Temporal range: Late Miocene - Recent
Five species are currently recognised, with ranges that overlap little. They are:
- Harris's antelope squirrel, A. harrisii (southern Arizona, Sonora)
- San Joaquin antelope squirrel or Nelson's Antelope squirrel, A. nelsoni (San Joaquin Valley of California); endangered
- White-tailed antelope squirrel, A. leucurus (New Mexico, southern Arizona, California, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and north to Oregon). The most widely distributed species in the genus.
- Texas antelope squirrel, A. interpres (Texas, New Mexico)
- Insular or Espíritu Santo antelope squirrel, A. insularis Espiritu Santo Island Baja California Sur (some authorities treat this as a subspecies of A. leucurus).
All are somewhat similar in appearance and behavior. They are around 14–17 cm long with a 6–10 cm tail, and weigh 110–150 grams. The tail is somewhat flattened. They have a single white stripe on both flanks and none on the face. They live in burrows, which they dig for themselves. They are diurnal, and do not hibernate (though they become less active during the winter), so they are fairly easily seen.
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- Thorington, R. W. Jr. and R. S. Hoffman. 2005. Family Sciuridae. pp. 754–818 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
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