Antarah ibn Shaddad
|Born||Al Jiwa, Saudi Arabia|
|Region||Al Jiwa, Saudi Arabia, Arab world, Muslim world|
|Main interests||Jahili poetry|
'Antarah Ibn Shaddād al-'Absī عنترة بن شداد العبسي was a pre-Islamic Arab hero and poet (525-608) famous for both his poetry and his adventurous life. What many consider his best or chief poem is contained in the Mu'allaqat. The account of his life forms the basis of a long and extravagant romance.
Antara Ibn Shaddad عنترة إبن شداد (commonly known as Antar) was a pre-Islamic poet born in Najd (Northern Saudi Arabia today). He was the son of Shaddād, a well-respected member of the Arabian tribe of Banu Abs, his mother was named Zabibah, an Ethiopian woman,"حبشية " whom Shaddad had enslaved after a tribal war. The tribe neglected Antara at first, and he grew up in servitude. Although it was fairly obvious that Shaddad was his father. He was considered one of the "Arab crows" (Al-aghribah Al-'Arab) because of his jet black complexion. Antara gained attention and respect for himself by his remarkable personal qualities and courage in battle, excelling as an accomplished poet and a mighty warrior. He earned his freedom after one tribe invaded Banu Abs, so his father said to Him: "Antara fight with the warriors". Then he looked at his father in resentment and said: "The slave doesn't know how to invade or how to defend, but the slave is only good for milking goats and serving his masters". Then his father uttered the famous words: "كر يا عنتر فأنت حر Defend your tribe O Antar and you are free", then Antarah fought and expelled the invading tribes. The way Antarah responded to his father in Arabian culture does not mean that he was afraid of fighting, rather that when Antarah's father did not acknowledge him for all those years, Antarah was aiming to get his freedom and to be acknowledged by his society, and he earned that.
Antarah fell in love with his cousin عبلة Abla, and sought to marry her despite his status as a slave. To secure allowance to marry, Antarah had to face challenges including getting a special kind of camel from the northern Arabian kingdom of al-No'man Ibn al-Munthir Ibn Ma' al-Sama'.
Antarah took part in the great war between the related tribes of Abs and Dhubyān, which began over a contest of horses and was named after them the war of Dāhis and Ghabrā. He died in a fight against the tribe of Tai.
Antarah's poetry is well preserved, and often talks of chivalrous values, courage and heroism in battle, as well as his love for Abla. It was immortalized when one of his poems was included in the Hanged Poems. The poetry's historical and cultural importance stems from its detailed descriptions of battles, armour, weapons, horses, desert and other themes from his time.
The Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov wrote his Symphony No. 2 based on the legend of Antar. The story of Antar and Abla was embroidered into a poetic saga still recited by traditional story-tellers in Arab coffee houses. "Antar" is the title of the first Palestinian opera, composed by the Palestinian musician Mustapha al-Kurd in 1988.
One of the seven clans (tribes) of Bethlehem is called the Anatreh, named after Antarah, and in past centuries acted as guardians of the church of the nativity.
In 1898 the French painter Étienne Dinet published his translation of a 13th-century epic Arab poem Antar which brought Antar bin Shaddad to European notice. It has been followed by a number of derivative works such as Diana Richmond's Antar and Abla which furthered western exposure to the Antar bin Shaddad legends.
Lebanese painter Rafic Charaf developed from the 1960s a series of paintings depicting the epics of Antar and Abla. These works that show interest on popular the region are considered as a keystone in the artist's oeuvre.
- Arabic literature
- Arabic romance literature
- Banu Abs
- Thornycroft Antar - British pipeline tractor named after his strength and endurance
Antara's poems are published in Wilhelm Ahlwardt's The Divans of the six ancient Arabic poets (London, 1870); they have also been published separately at Beirût (1888). As regards their genuineness, cf. W. Ahlwardt's Bemerkungen über die Aechtheit der alten arabischen Gedichte (Greifswald, 1872), pp. 50ff. The Romance of 'Antar (Sîrat 'Antar ibn Shaddâd) is a work which was long handed down by oral tradition only, has grown to immense proportions and has been published in 32 vols. at Cairo, 1307 (A.D. 1889), and in 10 vols. at Beirût, 1871. It was partly translated by Terrick Hamilton under the title 'Antar, a Bedoueen Romance (4 vols., London, 1820).
- Pouillon, Francois (1997) Les deux vies d'Étienne Dinet, peintre en Islam: L'Algerie et l'heritage colonial Editions Balland, Paris;
- Richmond, Diana (1978) Antar and Abla: a Bedouin romance Quartet Books, London, ISBN 0-7043-2162-9 ;
- "Rafic Charaf". The Mokbel Art Collection. 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antarah ibn Shaddad.|
- English translation of Antara's Hanged Poem
- another link to the same
- The Hanged Poem of Antara (Arabic)
- The Hanged Poem of Antara "another version" (Arabic)
- Antara the Lion: Father of Heroes
- Antar of Antarah, translated by Terrick Hamilton