The nerve of the anterior compartment of thigh is the femoral nerve. Innervation for the quadriceps muscles come from the posterior division of the femoral nerve, while the anterior division (which contains cutaneous as well as muscular components) gives a lateral and a medial branch, the second being responsible for the innervation of the sartorius muscle. The iliacus and the psoas muscles, sometimes considered part of the anterior compartment, do not share the same innervation. Whereas the iliacus is innervated by the femoral nerve, the psoas is innervated by ventral rami of L1-L3.
When the external iliac artery crosses the inguinal ligament, it becomes the femoral artery, which supplies blood to the anterior compartment and is the largest blood vessel of the inferior member.
Cross-section of the upper right thigh. In this diagram, the anterior surface is at the bottom (labelled "A"). The anterior compartment is separated by a fibrous septum which is visible from the femoral artery and vein at the bottom, surrounding the sartorius muscle, and travelling to the profunda femoris artery adjacent to the femur (not labelled), from here to the sciatic nerve, and then between the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles. The compartments on the left-hand side of the image are contained within the compartment.
The anterior compartment of thigh contains muscles which are extensors of the knee and flexors of the hip joints.
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