Anti-British sentiment

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For prejudice against England and the English people only, see Anglophobia. For prejudice against Scotland and the Scottish people only, see Anti-Scottish sentiment. For prejudice against Northern Ireland and the Irish people only, see Anti-Irish sentiment. For prejudice against Wales and the Welsh people only, see Cultural relationship between the Welsh and the English#Anti-Welsh sentiment.

Anti-British sentiment is prejudice, fear or hatred against the British Government, the culture or the people of the United Kingdom, or its Overseas territories.

A view of shops with anti-British and pro-Independence signs, Valletta, Malta, c. 1960
Results of 2014 BBC World Service poll.
Views of the United Kingdom's influence by country[1]
Sorted by Pos-Neg
Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos-Neg
 Pakistan 39 35 26 4
 Spain 41 36 23 5
 Turkey 39 30 31 9
 China 39 26 35 13
 Mexico 40 25 35 15
 India 43 27 30 16
 Germany 51 34 15 17
 Peru 41 21 38 20
 Brazil 45 25 30 20
 Russia 44 16 40 28
 Chile 45 15 40 30
 Indonesia 59 26 15 33
 Israel 50 6 44 44
 Japan 47 2 51 45
 Nigeria 67 22 11 45
 United Kingdom 72 23 5 49
 France 72 20 8 52
 Australia 73 18 9 54
 South Korea 74 14 12 60
 Kenya 74 10 16 64
 Ghana 78 9 13 69
 Canada 80 9 11 71
 United States 81 10 9 71

Argentina[edit]

Anti-British feeling in Argentina stems mainly from the Falkland Islands dispute and the Falklands War in 1982 with the United Kingdom. Due to this, anti-British protests and acts of vandalism do erupt.[2][3]

Guatemala[edit]

Guatemala has a strong anti-British sentiment due to the Belizean-Guatemalan territorial dispute. Guatemala claims that United Kingdom has not honoured several treaties.

India[edit]

In the Indian independence movement, this sentiment was common.[4]

Iran[edit]

Anti-British sentiment, sometimes described as Anglophobia, has been described as "deeply entrenched in Iranian culture",[5] and reported to be increasingly prevalent in Iran. In July 2009, an adviser to Ayatollah Ali Khamenei called Britain "worse than America" for its alleged interference in Iran's post-election affairs. In the first half of the 20th century, the British Empire exerted political influence over Iran (Persia) in order to control the profits from the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. As a result, British influence was widely known to have been behind the overthrow of the Qajar Dynasty in the 1920s, the subsequent rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the successful coup d'état overthrowing prime minister Mohammad Mosaddeq in 1953.[6][7][8]

On Monday 9 August 2010, the senior Iranian minister and Iran's first vice president Mohammad Reza Rahimi declared that the British people were "stupid" and "not human". His remarks drew criticism from Simon Gass, the British ambassador in Iran, and also from the media in Britain.[citation needed]

In November 2011 the Iranian parliament voted to downgrade relations with the UK after British sanctions were imposed on Iran due to its nuclear programme.[citation needed] Politicians reportedly shouted "Death to Britain".[citation needed] On 29 November 2011, Iranian students in Tehran stormed the British embassy, ransacked offices, smashed windows, shouted "Death to England" and burned the British flag.[9]

Ireland[edit]

There is a long tradition of Anglophobia within Irish nationalism. Much of this was grounded in the hostility felt by the largely Catholic poor for the Anglo-Irish gentry, which was mainly Anglican. In post-famine Ireland, anti-English hostility was adopted into the philosophy and foundation of the Irish nationalist movement. At the turn of the 20th century, the Celtic Revival movement associated the search for a cultural and national identity with an increasing anti-colonial and anti-English sentiment.

A feeling of anti-English sentiment intensified within Irish nationalism during the Boer War leading to xenophobia underlined by Anglophobia. In 2011, tensions and anti-English or anti-British feelings flared in relation to the proposed visit of Elizabeth II, the first British monarch to visit Ireland in 101 years. An anti-Queen demonstration was held at the GPO Dublin by a group of Irish Republicans on 26 February 2011, and a mock trial and decapitation of an effigy of Queen Elizabeth II were carried out by socialist republican group Éirígí. Other protests included one Dublin publican (the father of Celtic player Anthony Stokes) hanging a banner declaring "the Queen will never be welcome in this country".[10]

Israel[edit]

In Israel, anti-British sentiment historically stems from British rule and policies in the mandate era, and in modern times from the perceived anti-Israel stance of the British media.[11][12][13][14]

Reacting to 609 anti-Semitic incidents across the U.K. in the first half of 2009,[15] and to the announcement of numerous UK organizations to impose a boycott on Israel,[16] some Israelis claimed that the UK is anti-Israeli and anti-semitic.[17][18] According to Eytan Gilboa, "the British media systematically supports the Palestinians, and openly slants its reporting about Israel and Israeli policy. The left-wing Guardian and Independent newspapers regularly print accusatory, anti-Israel editorials, and their correspondents in Israel file biased, and occasionally false, reports. The supposedly prestigious BBC has long been a sounding board to trumpet Palestinian propaganda".[16] In 2010 Ron Breiman, a former chairman of the right-wing organization "Professors for a Strong Israel", claimed in one of Israel's leading newspapers, Haaretz, that the United Kingdom has raised and armed Israel's enemies in Jordan the Arab Legion. He described the British media as anti-Israeli and claimed Britain had a "not-so-splendid heritage".[19] He also accused "The English" of controlling Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.[19] And went on to claim that Britain was occupying "Ireland's island".[19] He also claimed Britain was a prime example of "European hypocrisy" by occupying the Falkland Islands and criticised its "shameful actions".[19]

After the UK government expelled an Israeli diplomat due to Israel's Mossad cloning British passports for an assassination operation in 2010, Michael Ben-Ari, a former right-wing member of the Israeli parliament referred to the British as "dogs" and accused Britain of being "anti-semitic".[20] Aryeh Eldad, another former Israeli parliament member of the right-wing National Union, was quoted as replying "I think the British are behaving hypocritically and I don't want to offend dogs on this issue, since some dogs are utterly loyal".[21] Nevertheless, the relationship between Israel and the UK is generally regarded as close and warm [22] and as a strategic partnership of the two nations.[23]

Spain[edit]

Anti-British sentiments evolved in Spain following the invasion and capture of Gibraltar by the British in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In August 2013, Spain was considering forging an anti-British alliance with Argentina, adopting its strategy over the Falkland Islands.[24]

United States[edit]

American protester stands on a Union Jack, presumably associating BP with Great Britain

President Thomas Jefferson complained of an unreasonable hostility towards the British state by the people in the United States during the Napoleonic Wars, brought about by the American Revolutionary War.[25]

The anti-Tom novel Tit for Tat (written anonymously in 1856 by "A Lady of New Orleans") encouraged anti-British sentiment in reaction to Britain's positive reception of the anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe.[26]

During the period of alliance between Britain and the United States, anti-British sentiment took another form. Fleet Admiral Ernest King had been noted for his Anglophobic views which affected his decision making during the "Second happy time" (in the Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945)).[27] Joseph Stilwell, a four-star general in the China, Burma and India theatre of the Second World War was another noted anglophobe (for example, in this diaries he wrote, "Boy, will this burn up the Limeys!" when Myitkyina was finally taken). Curiously, he got on well with William Slim, even volunteering to serve under him for a time rather than under George Giffard. Slim noted that Stilwell had a public persona that differed from his private relations.

The LaRouche movement has a strongly anti-British stance, viewing the British monarchy and ruling class as an essentially criminal financial conspiracy.

In the 21st century, the Special Relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom has come under attack by advertising executive Steven A. Grasse who published The Evil Empire: 101 Ways That England Ruined the World.,[28] although this work is partly tongue in cheek and forms part of a larger media project launched by the author.

Roland Emmerich's 2000 movie The Patriot drew controversy for depicting the British forces engaging in savagery in the Thirteen Colonies during the American Revolution, though the British Army did violate some of the rules of war.[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BBC World Service poll". BBC. 3 June 2014. 
  2. ^ Argentina to see biggest anti-British protests for years
  3. ^ Anti-Brit Argies firebomb HSBC
  4. ^ "Anti-British sentiment in India". Tourism of India. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  5. ^ Jonathan Freedland, If this crisis can be overcome, think about the negotiations that matter, The Guardian, 4 April 2007. Accessed 24 November 2009
  6. ^ Ali Ansari, Why Iran is obsessed with the British wily fox, The Times, 25 June 2009. Accessed 24 November 2009
  7. ^ Tara Bahrampour, In Wake of Unrest, Britain Replacing U.S. as Iran's Great Satan, Washington Post, 17 July 2009. Accessed 24 November 2009
  8. ^ Conference on "Iran and British colonialism", March 2008. Accessed 24 November 2009
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ http://www.irishcentral.com/news/Sinn-Feins-Gerry-Adams-slams-Queen-Elizabeths-upcoming-visit-to-Ireland-117456423.html
  11. ^ "Why are the Brits so anti-Israel?". Jewishmag.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  12. ^ Rosenblum, Jonathan (2005-06-04). "UK Anti- Semitism". Aish.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  13. ^ Liphshiz, Cnaan. "Watchdog: British anti-Semitism doubled after Gaza war". Israel News. Haaretz. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  14. ^ "British anti-Semitism". Israel Opinion. Ynetnews.com. 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  15. ^ Watchdog: British anti-Semitism doubled after Gaza war - Haaretz - Israel News
  16. ^ a b http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3257290,00.html
  17. ^ Why are the Brits so anti-Israel?
  18. ^ UK Anti- Semitism
  19. ^ a b c d End British obsession with anti-Israel propaganda - Haaretz - Israel News
  20. ^ Times Online - 'Israeli diplomat 'spy' expelled over cloned UK passports'
  21. ^ British Anti-Semitic Dogs - Israel
  22. ^ [The Telegraph: The cowardice at the heart of our relationship with Israel http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/israel/9740044/The-cowardice-at-the-heart-of-our-relationship-with-Israel.html]
  23. ^ Sixty years of British-Israeli diplomatic relations' Organisation: Foreign & Commonwealth Office [2]
  24. ^ Govan, Fiona (11 August 2013). "Gibraltar: Spain considers joint diplomatic offensive with Argentina over Falkland Islands". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  25. ^ "Anglophobia". Allwords.com. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  26. ^ "Tit For Tat". Iath.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  27. ^ Moser, John E. (1998-11-01). Twisting the Lion's Tail: American Anglophobia Between the World Wars. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5615-8. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  28. ^ Evil Empire: 101 Ways That England Ruined the World. books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 
  29. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/film/2000/jun/30/news.melgibson