|Anatomical details of Pandeidae (Filifera).
Lower left, top right: Neoturris pileata. Lower right: Stomotoca pterophylla.
From Kunstformen der Natur
by Ernst Haeckel (1904)
Anthomedusae or Anthomedusa, the athecate hydroids, are an order of the Hydrozoa, a class of marine invertebrates belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. A profusion of alternate scientific names exists for this long-known, heavily discussed and spectactular group - it has also been called Gymnoblastea, or, with or without an emended ending "-ae", Anthoathecata, Athecata, Hydromedusa or Stylasterina. There are about 1,200 species worldwide.
These hydrozoans always have a polyp stage. Their hydranths grow either solitary or in colonies. There is no firm perisarc around the polyp body. The medusae, or jellyfish, are solitary animals, with tentacles arising from the bell margin, lacking statocysts but possessing radial canals. Their gonads are on the manubrium ("handle").
Their close relationship to the Leptomedusae has been long known, but it was formerly believed that these two were also close to the Limnomedusae. Actually, their closest relative are the highly advanced Siphonophorae, whereas the Limnomedusae are simply a rather primitive group that is not very closely related to these three Leptolinae but might actually belong to the Trachylinae subclass.
There has been some uncertainty regarding the internal taxonomy. The most simple scheme, adopted until recently by most authors since it was proposed in 1913, divided the order into a smaller (Filifera) and a larger (Capitata) suborder, but several unusual anthomedusae refused to fit into this arrangement, and a considerable number only did so awkwardly. The Porpitidae for example are highly aberrant group, and were at one time even considered a separate order "Chondrophora". But actually, they are derived from Zancleida. On the other hand, in the early 21st century it was determined that the well-known Hydra and its relatives – in fact most of the supposed filiferan infraorders Tubulariida and Moerisiida – were in fact a very ancient lineage, subsequently recognized as suborder Aplanulata. Nowadays, even though not all anthomedusae have been firmly placed in the phylogeny, most are fairly certainly assigned at least to one of the major subdivisions. As a notable exception, a prehistoric family, the Heterastridiidae, is still highly disputed regarding its relationships to the extant taxa, as are a small number of very aberrant and/or little-known species such as the aptly-named Saccohydra problematica.
The family Clathrozoellidae is placed with the Filifera here; in others it is placed in the Leptomedusae and sometimes even synonymized with their family Clathrozoidae. By contrast, the supposed filiferan genus Anthohydra is in fact the leptomedusa Eugymnanthea; similarly, "Gammaria" is also a leptomedusa and properly spelled Grammaria.
The supposed athecate family Monobrachiidae is apparently a close relative of Olindiasidae and belongs in the Limnomedusae. Halammohydridae and Otohydridae, sometimes placed here, actually appear to be trachyline hydrozoans of the order Actinulidae.
Infraorders and families
Infraorder Margelina Haeckel, 1879 (disputed)
Infraorder Pandeida (disputed)
Suborder Capitata Kühn, 1913
Infraorder Moerisiida Poche, 1914 (disputed)
Infraorder Sphaerocorynida Petersen, 1990 (disputed)
Infraorder N.N. (disputed)
Infraorder Zancleida Russell, 1953 (disputed)
- Schuchert (2008)
- Schuchert (2008), MarineSpecies.org (2008)
- New name is required for the remaining Tubulariida, because Tubulariidae has been moved to Aplanulata.
- MarineSpecies.org (2008): Anthomedusae. Retrieved 2008-JUL-08.
- Schuchert, Peter (2008): The Hydrozoa Directory - Order Anthomedusae Haeckel, 1879. Retrieved 2008-JUL-08.
- Buecher, E., Goy, J. & Gibbons, M.J. 2005. Hydromedusae of the Agulhas Current. African Invertebrates 46: 27-69.
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