Antheuil is located some 40 km south-west of Dijon and 25 km north-west of Beaune. It can be accessed by the minor D115 road running north from the D18 road passing through the village and continuing north-west to join the D33. The commune is hilly and heavily forested.
The Antheuil river rises south of the village and flows north-west to join the Ouche near Veuvey-sur-Ouche.
In 2009 the commune had 65 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
^At the beginning of the 21st century, the methods of identification have been modified by Law No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, the so-called "law of local democracy" and in particular Title V "census operations" allows, after a transitional period running from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For communes with a population greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is conducted annually, the entire territory of these communes is taken into account at the end of the period of five years. The first "legal population" after 1999 under this new law came into force in 1 January 2009 and was based on the census of 2006.