Anthodon (reptile)

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Temporal range: Changhsingian, 254–252Ma
Anthodon BW.jpg
Life restoration of Anthodon
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Procolophonomorpha
Family: Pareiasauridae
(unranked): Pumiliopareiasauria
Genus: Anthodon
Owen, 1876
Type species
Anthodon serrarius
Owen, 1876
  • A. minisculus? Haughton, 1932
  • A. serrarius Owen, 1876
  • Pareiasaurus parvus Haughton, 1913
  • Propappus parvus Haughton, 1913

Anthodon (meaning "flower tooth") is an extinct genus of pareiasaurid anapsid reptile from the Permian period of South Africa and Tanzania.


This small form combines the primitive feature of interpterygoid fenestra with an advanced feature of turtle-like armour.It was about 1.2 to 1.5 meters in length (3.9 to 4.9 ft), and weighed around 80 to 100 kilograms (176 to 220 lb). Small dermal ossicles covered the body, while the pattern of armour plates on the back reminiscent of a turtle shell. The tail was further shortened relative to less derived forms.


The skull was small, and the cheekbones unornamented as in other pareiasaurids.[1] The skull is 30 cm in length and quite lightly built. The cheekbones form very large quadratojugal "horns" that extend downwards to a great degree, but with a smooth unornamented surface. . The mandible has ventral protrusions (further "horns"). The postparietals are fused and, along with the tabulars, located on the skull roof, as in more primitive diadectomorphs.There are 11 to 14 pairs of overlapping teeth, of small and uniform size, each with 8 to 15 cusps, giving them, as with all pareiasaurs, a leaf-like or flower like appearance, hence the genric name "flower tooth".


Richard Owen, who described Anthodon, thought it was a dinosaur because dinosaurian skull material from the Early Cretaceous had become associated with the Permian material. The dinosaur material was later separated out by Robert Broom in 1912 and was renamed as the stegosaurid Paranthodon by Franz Nopcsa in 1929.[2]


  1. ^ Kazlev, M. Alan (2005-07-05). "Pareiasauridae". Kheper. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  2. ^ Creisler, Ben (2003-07-07). "Dinosauria Translation and Pronunciation Guide P". DOL Dinosaur Omnipedia. Dinosauria On-Line. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 

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