|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia. (January 2013)|
Anti-Sovietism and Anti-Soviet refer to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or government power within the Soviet Union.
Three different flavors of the usage of the term may be distinguished.
- Anti-Sovietism in international politics, such as the United States opposition to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
- Anti-Soviet opponents of Bolsheviks shortly after the Russian Revolution and during the Russian Civil War.
- As applied to Soviet citizens (allegedly) involved in anti-government activities.
Soviet Union 
In the USSR, the epithet "antisoviet" was synonymous with "counter-revolutionary". The noun "antisovietism" was rarely used and the noun "antisovietist" (Russian: антисоветчик, antisovetčik) was used in a derogatory sense.
During the Russian Civil War that followed the October Revolution of 1917, the anti-Soviet side was the White movement. Between the wars, some resistance movement, particularly in the 1920s, was cultivated by Polish intelligence in the form of the Promethean project. During the Second World War, anti-Soviet forces were created and led primarily by Nazi Germany (see Russian Liberation Movement).
Being anti-Soviet was a criminal offense in the Soviet Union. Anti-Soviet agitation and activities were political crimes handled by the Article 58 and later Article 70 of the RSFSR penal code, and similar articles in other Soviet republics.
- "Do not look in the file of incriminating evidence to see whether or not the accused rose up against the Soviets with arms or words. Ask him instead to which class he belongs, what is his background, his education, his profession. These are the questions that will determine the fate of the accused."
See also 
- Enemy of the people
- Anti-Stalinist left
- Criticisms of communist party rule
- Timeline of events in the Cold War
- Soviet Empire
- Anti-Americanism - similar concept to anti-Sovietism
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