Anti-Turkism

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Anti-Turkism, also known as Turcophobia[1] (Turkophobia) or anti-Turkish sentiment, is the hostility, fear, intolerance or racism against the Turkish people, Turkish culture, Turkic people or Turkey itself (or, previously, the Ottoman Empire).[2][3]

Anti-Turkism does not only refer to intolerance against the Turks of Turkey, but also against Azerbaijani people and the non-Turkish Balkan Muslims, particularly some Kosovo Albanians who are Muslim, Bosniaks and Macedonian Muslims.[4][5][6] It can also refer to racism against ethnic Turks living outside of Turkey in the Turkish diaspora.[7][8][9][10]

Early history[edit]

The roots of Turcophobia can be traced back to the Hunnic invasions of Europe, where Huns or Turks were ruthless foreign nomadic hordes in Europe and inspired fear amongst local Europeans.[11] The later evidence of anti-Turkism in Europe originated in 1453/54 in the form of lithurgical masses against Turks, missa contra Turcos in Latin.[12] By 1870, the anti-Turk phenomenon is defined by the term Turcophobia.[13] Turcophobia is traced to the fall of Constantinople and the Turkish Wars of the Late Middle Ages, viz. the attempts of Western Christianity to stem the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. By the middle of the 15th century special masses called missa contra turcas (translated as "mass against Turks") were celebrated in various places in Europe,[14] the message of these masses was that victory over the Turks was only possible with the help of God and that a Christian community was therefore necessary to withstand the cruelty of the Turks.[12][15][16]

16th century[edit]

Original prints from the 16th century at Hungarian National Museum depicting a Turkish warrior butchering infants

As the Ottomans expanded their empire West, Western Europe came into more frequent contact and with Turks, often militarily. During the Ottoman Venetian Wars several notable battles were fought, such as the Ottoman conquest of the island of Cyprus, where over 56,000 Christian inhabitants were massacred or taken prisoner, and the island's commander Marco Antonio Bragadin was mutilated and flayed alive, despite Turkish assurances he and his men could leave upon surrender. Such accounts of atrocities became so frequent that the Turks quickly gained the reputation for cruelty and lack of honor in war.

Bishop Fabri of Vienna (1536–41) claimed that:

"There are no crueler and more audacious villains under the heavens than the Turks who spare no age or sex and mercilessly cut down young and old alike and pluck unripe fruit from the wombs of mothers".[14]

In the 16th century about 2,500 publications about the Turks were spread around Europe (over a thousand of which were in German), in these publications the image of the 'bloodthirsty Turk' was imprinted on reader. In fact in the period of 1480 to 1610, twice as many books were published about the Turkish threat to Europe than about the discovery of the continents of the New World.[14]

During this time the Ottoman Empire had invaded the Balkans and had been besieging Vienna. There was much fear in Europe about the Ottoman advance, most profoundly in Germany.[17] German Protestant Reformation leader Martin Luther cleverly used these fears by asserting that "the "Turks" were the agents of the Devil who, along with the Antichrist located in the heart of the Catholic Church, Rome, would usher in the Last Days and the Apocalypse".[18]

Luther had the view that the Turks' invasion of Europe was God's punishment of Christianity because it had allowed the corruption of both the Holy See and the Church.[19] In 1518 when he defended his 95 theses, Luther claimed that God had sent the Turks to punish the Christians in the same way as he had sent war, plagues and earthquakes. The reply of Pope Leo X was the famous papal bull in which he threatened Luther with excommunication and attempted to portray Luther as a troublemaker who advocated capitulation to the Turks.[14] In his writings On War Against the Turk and Military Sermon Against the Turks Martin Luther is "consistent in his theological conception of the Turks as a manifestation of God's chastising rod".[20] Luther and his followers "particularly" made "important" contributions to the view that the war between Habsburgs and Ottomans was also a war "between Christ and antichrist" or "between God and the devil.[21]

The Portuguese Empire, seeking to invade more lands in east Africa and other parts of the world, used any encounter with the "Terrible Turk" provided them with "a prime opportunity to establish credentials as champions of the faith on par with other Europeans"[22]

Stories of the Wolf-Turk also gave Europe this negative image of the Turks. The Wolf-Turk was claimed to be a man-eating being, half animal half human with a Wolf's head and tail. Military power and cruelty were the recurring attributes in all these claims about the origins of the Turks.[14]

17th century[edit]

During the 17th century Turks and Turkish life style continued to be portrayed negatively because of political and ideological reasons. The use of accounts of Turkish customs and Turkish people written during the 17th and 18th centuries, "served as an "ideological weapon" during the Enlightenment's arguments about the nature of government".[23] Authors projected an image of Turkish people that is "inaccurate but accepted".[24] Regarding writings on Turkish people and their life styles, "accuracy [was] of little importance; what matters [was] the illusion".[25]

In Sweden, the Turks were designated the arch-enemy of Christianity. This is evident in a book entitled Luna Turcica eller Turkeske måne, anwissjandes lika som uti en spegel det mahometiske vanskelige regementet, fördelter uti fyra qvarter eller böcker ("Turkish moon showing as in a mirror the dangerous Mohammedan rule, divided into four quarters or books") which was published in 1694 and was written by the parish priest Erland Dryselius of Jönköping. In sermons the country's clergy preached about the Turks' general cruelty and bloodthirstiness and of how they systematically burned and plundered the areas they conquered. In a Swedish school book published in 1795 Islam was described as "the false religion that had been fabricated by the great deceiver Muhammad, to which the Turks to this day universally confess".[14]

In Orientalism, Edward Said noted that:

"Until the end of the seventeenth century the 'Ottoman peril' lurked alongside Europe to represent for the whole of Christian civilization a constant danger, and in time European civilization incorporated that peril and its lore, its great events, figures, virtues, and vices, as something woven into the fabric of life."[26]

18th century[edit]

Voltaire and other European writers criticized the Turks as tyrants who destroyed Europe's heritage.[27]

In 1718, James Puckle demonstrated his new invention, the Defence Gun, better known as the Puckle gun,—a tripod-mounted, single-barreled flintlock weapon fitted with a multishot revolving cylinder, designed for shipboard use to prevent boarding. Puckle demonstrated two versions of the basic design: one, intended for use against Christian enemies, fired conventional round bullets, while the second variant, designed to be used against the Muslim Turks, fired square bullets, designed by Kyle Tunis, which were considered to be more damaging and would, according to its patent, convince the Turks of the "benefits of Christian civilization."[28]

19th century[edit]

English author Charles Dickens, in a 1844 poem titled A Word in Season, criticized Turkish people for "ruthlessly" defacing "God's living image", saying that they lived in "brutal ignorance, and toil, and dearth". Dickens contrasts these traits with Britain's "highly civilized and thinking nation".[29]

In his 1869 travelogue The Innocents Abroad, American author Mark Twain called Turks "a people by nature and training filthy, brutish, ignorant".[30]

Within the Ottoman Empire[edit]

Within the Ottoman Empire, the name "Turk" was sometimes used to denote the Turkmen backwoodsmen, bumpkins, or the illiterate peasants in Anatolia. "Etrak-i bi-idrak", for example, was an Ottoman play on words, meaning "the ignorant Turk".[31]

Özay Mehmet in his book Islamic Identity and Development: Studies of the Islamic Periphery mentions:[32]

Handan Nezir Akmeşe is another author who describes the attempts of the Young Turk movement to ingrain nationalism among the Turkish speakers of the Ottoman Empire prior to World War I.[33]

Contemporary Anti-Turkism[edit]

Before the 1960s, Turkey had "relatively low emigration".[34] After the adoption of new constitution in 1961, Turkish citizens began migrating outside.[35] Gradually, in certain Western countries, Turks became a "prominent ethnic minority group",[36] and thus, become "increasingly visible and vocal".[37] But since the beginning Turks were subject to discrimination against them. Even when host countries launched a shift in policy regarding their immigrants "only the Turkish workers were excluded" from them.[38]

The term "Turk" has acquired a meaning similar to "barbarian" or "heathen" in various European languages,[14][39][40][41][42] or use "Turk" as a slur or curse.[14][43] Due to that negative influence, it had instances of negative use and image in the U.S.[44]

Armenia[edit]

Armenia–Turkey relations have historically been hostile[45] primarily due to the Armenian Genocide of 1915 and its denial by Turkey. According to a 2007 survey, 78% of Armenians see Turkey as a threat.[46] According to Vartan Harutiunian "Armenian nationalism is based on Anti-Turkism and the most patriotic Armenian is the most anti-Turkish. In general, for an Armenian, anti-Turkism and patriotism are directly proportional."[47]

Bulgaria[edit]

Turkish refugees from the Tirnova district coming into Shumla (1877).
Konstantin Makovsky (1839–1915). The Bulgarian Martyresses (1877). A painting from the April Uprising, it sparked outrage in the West against alleged Turkish atrocities in Bulgaria.

The Turkish population of Bulgaria before the country was reformed in 1878 is estimated at one third of the total.[48] By 1876, approximately 70% of the fertile arable land belonged to the Turks. Afterward, an estimated 220,000 Turks migrated to Turkey between 1923 and 1949, though the Turkish government encouraged the emigration. Then, another wave of Turks left Bulgaria, some 155,000 were either expelled or allowed to leave in 1949–51, though the emigration occurred following an agreement with the Turkish government.[49][50]

In 1984, the Bulgarian government started a Bulgarisation process whereby policies were instigated to limit the cultural and ethnic characteristics of Bulgarian Turks. Approximately 800,000 Turks were forced to change their names to Bulgarian names. Furthermore, Turks were not allowed to attend the Muslim religious ceremonies,[51] speak Turkish in public places or wear traditional Turkish clothing.[52] This eventually led to the biggest mass exodus in Europe since World War II ensued after the border with Turkey was opened in June 1989 and in the span of three months approximately 350,000 Turks left Bulgaria on tourist visas (hence the event is known as The Big Excursion) and crossed the border into Turkey.[53] Eventually, especially after the removal of Todor Zhivkov from power, over 150,000 Turks returned to Bulgaria, but more than 200,000 chose to remain in Turkey permanently.[54]

The former Bulgarian prime minister Boyko Borisov (2009–2013) has been accused of having anti-Turkish tendencies.[55] In December 2009, Borisov "declared himself in favor of a motion put forth by the nationalist party ATAKA and its leader for holding a referendum over the broadcast of daily Turkish language news emissions on the Bulgarian National TV", but he later withdrew support.[56] The Turkish prime minister "expressed his concern of rising anti-Turkish sentiments in Bulgaria"[57] to the Bulgarian prime minister. The Turkish Foreign Ministry also "expressed its concern over the rising heated rhetoric in Bulgaria"[58] on the issue of the Turkish language news. According to a report by Ivan Dikov, "not just ATAKA but a large number of Bulgarians have resented the news in Turkish".[56]

Cyprus[edit]

See also: Turks in Cyprus

The island of Cyprus became an independent state in 1960, with power sharing between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots under the 1960 Zurich agreements. In December 1963, the events known as Bloody Christmas (tr:Kanlı Noel)[59] was were Turkish Cypriots ousted from the Republic and Greek Cypriots initiated a military campaign against them, which led to the beginning of ethnic clashes between the two communities that were to continue for 11 years.[60] At this time, Turkish Cypriots bore the heavier cost in terms of casualties and some 25,000 Turkish Cypriots became internally displaced accounting to about a fifth of their population.[61] These Turkish Cypriots had become internally displaced and lived as refugees for at least ten years before the 1974 Turkish invasion.[61] By the late 1960s, tension continued to grow and approximately 60,000 Turkish Cypriots left their homes and moved into enclaves.[62] This resulted in an exodus of Turkish Cypriots with the majority migrating to the United Kingdom whilst others went to Turkey, North America and Australia.[63]

Germany[edit]

The Solingen arson attack of 1993 was one of the most severe instances of anti-foreigner violence in modern Germany when neo-Nazis set fire to a Turkish family's home.

It has been observed that Turks are "the most prominent ethnic minority group in contemporary Germany".[64] But discrimination against Turkish minority "occurs in various everyday situations"[65] in Germany. After the adoption of the 1961 constitution, Turkish citizens began migrating outside the country.[35] While the population of Turkish immigrant workers reached 3 million, Turkish minorities have become "well-known butts of welfare chauvinism and racial violence in Germany".[66] After 1980, xenophobia targeting Turkish minorities grow parallel with unemployment rates and "latent anti-Semitism was transformed into open 'anti-Turkism'".[67] Turks subjected to destructive jokes and public discourse and were shown "ludicrously different in their food tastes, dress, names, and even in their ability to develop survival techniques".[68] Those "eye-opening" jokes contain such a great deal of animosity and aggressive tendencies so that it is "reflected in the actual increasing violence towards Turks".[69] As a result of all these discrimination, "serious behavioral consequences of prejudice against Turks is prevailing in Germany".[65]

The number of violent acts by right-wing extremists in Germany increased dramatically between 1990 and 1992.[70] On November 25, 1992, three Turkish residents were killed in a firebombing in Mölln (Northern Germany).[71] The attack prompted even further perplexity since the victims were neither refugees nor lived in a hostel.[72] The same was true for the incident in a Westphalian town on May 29, 1993; where another arson attack took place in Solingen on a Turkish family that had resided in Germany for twenty-three years, five of whom were burnt to death.[73] Several neighbours heard someone shout Heil Hitler! before dousing the front porch and door with gasoline and setting the fire to the home.[74] However, most Germans condemned these attacks on foreigners and many marched in candlelight processions.[75]

According to Greg Nees, "because Turks are both darker-skinned and Muslim, conservative Germans are largely against granting them citizenship."[76]

Greece[edit]

A Turkish community currently live in Western Thrace which is located in the north-eastern part of Greece. After forcibility conquering Greece in the 15th century, Turks owned 84% of the land in Western Thrace in 1922, but now the minority estimates this figure to be between 20–40%. This stems from various practices of the Greek administration whereby ethnic Greeks are encouraged to purchase Turkish land with soft loans granted by the state.[77][78] The Western Thrace Turks has traditionally been estimated to number between 120,000 and 130,000.:[79][80] Yet, this is the estimate of the Turkish state side when in fact the Muslim population consists of various ethnic and religious backgrounds out of which actually Pomaks (Muslim people of Slavic origins and language) and Muslim Gipsies (Roma-related people of Muslim religion) comprise of the majority of the overall Muslim groups with sunni Muslims that self-ascribe ethnically as Turks being the minority. In terms of religion, next to Sunni Muslims, the Pomaks and Gipsies present sizeable Alevite and Bektashi groups. Thus, the Greek government refers to the overall Muslim community - the one Turkey ascribes as "Turkish community" - as Greek Muslims or Hellenic Muslims, and does not recognise any specific Turkish minority in Western Thrace.[79] Greek courts have also outlawed the use of the word 'Turkish' to describe the community so as to avoid the term being wrongly ascribed indiscriminately to unrelated Muslim citizens. In 1988, the Greek High Court affirmed a 1986 decision of the Court of Appeals of Thrace in which the Union of Turkish Associations of Western Thrace was ordered closed for reasons of illegally ascribing the term on unrelated/unaware people. The court held that the use of the word 'Turkish' referred to citizens of Turkey, and could not be used to describe citizens of Greece.

Malta[edit]

Having fought the Ottoman Empire, in the Siege of Malta of 1565, the Maltese still have colourful vocabulary regarding this event. For example, when there is the sun and the rain at the same time, they say "twieled tork" (a Turk was born), or when something goes wrong "Haqq ghat-torok" (curse on the Turks!) .[81] Religious representations reveal the extent of this historic rivalry, with a diplomatic incident nearly arising following the wrong depiction of the Turkish flag instead of that of the Ottoman Empire in a religious statue displayed for a village festa in Vittoriosa.[82]

Netherlands[edit]

The Netherlands has a sizable Turkish minority group as well as Germany. Turkish ethnic minority group is the "second largest ethnic minority group living in the Netherlands" and their culture is considered to "differ substantially from Dutch culture".[83] Even though progressive policies are installed, "especially compared with those in some other European countries such as Germany"[84] Human Rights Watch criticized the Netherlands for new legislations violating the human rights of Turkish ethnic minority group.[85] The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance published its third report on Netherlands in 2008. In this report Turkish minority group is described as a notable community which have been particularly affected by "stigmatisation of and discrimination against members of minority groups"[86] as a result of controversial policies of the governments of Netherlands. The same report also noted that "the tone of Dutch political and public debate around integration and other issues relevant to ethnic minorities has experienced a dramatic deterioration".

Recently, use of the word "allochtonen" as a "catch-all expression" for "the other" emerged as a new development. European Network against Racism, an international organisation supported by European Commission reported that, in Netherlands, half of the Turks reported having experienced racial discrimination.[87] Same report points "dramatic growth of islamophobia" parallel with antisemitism. Another international organisation European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia highlighted negative trend in Netherlands, regarding attitudes towards minorities, compared to average EU results.[88] The analysis also noted that compared to most other Europeans, in the Netherlands, majority group is "more in favour of cultural assimilation of minorities" rather than "cultural enrichment by minority groups".

Russia and former Soviet Union[edit]

A World War I Russian propaganda poster depicting an oriental imagined Turk running away from a Russian.

Within the Soviet Union, ethnic cleansing of Turks during World War II took the form of mass deportations carried out by the NKVD and the Red Army.[89] The reason for the deportation was because the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey. In June 1945 Vyacheslav Molotov, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, formally presented a demand to the Turkish Ambassador in Moscow for the surrender of three Armenian provinces (Kars, Ardahan and Artvin). Moscow was also preparing to support Armenian claims to several other Armenian provinces. Thus, war against Turkey seemed possible, and Joseph Stalin wanted to clear the strategic Turkish population (especially those situated in Meskheti) located near the Turkish-Georgian border which were likely to be hostile to Soviet intentions.[90] The deportation is relatively poorly documented, but Soviet sources suggests that an estimated 115,000 Turks were deported mainly to Central Asia, most of which settled in Uzbekistan.[91] However, numerous Turks died along the way.[92]

In 1989, ethnic clashes between the Uzbeks and Turks occurred. According to official figures, 103 people died and over 1,000 were wounded. Moreover, 700 houses were destroyed and more than 90,000 Meskhetian Turks were driven out of Uzbekistan.[93] The events of 1989 are considered by the Turks as their 'second deportation'. Those that remained in Uzbekistan complained (in private due to the fear of repercussions) of ethnic discrimination.[94]

Although some have returned to Meskheti, a problem has constantly been that Georgians and Armenians who settled into the homes of the Turks have vowed to take up arms against any return movements. Moreover, many Georgians have advocated that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey, 'where they belong'.[95]

More recently, some Turks in Russia, especially those in Krasnodar, have faced hostility from the local population. The Krasnodar Meskhetian Turks have suffered significant human rights violations, including the deprivation of their citizenship. They are deprived of civil, political and social rights and are prohibited from owning property and employment.[96] Thus, since 2004, many Turks have left the Krasnodar region for the United States as refugees, which is now becoming their third deportation. They are still barred from full repatriation to Georgia.[97]

Nowadays, many Georgians have antipathy (and sometimes hatred) toward Turks, due historical reasons and Turkish migration in Adjara region, although general sentiment remains friendly between the two states.

Quotes and sayings[edit]

Quotes[edit]

Sayings[edit]

The term "Turk" acquired a meaning similar to "barbarian" or "heathen" in various European languages, as evident from the following dictionary entries:

Many vices in the world came to be associated with the Turks as they moved westward towards Europe. The following is an incomplete list of sayings about Turks in various countries of Europe and the Middle East.

 Armenia

  • "թուրք" ("Turk") is commonly used to question someone's loyalty or criticize one's moral qualities: "հո թուրք չե՞ս" ("Are you a Turk?")[104]
  • "թուրքի տուն" ("Turk's house") is a phrase to describe disordered and a very dirty house[105]

 Bulgaria

  • ако ще турско да стане (ako šte túrsko da stáne). Literally: Even if the Turkish [yoke] would be reimposed. The Turkish yoke (1396–1878) is an epitome of odious time, tribulations and atrocious oppression in the Bulgarian-speaking countries.

Idiom:(after negation) indicates extreme obstinacy, reluctance: by no manner of means. Synonym: by no means

  • турчин ( Turk). Idiom: someone who doesn't let his wife to go out of the house and is oppressive to women.

 France

  • Turc was once used in proverbial expressions such as C'est un vrai Turc ("He's a real Turk"), used to indicate that a person was harsh and pitiless.[106]

 Germany:

  • getürkt ("turked") describes a fake or counterfeit document. "Dieser Führerschein ist getürkt." ("This driving license is a fake.").

 Greece:

  • Έγινε Τούρκος ("He became a Turk") denotes extreme anger towards someone or because of something ("He was so angry that he resembled a Turk").[107]

 India

  • tuluka paya ("Turkish guy") is a derogatory reference to Muslims being cruel in Tamil Nadu.

 Iran

  • Tork-e khar ("Turkish donkey") is a derogatory insult usually directed against Turks.[108][109] It usually means a stubborn person who does not accept any reasons and want to achieve everything with force.

 Italy

  • bestemmia come un Turco ("he swears like a Turk")[110]
  • Mamma li Turchi! ("Oh mother, the Turks are coming!") is one of the most used Italian phrase to suggest an imminent danger, as when the Ottoman Turks threatened Europe[111][112]
  • Fumare come un Turco ("To smoke like a Turk") is a phrase that describes a person who smokes a lot.
  • Quando puzza d'un Turco, anche la colera si sfugge ("When there is the stench of a Turk, even the cholera hides") Implies that even the cholera, one of the deadliest of epidemics in Europe is afraid of Turks.
  • Il Turco ed il cane rabbioso sono ugualmente crudeli; ma con il cane forse si potrebbe ragionare ("A Turk and a rabid dog are equally cruel, but you just might reason with the dog") Implies Turks are cruel for the sake of cruelty.
  • Freddo, come il cuor d'un turco ("Cold, like a Turk's heart") Another allusion to cruelty.

 Malta[81]

  • Iswed tork ("As black as a Turk"), referring to someone of dark skin colour
  • Ipejjep daqs tork ("He smokes as much as a Turk"), referring to a chainsmoker
  • Sar tork ("He became a Turk"), referring to someone who lost his faith
  • Twieled tork ("A turk was born)", referring to when it rains and there is the sun still shining
  • Għadu Tork! ("He is still a Turk"), referring to a non-baptised person
  • Ara ġej it-Tork għalik ("Look the Turk is coming for you"), mothers used to scare children about the Turk coming for them when they misbehaved.
  • It-Torok ("By the Turks") when something strange happens this phrase is idomatically used as an exclamation.
  • Ħaqq it-Torok ("Curse for the turks"), literally swearing when something goes wrong
  • Qattus it-Torok ("To hell with the turks"), as above. Very common idiomatic usage.
  • Xit-Torok trid? (literally "What the turkish do you want"), signifying what on earth do you want
  • La Torka (the Turkish way), to stay in a squatting position.
  • It-torok imorru fej seħet Alla (the Turks go where God cursed), rarely used, an expression showing intolerance against non-believers.

 Netherlands See also:nl:Turk (scheldwoord) Turk (insult) in Dutch Wiki

  • "eruit zien als een Turk" ("to look like a Turk") means to be dirty, disgusting
  • "rijden als een Turk" ("driving like a Turk") means someone is a bad driver
  • For decades after the Turkish immigrants came to the Netherlands most encyclopedias and dictionaires, including the Van Dale, still referred to a Turk as someone who is dirty, barbaric and bloodthirsty, instead of[citation needed] someone who lives in Turkey[113]

 Norway

  • "Sint som en tyrker" is a saying which means "Angry like a Turk"[114][115]

 Romania

  • "Măi, turcule" (You, Turk) or "a fi turc" (to be a Turk) is an expression used to address or to refer to a person who fails to comprehend, is ignorant, stubborn or narrow-minded[43][116]
  • "a fuma ca un turc" ("to smoke like a Turk") is an expression used to denote a person who smokes a lot[116][117]
  • "doar nu dau/vin turcii" (roughly "Hold your horses!", literally "the Turks aren't coming[, are they?]") is an expression used to ironically calm someone's impulsiveness down[116]

 Russia

  • "Незваный гость хуже Татарина" ("An unwanted guest is worse than a Tatar", with Tatars being a Turkic people living in Russia).[118]

 Serbia (and other ex-Yugoslavia countries)

  • "puši ko Turčin / пуши ко Турчин" is a phrase that means "he smokes like a Turk" describing a person who smokes a lot[119]

 Tunisia

  • "Tarrakni" ("He turkified me") in reference to the corruption of the Ottoman rule of Tunisia. It means "he ruined me".

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dickens, Charles (1878). "The Eastern question as it was". All the year round: a weekly journal 40. Chapman & Hall. p. 14. It is strange that the last echo of Turcophobia is found in Voltaire. He, tolerant in most things, hated the Moslem. 
  2. ^ Libaridian, Gerard J. (2004). Modern Armenia: people, nation, state. Transaction Publishers. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-7658-0205-7. One consequence of the shift from anti-communism to anti-Turkism was that an important segment of the Diaspora lived through moments ... 
  3. ^ Khalidi, Rashid (1991). The origins of Arab nationalism. Columbia University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-231-07435-3. In the first place, Arabist ideology, including a bitter anti-Turkism, was fully formulated long before the Young Turk revolution 
  4. ^ Justin McCarthy, The Turk in America: The Creation of an Enduring Prejudice, University of Utah Press; 1st Edition (August 15, 2010)
  5. ^ The Muslim World League journal, Volume 23, Press and Publications Dept., Muslim World League, 1995
  6. ^ Graham E. Fuller, From Eastern Europe to Western China: the growing role of Turkey in the world and its implications for western interests, United States. Air Force, United States Army, RAND Corporation, 1993: "views the Bosnians as "Turks." Indeed, the Muslims of Bosnia themselves early on looked to Turkey for diplomatic"
  7. ^ A. Brah, Cartographies of diaspora: contesting identities, Psychology Press, 1996, p. 165
  8. ^ Christine L. Ogan, Communication and identity in the Diaspora: Turkish migrants in Amsterdam, Lexington Books, 2001, p. 40
  9. ^ Riva Kastoryano, "Turkish Transnational Nationalism How the 'Turks Abroad' Redefine Nationalism" in: Ajaya Kumar Sahoo, Brij Maharaj, Sociology of diaspora: a reader: Volume 1, 2007, p. 425: "In November 1992, a week after the racist attacks in Molln, during which five people of Turkish origin had been killed ..."
  10. ^ Justin McCarthy, The Turk in America: The Creation of an Enduring Prejudice, University of Utah Press; 1st Edition (August 15, 2010)
  11. ^ Google Books The Greatest Story Ever Forged
  12. ^ a b Janus Møller Jensen, Denmark and the Crusades, 1400–1650, BRILL, 2007, p. 117: "The earliest recorded mass against the Turks was composed by Bishop Bernhard of Kotor in 1453/54, immediately after the fall of Constantinople. It was officially confirmed and endowed with an indulgence of 300 days by Pope Paul II in 1470."
  13. ^ Ethnological Society (London), Journal of the Ethnological Society of London: Volume 2, 1870, p. 188: "Even Dr. Latham, whose Turcophobia is so pronounced, allows that the Khirgises are, in name and in many respects, other than Turks, though their language is unquestionably Turkish. I believe with him that Khirgis, a mere form of the ..."
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Turkey, Sweden and the EU Experiences and Expectations", Report by the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies, April 2006, p. 6
  15. ^ Andrew Kirkman, The cultural life of the early polyphonic Mass: medieval context to modern revival, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 121
  16. ^ Danielle Buschinger, La croisade: réalités et fictions, Kümmerle, 1989, p. 51: "... pour faire progresser la piété des chrétiens; la liturgie a mis en évidence les défauts des turcs et depuis le milieu du 15ème siècle une missa contra Turcas (messe contre les Turcs) a été célébrée, où l'impie est désormais le Turc."
  17. ^ Miller, G. J. (2003). Luther on the Turks and Islam. In T. Wengert (Ed.), Harvesting Martin Luther's reflections on theology, ethics, and the church. (p. 185). Grand Rapids MI: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. [1]
  18. ^ Sean Foley. (2009). Muslims and Social Change in the Atlantic Basin. Journal of World History, 20(3), 377-398. [2]
  19. ^ Smith, R. O. (2007). Luther, the Turks, and Islam. Currents in Theology and Mission, 34(5), 351-365: "Luther's statement of explanation created yet more contention. Indeed, it was singled out for condemnation in Exsurge Domine, the papal bull of excommunication directed at Luther by Pope Leo X on 15 June 1520. Among the "destructive, pernicious, scandalous, and seductive" errors enumerated in the bull is an essentialized version of Luther's position: "To go to war against the Turks is to resist God who punishes our iniquities through them." (11) But even before Exsurge Domine, Luther tied his struggles with Rome to the war against the Turk. Prior to the beginning of the Leipzig Debate with Johannes Eck in June 1519, Luther wrote to his friend Wencenlaus Linck, "I think I can demonstrate that today Rome is worse than the Turk."
  20. ^ Smith, R. O. (2007). Luther, the Turks, and Islam. Currents in Theology and Mission, 34(5), 351-365. [3]
  21. ^ Miller, G. J. (2003). Luther on the Turks and Islam. In T. Wengert (Ed.), Harvesting Martin Luther's reflections on theology, ethics, and the church. (p. 186). Grand Rapids MI: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. [4]
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External links[edit]