged co-founder John Mackay's allegations in 1986 of necrophilia and witchcraft against Ken Ham's personal secretary is offered in an account in the Reports of the National Center for Science Education.
In February 2009, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ordered Australian-based Creation Ministries International into arbitration with Answers in Genesis over copyrights and control of affiliates in other countries (Answers in Genesis had asked for arbitration).
In April 2009, the ministries reached a settlement and ended their dispute.
In the spring of 2009, Answers in Genesis posted a billboard in Texas with a young boy aiming a gun towards the camera with the words "If God doesn't matter to him, do you?" The same image was used in a TV ad. AiG's justification for using this form of advertisement is concern over the rise of dramatic school massacres in America and around the world, and specifically one in Finland where the killer posted a video mentioning putting "natural selection back on track," an appeal to social Darwinism (the rhetorical appeal to phrases such as "natural selection," "the struggle for existence" or "the survival of the fittest," in furtherance of a social ideology). AiG contends that this indicates that school massacres are in part created by the teaching of evolution in public schools.
Great Homeschool Conventions
In March 2011, the Board of Great Homeschool Conventions, Inc. (a young Earth Christian group) voted to "disinvite" Ken Ham and AiG from "all future conventions" due to Ham's words about other Christians making "unnecessary, ungodly, and mean-spirited statements that are divisive at best and defamatory at worst." In letter to Ham and AiG, the Board wrote, "We believe that what Ken has said and done is un-Christian and sinful." AiG responded: "It is sad that a speaker and ministry, which stand boldly and uncompromisingly on the authority of God’s Word, are eliminated from a homeschool convention."
- "How Should We Interpret Genesis". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. May 21, 2004. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
- Hill, Stephen (August 3, 2003). "August 3: I-Team Charity Fact Check". WCPO-TV (Cincinnati, OH: E. W. Scripps Company). Archived from the original on 2006-04-05. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
- "Better Business Bureau Report for Answers in Genesis, Inc.". Better Business Bureau. Arlington, VA: Better Business Bureau. April 2013. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Answers in Genesis in legal turmoil". Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education. June 21, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- McKenna, Michael (June 4, 2007). "Biblical battle of creation groups". The Australian (Surry Hills, Australia: News Corp Australia). Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "What we are". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- Ham, Ken. "The History of Answers in Genesis through August 2014". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "About Creation magazine". Creation Ministries International. Archived from the original on 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "The Journal of Creation (formerly TJ and previously Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal)". Creation Ministries International. Archived from the original on 2006-03-29. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Answers Research Journal". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- Randerson, James (January 27, 2008). "God's journal". The Guardian (Blog) (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- Goldstein, Bonnie (February 13, 2008). "Peer-Reviewing the Bible". Slate (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company). Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- Brumfiel, Geoff (January 23, 2008). "Creationists launch 'science' journal". Nature (London: Nature Publishing Group) 451: 382–383. doi:10.1038/451382b. ISSN 0028-0836. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "NRB 2006 Media Award Winners". NRB Convention & Exposition. Manassas, VA: National Religious Broadcasters. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "The Science of Darwin's Evolution" (Blog). Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. July 5, 2009. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Reactions to creation 'museum'". Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education. May 25, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- "Answers In Genesis of Kentucky 2005 Form 990 tax return" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
- "Charity Navigator Rating - Answers in Genesis". Charity Navigator. Glen Rock, NJ: Charity Navigator. Archived from the original on 2007-05-21. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
- "Answers in Genesis / AIG/ Ken Ham". Ministry Watch. Matthews, NC: Wall Watchers. October 31, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Dr. Georgia Purdom". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2005-12-30. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Dr David Menton". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- Menton, David Norman (1966). The Effect of Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency on the Skin of the Bua Mouse (Thesis (Ph.D.)). Providence, RI: Brown University. OCLC 23886577.
- "More about Dr. Menton". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Dr. Jason Lisle". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2012-02-06. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Introducing ICR's New Director of Research: Jason Lisle, Ph.D.". Acts & Facts (Dallas, TX: Institute for Creation Research) 41 (4): 18. April 2012. ISSN 1094-8562. Retrieved 2012-04-06.
- Whitcomb, John C. (June 2002). "Babel". Creation (Creation Ministries International) 24 (3): 31–33. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- "Study Your Science!". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. March 31, 2010. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- Lisle, Jason (April 1, 2005). "Can Creationists Be Scientists?". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- Ham, Ken (October 14, 2012). "Maturing the Message". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- Purdom, Georgia (July–September 2006). "The Intelligent Design Movement". Answers (Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis) 1 (1): 18–21. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- Carroll, Robert Todd. "creationism and creation science". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Robert Todd Carroll. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- "Statements from Scientific and Scholarly Organizations". Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- Sarfati, Jonathan (June 6, 2005). "Presuppositionalism vs evidentialism, and is the human genome simple?". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2005-11-22. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
- Sarfati, Jonathan (June 6, 2005). "Presuppositionalism vs evidentialism, and is the human genome simple?". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
- "About Answers in Genesis". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
- NAS 1999, p. R9
- Sarfati, Jonathan (December 1999). "The sun: our special star". Creation (Creation Ministries International) 22 (1): 27–31. Archived from the original on 2003-09-09. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
- "Astronomy". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
- Ham, Ken; Sarfati, Jonathan; Wieland, Carl (2000). Batten, Don, ed. "How can we see distant stars in a young universe?". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2008-02-15. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
- Lisle, Jason (December 13, 2007). "Does Distant Starlight Prove the Universe Is Old?". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
- Tyler, David (January 21, 1998). "Dr. Russ Humphreys' A Young-Earth Relativistic Cosmology" (Book review). Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
- Humphreys, Russell (August 2002). "Our galaxy is the centre of the universe, 'quantized' red shifts show". TJ (Creation Science Foundation) 16 (2): 95–104. ISSN 1036-2916. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- Ross, Hugh; Conner, Samuel R. (March 22, 1999). "Starlight and Time". Reasons To Believe. Glendora, CA: Reasons To Believe. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- DeYoung, Don (November 5, 1997). "Astronomy And The Bible". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- Newton, Robert (September 2003). "Light-Travel Time: A Problem for the Big Bang". Creation (Creation Ministries International) 25 (4): 48–49. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- "The Horizon Problem". Science for the Millennium. Champaign–Urbana, IL: National Center for Supercomputing Applications; The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. November 2, 1995. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- "Get Answers: Evolution". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2009-10-13. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- Theobald, Douglas L. (March 12, 2012). "29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: the Scientific Case for Common Descent". TalkOrigins Archive. Houston, TX: The TalkOrigins Foundation, Inc. Version 2.89. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- Batten, Don (March 1995). "Cheating with chance". Creation Ex Nihilo (Creation Ministries International) 17 (2): 14–15. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- Denton 1986, p. 323
- Musgrave, Ian (December 21, 1998). "Lies, Damned Lies, Statistics, and Probability of Abiogenesis Calculations". TalkOrigins Archive. Houston, TX: The TalkOrigins Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-10-04.
- "Created Kinds (Baraminology)". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-05.
- "Natural Selection". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-05.
- Wieland, Carl (June 2001). "Muddy Waters". Creation (Creation Ministries International) 23 (3): 26–29. Retrieved 2014-10-12.
- Weston, Paula; Wieland, Carl (September 1998). "Bears across the world …". Creation Ex Nihilo (Creation Ministries International) 20 (4): 28–31. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- Williams, Alexander (September 2003). "Copying confusion". Creation (Creation Ministries International) 25 (4): 15. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- Okada, Hirosuke; Negoro, Seiji; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shunichi (November 10, 1983). "Evolutionary adaptation of plasmid-encoded enzymes for degrading nylon oligomers". Nature (London: Nature Publishing Group) 306 (5939): 203–206. doi:10.1038/306203a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 6646204.
- Yomo, Tetsuya; Urabe, Itaru; Okada, Hirosuke (May 1992). "No stop codons in the antisense strands of the genes for nylon oligomer degradation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences) 89 (9): 3780–3784. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.9.3780. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 525574. PMID 1570296.
- Prijambada, Irfan D.; Negoro, Seiji; Yomo, Tetsuya; Urabe, Itaru (May 1995). "Emergence of nylon oligomer degradation enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO through experimental evolution". Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology) 61 (5): 2020–2022. LCCN 0099-2240. PMC 167468. PMID 7646041.
- Wieland, Carl (April 27, 2004). "Evolution and social evil". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- Wieland, Carl (March 2005). "Evolution and social evil". Creation (Creation Ministries International) 27 (2): 48. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- Ham, Ken (September 28, 2002). "Foundations". Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
- Kerby 2006, p. 13
- "Noah Movie Review: An Unbiblical Film" (Movie review). Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. March 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Kerby 2006
- Matthews, Michael (January 7, 2002). "Honest Science 'Left Behind' in U.S. Education Bill". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Wieland, Carl (1996). "Linking and feeding". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Ham, Ken (December 22, 2002). "Creation in Public Schools?!". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-07.; and Matthews 2002
- Wise, Kurt P. (January 31, 2006). "Creation crisis in Christian colleges". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2006-02-03. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "After-Birth Abortion". Answers (Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis) 7 (3): 9. July–September 2012. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "Sanctity of Life". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Looy, Mark (July 27, 2001). "The death penalty–WDJB, not WWJD!". Answers in Genesis Ministries International. Archived from the original on 2001-08-02. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Sarfati, Jonathan (February 6, 2004). "Response to 'gay marriage' article objections; CMI shows questioner that Christian faith is logical". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. Retrieved 2014-10-07. Reposted August 18, 2006.
- Mortenson, Terry (November 1, 2004). "But from the beginning of … the institution of marriage?". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2004-11-14. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "Racism". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Sarfati, Jonathan (December 1999). "The Holocaust and evolution". Creation Ex Nihilo (Editorial) (Creation Ministries International) 22 (1): 4. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "What happened when Stalin read Darwin?". Creation Ex Nihilo (Creation Ministries International) 10 (4): 23. September 1988. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Conquest 1991, p. 20
- Sarfati, Jonathan (October 3, 2005). "Reinforcing the Darwin–Hitler connection and correcting misinformation about slavery and racism". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. Retrieved 2014-10-07. Updated January 6–7, 2007.
- Jarman, Josh (May 25, 2007). "Creating a stir". The Columbus Dispatch (Columbus, OH: Dispatch Printing Company). Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Lovan, Dylan T. (May 19, 2007). "Educators question Creation Museum". The Augusta Chronicle (Augusta, GA). Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Sheehan, Paul (January 17, 2005). "Onward the new Christian soldier". The Sydney Morning Herald (Pyrmont, New South Wales: Fairfax Media). Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- Matthews, Michael (May 23, 2005). "If dinosaurs could talk …". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Gill, A. A. (February 2010). "Roll Over, Charles Darwin!". Vanity Fair (New York: Condé Nast). ISSN 0733-8899. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
- Rothstein, Edward (May 24, 2007). "Adam and Eve in the Land of the Dinosaurs". The New York Times (Museum review). Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- McNair, James (November 7, 2012). "Creation Museum Attendance Drops for Fourth Straight Year". Cincinnati CityBeat (Nashville, TN: SouthComm, Inc.). Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Blackford, Linda B. (December 18, 2010). "State never saw feasibility study for Noah's Ark theme park". Lexington Herald-Leader (Sacramento, CA: The McClatchy Company). Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Hansel, Mark (June 11, 2011). "Ark park could break ground in August". cincinnati.com (Tysons Corner, VA: Gannett Company). Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Alford, Roger (May 20, 2011). "Noah's Ark theme park gets go-ahead in Kentucky". The Herald-Dispatch (Huntington, WV). Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Alford, Roger (December 3, 2010). "Full-scale replica of Noah's Ark planned in Kentucky". USA Today (Tysons Corner, VA: Gannett Company). Associated Press. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "A costly modern Ark". The Courier-Journal (Editorial) (Tysons Corner, VA: Gannett Company). December 28, 2010. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Goodwin, Liz (July 5, 2012). "The Creation Museum evolves: Hoping to add a life-size ark project, the museum hits fundraising trouble". The Lookout (Blog) (Yahoo! News). Retrieved 2012-07-06.
- "Ark Encounter: Behind the Scenes—Pegs and Beams". Ark Encounter. Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. May 16, 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- Hannah, Jim (February 27, 2014). "Bill Nye debate spurs Noah's Ark park funding". cincinnati.com (Tysons Corner, VA: Gannett Company). Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "Contractors". Ark Encounter. Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Project Steve". Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education. October 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- Scott, Eugenie C. (January–February 1997). "Anti-evolutionists Form, Fund Think Tank". Reports of the National Center for Science Education (Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education) 17 (1): 25–26. ISSN 2158-818X. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- "Setting the Record Straight: A Response to Creationist Misinformation about the PBS Series Evolution" (PDF). Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education. 2001. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- "No Answers in Genesis!". No Answers in Genesis. Australian Skeptics Science and Education Foundation. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- "Australian Skeptics vs AiG–Australia". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. June 15, 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-06-20. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "Australian Skeptics vs CMI—Australia". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. June 15, 2005. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Uebergang, Phil (commentator) (June 13, 2005). "The origin of the species: opening statements in the debate". Webdiary (Pyrmont, New South Wales: Fairfax Media). Archived from the original on 2005-06-15. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- Hopkins, Michael (October 9, 2006). "Creation/Evolution Organizations: Creationist and Anti-Evolutionist Organizations: Answers in Genesis". TalkOrigins Archive. Houston, TX: The TalkOrigins Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Horn, Dan (December 2, 2008). "Creation Museum deal ends". The Courier-Journal (Tysons Corner, VA: Gannett Company). Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Neyman, Greg (September 12, 2005). "Ham Can't Tell the Simple Truth!". Answers in Creation. Springfield, OH: Old Earth Ministries. Archived from the original on 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Sarfati, Jonathan (November 21, 2000). "Hugh Ross lays down the gauntlet!". Answers in Genesis Ministries International. Archived from the original on 2001-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Sarfati, Jonathan (August 1999). "Exposé of The Genesis Question*". Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal (Book review) (Creation Ministries International) 13 (2): 22–30. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Moore, Greg (April 21, 2005). "Dinosaur Blood Revisited". Reasons To Believe. Glendora, CA: Reasons To Believe. Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Moore, Greg (August 23, 2007). "Old-Earth Creationism: A Heretical Belief?". Glendora, CA: Reasons To Believe. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
- McConaughy, Steven (June 6, 2006). "Fair and balanced?" (TV review). Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- "Jason Lisle vs. Hugh Ross Debate: Transcript" (Transcript). Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. April 14, 2005. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
- Wieland, Carl; Ham, Ken; Sarfati, Jonathan (December 16, 2002). "Maintaining Creationist Integrity". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2005-03-13. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
- Giberson, Karl (June 15, 2009). "Saving Faith". Washington, D.C.: The BioLogos Foundation. Retrieved 2014-05-03.
- Brown, Gillian (Producer) (2000) [Originally published 1998]. Biological Evidence of Creation: From a Frog to a Prince. Keziah Video Productions. ISBN 1-57341-085-3. OCLC 51883813.
- Wieland, Carl (April 12, 2005). "Rushing in—where wiser heads might not". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- Dawkins 2003, p. 91
- Williams, Barry (1998). "Creationist Deception Exposed" (PDF). The Skeptic (Sydney: Australian Skeptics) 18 (3): 7–10. ISSN 0726-9897. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
- "Skeptics choke on Frog: was Dawkins caught on the hop?". Prayer News (Acacia Ridge, Queensland, Australia: Answers in Genesis): 3. November 1998. OCLC 271675493. Archived from the original on 1999-10-12. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
- "Fellow Christians Aggrieved by Business Practices of Ken Ham and Answers in Genesis". Christian Faith and Reason Magazine (Spring Hill, TN: Guerrilla Enterprise Management, Inc.). May 27, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
- "Statement of Claim (4690/07 Supreme Court of Brisbane)" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2007-07-18. Photocopy supplied at the CMI website; official court file summary here.
- Mead, Andy; Farrar, Lu-Ann (June 17, 2007). "Museum group sued by fellow creationists". Lexington Herald-Leader (Sacramento, CA: The McClatchy Company). p. A1. Archived from the original on 2007-06-20. Retrieved 2014-10-07.
- "CMI-AIG: What's the dispute all about?". Creation Ministries International. July 10, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
- "Re: John Mackay". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. April 2006. Retrieved 2014-10-10. Revised May 2010.
- Lippard, Jim (November–December 2006). "Trouble in Paradise: Answers in Genesis Splinters". Reports of the National Center for Science Education (Berkeley, CA: National Center for Science Education) 26 (6): 4–7. ISSN 2158-818X. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- Lovan, Dylan T. (February 14, 2009). "Court: Creationists should settle outside court". Taiwan News (Taipei). Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- Answers in Genesis of Kentucky, Inc. v. Creation Ministries International, Ltd., 556 F.3d 459, 469 (6th Cir. February 13, 2009). Case number: 08-6014/6032.
- "dispute-settled". Creation.com. Creation Ministries International. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- Belle, Nicole (June 2, 2009). "Christianist Group's Billboard Compares Atheism To Murder". Crooks and Liars (Blog). Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- Bannister 1988, p. xii
- "'If You Don’t Matter to God, You Don’t Matter to Anyone'". Hebron, KY: Answers in Genesis. April 20, 2009. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- Blackford, Linda B. (March 24, 2011). "Founder of Creation Museum banned from convention". Lexington Herald-Leader (Sacramento, CA: The McClatchy Company). Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- "Kicked Out of Two Homeschool Conferences". Answers in Genesis. March 22, 2011. Retrieved 2014-10-10. Updated June 10, 2011.
- Bannister, Robert C. (1988) [Originally published 1979]. Davis, Allen F. (series), ed. Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought. American Civilization (Reissued with a new preface ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-155-3. LCCN 79000615. OCLC 508069255.
- Conquest, Robert (1991). Stalin: Breaker of Nations (1st American ed.). New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-84089-0. LCCN 91028782. OCLC 24213913.
- Dawkins, Richard (2003). A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-33540-4. LCCN 2003050859. OCLC 52269209.
- Denton, Michael (1986). Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1st U.S. ed.). Bethesda, MD: Adler & Adler. ISBN 0-917561-05-8. LCCN 85013556. OCLC 12214328.
- Kerby, Carl (2006). Remote Control: The Power of Hollywood on Today's Culture. Green Forest, AR: Master Books. ISBN 978-0-89051-491-7. LCCN 2006934885. OCLC 76904854.
- National Academy of Sciences (1999). Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. ISBN 0-309-06406-6. LCCN 99006259. OCLC 43803228. Retrieved 2014-10-02.