Anti-Japanese volunteer armies
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Due to Chiang Kai-Shek's policy of non-resistance, the Japanese were soon able to establish complete control. After the League of Nations refused to do more than voice its disapproval, the Manchurian Incident was perhaps over, for diplomats. Afterwards small guerrilla bands continued the fight.
The volunteer armies were eventually defeated, but only after their resistance had made support for them and the anti-Japanese cause popular throughout China during the early 1930s.
There were several of these armies:
- Jilin Self-Defence Army
- Chinese People's National Salvation Army
- Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters
- Northeastern Loyal and Brave Army
- Northeast People's Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army
- Northeast Anti-Japanese National Salvation Army
- Heilungkiang National Salvation Army
- Anti-Japanese Army For The Salvation Of The Country
Besides these armies there were other forces under leaders like Lao Pie-fang and others.
For the whole year of 1932 the Japanese had to occupy themselves with fighting these Chinese forces in various areas of Manchuria. General Ma Zhanshan, nominally in command of them all, had a total fighting force estimated by the Japanese of 300,000 men. Following the defeat of the large forces, many retreated into Jehol and other places in China. The remainder were forced to disperse their remnants into small units, often called shanlin. Ongoing Japanese "Anti-Bandit" campaigns and other "pacification" measures steadily reduced the number of insurgents. Their numbers declined from 120,000 in 1933, to 50,000 in 1934; 40,000 in 1935; 30,000 in 1936; and 20,000 in 1937. As of September 1938, the number of insurgents was estimated by the Japanese at 10,000 men.
- Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) 2nd Ed., 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.
- Jowett, Phillip S., Rays of The Rising Sun, Armed Forces of Japan’s Asian Allies 1931-45, Volume I: China & Manchuria, 2004. Helion & Co. Ltd., 26 Willow Rd., Solihul, West Midlands, England.
- The volunteer armies of northeast China
- Notes On A Guerrilla Campaign