Pope Leo X called Croatia the Antemurale Christianitatis in 1519, given that Croatian soldiers made significant contributions to the struggle against the Turks. The advancement of the Ottoman Empire in Europe was stopped on Croatian soil, which could be in this sense regarded as a historical gate of European civilization. Nevertheless the Muslim Ottoman Empire occupied part of Croatia from the 15th to the 19th century and a large number of Croats converted to Islam.
For its centuries-long stance against the Muslim advances, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth would gain the name of Antemurale Christianitatis. In 1683, the Battle of Vienna marked the final turning point in a 250-year struggle between the forces of Christian Europe and the Islamic Ottoman Empire. Wespazjan Kochowski in his Psalmodia polska (The Polish Psalmody, 1695) tells about the special role of Poland in the world (antemurale christianitatis – the bulwark of Christianity) and the superiority of Polish political system (złota wolność – the golden liberty).
- Antemurale myth
- Holy League (1538)
- Holy League (1571)
- Holy League (1684)
- Holy League (1717)
- Christ of Europe
- Velikonja, Mitja (2003). Religious Separation and Political Intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Texas A&M University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-60344-724-9.
- Van Norman, Louis E. (1907). Poland: The Knight Among Nations. Fleming H. Revell Company. p. 18.
- Croatia was already called "Antemurale Christianitatis" (The Frontwall of Christianity) since the battle of Krbava field in 1493 – text by Eva Posch, M.Sc., University of Graz, Austria
- Pope Leo X honoured the Croatians with the title "Antemurale Christianitatis" – "The Bulwark of Christianity"
- Antemurale Christianitatis – Bulwark of Christianity (video)