António Ramalho Eanes

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His Excellency
António Ramalho Eanes
GColTE GCL CavA KE
Ramalho Eanes (official).jpg
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg
16th President of Portugal
In office
14 July 1976 – 9 March 1986
Prime Minister José Pinheiro de Azevedo
Vasco Almeida e Costa (acting)
Mário Soares
Alfredo Nobre da Costa
Carlos Mota Pinto
Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Diogo Freitas do Amaral (acting)
Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Mário Soares
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Preceded by Francisco da Costa Gomes
Succeeded by Mário Soares
Personal details
Born (1935-01-25) 25 January 1935 (age 79)
Louriçal do Campo, Castelo Branco, Portugal
Political party Independent
Other political
affiliations
Democratic Renewal Party (1985–1987?)
Spouse(s) Manuela Eanes
Children Manuel António
Miguel
Alma mater Portuguese Military Academy
Profession Army officer
Religion Roman Catholic
Military service
Service/branch Portuguese Army
Years of service 1952–1986
Rank General
Battles/wars Colonial War

António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes, GColTE, GCL, CavA, KE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ʁɐˈmaʎu iˈɐnɨʃ]; born 25 January 1935) is a Portuguese general and politician who was the 16th President of Portugal from 1976 to 1986.

Background[edit]

Born at Castelo Branco, Alcains, he is the son of António dos Santos Eanes, a general contractor, and wife Maria do Rosário Ramalho.

Career[edit]

After a long military career in the Portuguese Colonial Wars, he was stationed in Portuguese Angola when the 25 April revolution of 1974 took place. He joined the Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA or Armed Forces Movement) and after returning to Portugal, he was made president of RTP (Portuguese public television). He ordered the military operations against the pro-communist radical faction of the MFA on 25 November 1975, an event known as the 25 de Novembro, ending that year's "hot summer" (Verão quente).

António Ramalho Eanes (left), while president, departs after a state visit to the United States. Secretary of State George Shultz is on the right. (USAF)

In 1976 he was elected President of Portugal. At the end of 1980 he was re-elected, serving until February 1986. After his presidency, he headed the Democratic Renewal Party (Portuguese: Partido Renovador Democrático), resigning in 1987.

He is also a Member of the Portuguese Council of State, as a former elected President of Portugal.

He rejected any suggestion of becoming a Marshal, considering the title unnecessary.

Decorations[edit]

He was awarded with the Grand Collar of the Order of the Tower and Sword, the Grand Cross of the Order of Liberty, Knight of the Order of Aviz, and Knight of the Order of the Elephant of Denmark.

In 1985 he was given the honorary British award of Royal Victorian Chain.

Family[edit]

He married at the Palace of Queluz on 28 October 1970 to Maria Manuela Duarte Neto de Portugal Ramalho Eanes (b. 29 December 1938), who was one of Portugal's most politically active first ladies, making speeches at Democratic Renewal Party rallies while her husband was president. They had two sons, Manuel António (b. 5 May 1972) and Miguel (b. 1977).

Electoral results[edit]

1976 Portuguese presidential election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 27 June 1976 Portuguese presidential election results
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
António Ramalho Eanes Independent 2,967,137 61.59
Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho Independent 692,147 14.37
José Pinheiro de Azevedo Independent 593,021 14.07
Octávio Rodrigues Pato Portuguese Communist Party 365,586 7.59
Total valid 4,817,630 100.00
Blank ballots 43,242 0.89
Invalid ballots 20,253 0.41
Total (turnout 75.47%) 4,881,125
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

1980 Portuguese presidential election[edit]

e • d Summary of the 7 December 1980 Portuguese presidential election results
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
António Ramalho Eanes Independent 3,262,520 56.44
António Soares Carneiro Democratic Alliance 2,325,481 40.23
Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho Independent 85,896 1.49
Carlos Galvão de Melo Independent 48,468 0.84
António Pires Veloso Independent 45,132 0.78
António Aires Rodrigues Workers Party of Socialist Unity 12,745 0.22
Carlos Brito[A] Portuguese Communist Party left the race
Total valid 5,780,242 100.00
Blank ballots 44,014 0.75
Invalid ballots 16,076 0.28
Total (turnout 84.39%) 5,840,332
A He left the race in favor of Ramalho Eanes.
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Costa Gomes
President of Portugal
1976–1986
Succeeded by
Mário Soares