Anti-Germans (political current)
- Not to be confused with Anti-German sentiment
Anti-German (German: Antideutsch) is the generic name applied to a variety of theoretical and political tendencies within the radical left mainly in Germany and Austria. The Anti-Germans emerged as a distinct political tendency as a response to German reunification, and the anti-American "anti-imperialist left".[dubious ]
The term does not generally refer to any one specific radical left tendency, but rather a wide variety of distinct currents, ranging from the so-called "hardcore" Anti-Germans such as the quarterly journal Bahamas to "softcore" Anti-Germans such as the circle around the radical left journal Phase 2, originally conceived as a federal discussion bulletin for the Antifa movement in the wake of the dissolution of the Antifaschistische Aktion/Bundesweite Organisation (Antifascist Action/Nationwide Organisation). Some Anti-German ideas have also exerted an influence on the broader radical leftist milieu, such as the monthly magazine konkret and the weekly newspaper Jungle World.
Furthermore, the most common practical and theoretical position commonly associated with the anti-Germans, that of solidarity with the state of Israel, is not a position exclusive to the Anti-Germans. The groups Krisis-Gruppe and Exit! around the publicist Robert Kurz, as well as many Antifa groups in Germany also hold Israel-sympathetic opinions, while rejecting any identification with the Anti-German current.
The basic opinions of the Anti-Germans include support for the state of Israel and - although this is only true for some - American foreign policy such as the 2003 invasion of Iraq, a critique of mainstream left anti-capitalist views, which are thought to be simplistic and structurally anti-Semitic,:4 and a critique of anti-Semitism, which is considered to be deeply rooted in German cultural history. The critical theory of Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer is often cited by Anti-German theorists along with earlier Marxism.:2 In 2006 Deutsche Welle estimated the number of Anti-Germans at between 500 and 3,000.
Emergence of the Anti-Germans
The first stirrings of the emergence of the anti-Germans can be traced back to the dissolution process of the Kommunistischer Bund (KB) (de) ("Communist Federation"), a Marxist-Leninist political organization primarily active in Hamburg and Northern Germany.:11 The KB distinguished itself from other extra-parliamentary groups through a decidedly pessimistic analysis with regard to the potential for revolutionary change in Germany. Known as the "Fascisation" analysis, this theory held that due to the particularity of German history and development, the endemic crisis of capitalism would lead to a move towards the Right and to a new Fascism.:11
The rapid process of collapse of the German Democratic Republic and the looming reunification of Germany led to an internal crisis within the KB and the development of irreconcilable perspectives within the organization. The majority tendency argued that with the collapse of the GDR, questions of social justice in connection with the restoration of capitalism in the former GDR should constitute the center of political work, and this tendency accordingly sought cooperation with the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS).:17 There also emerged a minority tendency which argued for a position of fundamental opposition to the restoration of a unified German nation-state, essentially representing a radicalized version of the Fascisation thesis, arguing that the coming period was one of reaction, and advocating a perspective of opposition against German nationalism, racism, anti-semitism, historical revisionism and a revival of German great power politics. It is said that during an internal debate, representatives of the majority tendency said that the minority current, due to its bleak analysis and unwavering pessimism, "might as well just emigrate to the Bahamas." The minority tendency, in an ironic gesture, thus named their discussion organ Bahamas. The phrase Nie wieder Deutschland ("Germany, Never Again"), which became a central Anti-German slogan, originated in demonstrations against reunification.
In its first few years of existence, the journal Bahamas served as a pluralistic journal for a variety of currents of the radical left united by a common opposition to German nationalism, racism, and anti-semitism, as well as against apologetic currents within the left which sought to relativize such issues. Gradually, this diversity of perspectives gave way to a tendency oriented towards a Freiburger organization known as the "Socialist Forum Initiative (de)" (Initiative Sozialistisches Forum), a radical left formation mixing elements of council communism and elements of Critical Theory, particular Theodor W. Adorno and the Frankfurt School. At around the time of this shift in perspective, many of the former KB members left the editorial circle of the journal. In 2007 Haaretz described Bahamas as "the leading publication of the hardcore pro-Israel, Anti-German communist movement."
The Development of the Anti-German Current in the 1990s
The notion of a revival of German nationalism and racism as a result of the reunification seemed to confirm itself over the course of the 1990s, as shown by such events as the pogrom in the town of Rostock-Lichtenhagen (Rostock) and a murderous attack on a Turkish family in the West German town of Solingen. As a result of this populist wave of xenophobia and violence against foreigners, the German political establishment responded with an increased wave of repression against immigrants and a tightening of Germany's hitherto liberal asylum laws.
Throughout the 1990s, elements of the Anti-German critique of the German mainstream society found their way into the broader left, especially the then-popular Antifa movement, which was the dominant organizational expression of radical leftist youth politics in the 1990s.
In 1995, the fortieth anniversary of the bombing of Dresden, Anti-Germans praised the bombing on the grounds that so many of the city's civilians had supported Nazism. James[who?] points to this as an example of a shift towards support for the United States that became more pronounced after 9/11. Similar demonstrations are annually held, the slogans “Bomber Harris, do it again!” and “Deutsche Täter sind keine Opfer!” (“German perpetrators are no victims!”) have become common.
The 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was also a focus of opposition for the Anti-Germans, as for most of the radical left. Many Anti-Germans condemned the war as a repetition of the political constellation of forces during the Second World War, with the Serbs in the role of victim of German imperialism. Some Anti-Germans thus issued a call for "unconditional" support for the regime of Slobodan Milošević. The reasons the German government gave to legitimize the war - from an Anti-German perspective - marked a turning point in the discourse of governmental history-policy. The war was not justified "despite but because of Auschwitz". This judgment is often combined with the analysis of the genesis of a new national self as the "Aufarbeitungsweltmeister" or "Weltmeister der Vergangenheitsbewältigung" (world champion in dealing with and mastering one's own past evil deeds). This led to a break between "Anti-Germans" and so-called "Anti-Nationalists", the latter criticising nationalism more generally, which was intensified in September 2000 when the Second Intifada began: The Anti-Germans supported Israel while the PLO was supported by the Anti-Nationalists.
- Henryk Broder
- Eike Geisel
- Matthias Küntzel
- Andrei Markovits
- Moishe Postone
- Hirsch, Irmel (17 June 2006). "Antifaschistische Demo in Frankfurt" (in German). de.indymedia.org. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Kurz, Robert. "Israel ist der einzige Staat mit Existenzberechtigung". Die Antideutsche Ideologie (in German). p. 205.
- "Verfassungsschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen: 'Die Antideutschen – kein vorübergehendes Phänomen'" (in German). Retrieved 10 February 2007.
- "Strange Bedfellows: Radical Leftists for Bush". DW. Dw-world.de. 25 August 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Hagen, Patrick. "Die Antideutschen und die Debatte der Linken über Israel" (PDF) (in German). Retrieved 21 February 2007.
- "Letter from Berlin". Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Communism, anti-German criticism and Israel". Café critique. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Harding, Luke (27 August 2006). "Meet the Anti-Germans". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "15th anniversary of the arson attack in Solingen: All four perpetrators again today on the loose" (in German). RP Online. 26 May 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- "AUFARBEITUNGSWELTMEISTER" (in German). Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "The Anti-Germans" - The Pro-Israel German Left, Simon Erlanger, Jewish Political Studies Review, 2009
- Who are the anti-germans?, Ça Ira, Freiburg May 2007
- The World Turned Upside Down, Mute magazine, 2005
- Introduction to the anti-German concept
- Assaf Uni: The good men of Leipzig, Haaretz, January 3, 2007
- Interview with Thomas Becker, a contributor to Bahamas
- Statement by the anti-German group sinistra!
- 'Jubelperser' for Israel - an article about the Anti-German BAK Shalom within the German party The Left
- (German) Manfred Dahlmann: What does "Anti-German" mean?
- (German) Homepage of the journal "Bahamas"
- (German) Homepage of the group "Initiative Sozialistisches Forum"
- (German) Homepage of the group "Café Critique"