Antaisaka warriors, c. 1931
|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Malagasy groups, Austronesian peoples|
The Antaisaka, also known as Antesaka, Tesaka, or Tesaki, are an ethnic group of Madagascar traditionally concentrated south of Farafangana along the south-eastern coast. They have since spread more widely throughout the island. The Antaisaka form about 5% of the population of Madagascar. They have mixed African, Arab and Malayo-Indonesian ancestry, like the western coastal Sakalava people of Madagascar from whom the clan derives. They traditionally have strong marriage taboos and complex funeral rites. The Antaisaka typically cultivate coffee, bananas and rice, and those along the coast engage in fishing. A large portion of the population has emigrated to other parts of the island for work, with an estimated 40% of emigrants between 1948 and 1958 permanently settling outside the Antaisaka homeland.
The group was founded by Andriamandresy, a Sakalava prince who was cast out of Menabe after engaging in violence upon being passed over in the line of succession. The Antaisaka constituted one of the four largest kingdoms in pre-colonial Madagascar by the early 1700s, and a political party founded by two Antaisaka brothers in the runup to independence n 1960 went on to produce several local and national leaders. As of 2013, an estimated 600,000 Malagasy identify as Antaisaka.
Many Antaisaka kings descended from the Zarabehava lineage, a royal Sakalava line that crossed to the east coast between 1620 and 1650. The ancestors of the Antaisaka migrated from the Menabe Sakalava kingdom and arrived at Nosipandra (today called Vangaindrano) by the 1650s. According to oral history, the founder of the Antaisaka clan was named Andraimandresy. He was born Repila in the village of Tsiarepioky, near Mahabo; he later changed his name to Ihazorango, and finally adopted the name Andriamandresiarivo in anticipation of being named king. When his arrogance and stubbornness led the people to support his younger brother's succession instead, Andriamandresy angrily departed and attempted to seize his uncle's rice field by force, mortally wounding him in the process. Outraged, Andriamandresy's mother exiled him from the territory, and Andraimandresy departed toward the east accompanied by warriors and slaves.
By the start of the 17th century, the Antaisaka had formed one of the four largest kingdoms on Madagascar. Succession was often contested and a source of internal conflict. According to oral history, a king called Ratongalaza had to kill or exile all his brothers to secure the throne. The last and most important king of the 18th century, Lengoabo, was Ratongalaza's grandson and succeeded in extending the Antaisaka territory to its largest extent. In the 19th century, the Antaisaka kingdom was invaded by the Merina armies of the Kingdom of Imerina in the central highlands. In the Merina military conquests between 1820 and 1853, captured Antaisaka men were typically killed, but women and children were often taken as slaves back to Imerina. Over a million slaves were captured during this time, with the majority from the Antaisaka, Antaifasy, Antanosy and Betsileo ethnic groups.
France colonized Madagascar in 1895, and the Merina monarchy was disbanded in 1897. When several southern ethnic groups mounted the unsuccessful insurrection du sud rebellion against French colonial administration in 1904–05, the Antaisaka refused to become involved.
In the run up to independence from France, two Antaifasy brothers founded l'Union Démocratique et Sociale (1957), one of the most successful cross-island political parties. Their representatives took the top position in the Provincial Councils of Tuléar and Fianarantsoa. One of the party's founders, Norbert Zafimahova, was twice elected as president of the Territorial Assembly, delegated to represent Madagascar's interests in the French Senate in 1958.
Family life and marriage in particular is regulated by numerous fady (taboos). Twins are seen as taboo, and were traditionally killed after birth or left in the forest to die. Although this practice has been outlawed, it persists among some traditional communities, and twins are not permitted to be buried alongside their family members.
In villages they inhabit rectangular one-room houses made of local plant material. Located on the eastern side of the house, this extra door is only used to remove a corpse from the living quarters. Traditional burial customs involve drying a corpse for two to three years before moving it to a communal burial house called a kibory, which is hidden in a sacred forest restricted to men, termed the ala fady. Before the dried corpse is moved to the kibory, the village practices a ritual called tranondonaky. The dried corpse is moved to a separate house accompanied by the women of the village, who cry together on cue, and then begin to dance. The men gather in the house of the village leader and take turns individually going to the corpse house to affix money to the deceased using a specified type of oil. Until morning, when the corpse is moved to the kibory, the village children will dance to drum music outside. The men transport the body to the sacred forest, where they privately speak their last words to the deceased.
Their principal economic activity is the cultivation of coffee, rice and bananas; women are ones primarily responsible for rice harvest, in accordance with local tradition. Those living along the coast often rely on fishing as a principal source of income. Many Antaisaka have migrated since the colonial period to seek employment in other parts of the island. Beginning in 1946, the French colonial government organized transportation for Antaisaka and Antandroy laborers to work sites in other parts of the island to work on plantations or mines. Annually, an estimated 40% of all Antaisaka migrants resettled permanently outside their traditional territory in the early 1960s; these migrants typically sent cash back to their family members at home.
- Diagram Group 2013.
- Ogot 1999, p. 422.
- Ogot 1999, p. 434.
- Ravalitera, Pela (8 December 2011). "Andriamandresy ou l'ancêtre de la dynastie antesaka". L'Express de Madagascar. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Yakan 1999, p. 72.
- Ogot 1999, p. 435.
- Campbell 2012, p. 815.
- Campbell 2013.
- Finch 2013, p. 223.
- Thompson & Adloff 1965, p. 258.
- Bradt & Austin 2007, p. 23.
- Bradt & Austin 2007, p. 14.
- Campbell 2005, p. 30.
- Thompson & Adloff 1965, p. 448.
- Bradt, Hilary; Austin, Daniel (2007). Madagascar (9th ed.). Guilford, CT: The Globe Pequot Press Inc. ISBN 1-84162-197-8.
- Campbell, Gwyn (2013). Abolition and Its Aftermath in the Indian Ocean, Africa and Asia. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-77078-5.
- Campbell, Gwyn (2012). David Griffiths and the Missionary "History of Madagascar". Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-19518-9.
- Campbell, Gwyn (2005). An Economic History of Imperial Madagascar, 1750–1895: The Rise and Fall of an Island Empire. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83935-8.
- Diagram Group (2013). Encyclopedia of African Peoples. San Francisco, CA: Routledge. ISBN 9781135963415.
- Finch, Michael (2013). A Progressive Occupation?: The Gallieni-Lyautey Method and Colonial Pacification in Tonkin and Madagascar, 1885–1900. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-967457-2.
- Ogot, Bethwell (1999). Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Paris: UNESCO. ISBN 978-0-85255-095-3.
- Thompson, Virginia; Adloff, Richard (1965). The Malagasy Republic: Madagascar Today. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0279-9.
- Yakan, Muhammad (1999). Almanac of African Peoples and Nations. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-1677-9.