Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy of Ireland)

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Arms of Sir Anthony St. Leger, KG: quarterly 1 & 4: Azure fretty argent, a chief gules (St Ledger); 2 & 3: Argent, three pairs of barnacles gules tied sable (Donet of Silham, Rainham, Kent), circumscribed by the Garter

Sir Anthony St Leger (c. 1496 – 16 March 1559)(or Sellenger), KG, of Ulcombe and Leeds Castle in Kent, was an English politician and Lord Deputy of Ireland during the Tudor period.

Origins[edit]

Anthony St Leger was the eldest son of Ralph II St Leger of Ulcombe, Kent by his wife Isabel (or Elizabeth) Haute, daughter of Richard Haute (d. 8 April 1487) by his wife Elizabeth Tyrrell, widow of Sir Robert Darcy (c.1420 - 2 November 1469) of Maldon, Essex, and daughter of Sir Thomas Tyrrell (d. 28 March 1477) of Heron in the parish of East Horndon, Essex.[1][2]

Career[edit]

He was educated abroad and at the University of Cambridge.[3] He quickly gained the favour of King Henry VIII (1509-1547), and in 1537 was appointed president of a commission of enquiry into the condition of Ireland. In the course of this work, he obtained much useful knowledge of the country. In 1539 he was knighted and appointed Sheriff of Kent.

Lord Deputy of Ireland[edit]

On 7 July 1540, Sir Anthony was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland and tasked with the repression of disorder. He moved against the Kavanaghs, permitting them to retain their lands only by accepting feudal tenure on the English model. By a similar policy he exacted obedience from the O'Mores, O'Tooles and O'Conors in Leix and Offaly. Having conciliated the O'Briens in the west and the Earl of Desmond in the south, he obtained the passage of an act in the Irish Parliament] in Dublin which conferred the title of King of Ireland onto King Henry VIII and his heirs. Conn O'Neill, who had remained sullenly hostile, was forced to submit.

St Leger's policy was generally one of moderation and conciliation, more so than Henry VIII wished. He recommended the head of the House of O'Brien, when he gave token of a submissive disposition, for the title of Earl of Thomond. O'Neill was created Earl of Tyrone. An administrative council was instituted in the province of Munster and in 1544 a levy of Irish soldiers was raised for service in Henry VIII's wars. St Leger's personal influence was proved by an outbreak of disturbance when he visited England in 1544, and the prompt restoration of order on his return some months later. St Leger retained his office under King Edward VI (1547-1553), and again effectively quelled attempts at rebellion by the O'Conors and O'Byrnes. From 1548 to 1550 Sir Anthony was in England and returned to Ireland charged with the duty of introducing the reformed liturgy into that island. His conciliatory methods led to his recall in the summer of 1551. After the accession of Queen Mary (1553-1558) he was again appointed Lord Deputy in October 1553, but a charge of keeping false accounts caused him to be recalled for the third time in 1556. He died while the accusation was still under investigation, by which time in 1559 he had been elected Member of Parliament for Kent.[4]

Knight of the Garter[edit]

In 1544 he was nominated by King Henry VIII as a Knight of the Garter. His Garter stall plate survives affixed to his former stall in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. It is inscribed above with the motto: SOMIENE DE MOY DIEN (apparently garbled French, possibly for souviens de mon dieu, "I remember my God"?) and at the base in semi-illiterate French (i.e. with basic errors in gender):

Du noble et vailant chevalier mesier Antonye Sentleger Deputie pour la roy en son royalme d'Ierlond et une de la estroiet chamber du roy NRE (n(ot)re?) souverain SHR frere et compaignon de la tres noble Ordre de la Jarretiere ("Of the noble and valiant knight Sir Anthony St Ledger, deputy for the king in his kingdom of Ireland and one of the privy chamber of the king (our?) sovereign SHR? brother and companion of the most noble Order of the Garter").

The heraldry shows an escutcheon circumscribed by the Garter displaying the arms quarterly 1 & 4: Azure fretty argent (St Ledger); 2 & 3: Argent, three barnacles gules tied sable (Donet of Sileham, Rainham, Kent). Sir Anthony's great-grand-father Sir John St Ledger (d.1442) of Ulcombe, married Margery Donet (or Donnet), daughter and heiress of James Donet (d.1409) of Sileham. His crest is shown as: A griffin statant (Crest of St Ledger family, Viscount Doneraile: A griffin passant or (Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.365)) and his supporters: Two griffins wings elevated (supporters of St Ledger family, Viscount Doneraile: Two griffins or wings elevated azure fretty argent (Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.365)).

Character[edit]

As a man St. Leger seems to have been quarrelsome and unpopular; certainly he was on very bad terms with other leading figures in the Dublin administration, particularly John Alan, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and George Browne, Archbishop of Dublin. Following complaints by St. Leger, Alan was removed from office and although he was later reinstated the two men found it impossible to work together.[5] The Archbishop accused St. Leger of treasonable words, giving Alan as his source, but the charge came to nothing when Alan, perhaps surprisingly, refused to confirm the report.[6] When St. Leger gave high military command to James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond, he was accused by allies of Alan's of deliberately endangering Ormond's life, and Ormond's mysterious death from poisoning in London in 1546 was, at the least, extremely convenient for St. Leger.

Landholdings[edit]

Leeds Castle in Kent, granted to Sir Anthony St Leger in 1552

As well as having inherited the paternal estate of Ulcombe, the St Ledger family's seat from the 11th century, in 1552 he was granted possession of Leeds Castle in Kent, of which his grandfather Ralph I St Leger (d.1470) had been constable.

Marriage & progeny[edit]

St Leger married Agnes Warham,a daughter of Hugh Warham and a niece of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury. By Agnes he had at least five sons and two daughters, including:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richardson III 2011, pp. 216-17, 481.
  2. ^ Robertson 1893-95, pp. 70-1.
  3. ^ "Sentleger, Anthony (SNTR496A)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  4. ^ "ST. LEGER (SELLENGER), Sir Anthony (c.1496-1559), of Ulcombe and Leeds Castle, Kent.". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  5. ^ O'Flanagan, J. Roderick Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland London 1870
  6. ^ O'Flanagan Lives of the Chancellors
  7. ^ Ball, F. Elrington The Judges in Ireland 1221-1921 John Murray London 1926 Vol.1 p.225

Sources[edit]

Attribution

See also[edit]

According to the Irish Genealogical Office, Kildare Street, Dublin, Sir Anthony St Leger KG held office as the King's Deputy (Lord Deputy) in Ireland for five not three terms as commonly held. His terms of office were as follows :

1st term: 7 July 1540 to 10 February 1544 2nd term: 3 July 1544 to 1 April 1546 3rd term: 7 November 1546 to 21 May 1548 4th term: 4 August 1550 to 23 May 1551 5th term: 1 September 1553 to 26 May 1556

See also

  • Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Hen. VIII-Eliz.
  • Calendar of Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII.
  • Calendar of State Papers (Domestic Series), Edward VI-James I
  • Calendar of Carew Manuscripts
  • J O'Donovan's edition of Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters (7 vols., Dublin, 1851)
  • Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors (3 Vols., London, 1885–1890)
  • JA Froude, History of England (12 vols., London, 1856–1870).

For Sir William St Leger, see:

  • Strafford's Letters and Despatches (2 vols., London, 1739)
  • Thomas Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde (6 vols., Oxford, 1851)
  • History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland, edited by J. T. Gilbert (Dublin, 1882–1891).
Political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Grane
Lord Deputy of Ireland
1540–1548
Succeeded by
Edward Bellingham
Preceded by
Lord Justices
Lord Deputy of Ireland
1550–1551
Succeeded by
James Croft
Preceded by
Lords Justices
Lord Deputy of Ireland
1553–1556
Succeeded by
The Lord FitzWalter
Parliament of England
Preceded by
Thomas Cheyney
with
John Baker
Member of Parliament for Kent
1559
With: Thomas Kempe
Succeeded by
Henry Sidney
with
Sir Henry Cheyne