Anti-Ukrainian sentiment

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Anti-Ukrainian sentiment or Ukrainophobia is animosity towards Ukrainians, Ukrainian culture, language or Ukraine as a nation.[1] It is widely present in the former Soviet Union, mainly in the Russian Federation and in some parts of Eastern Ukraine, where a large portion of the population is composed of ethnic Russians.[2] [page needed] Its opposite is Ukrainophilia.

Modern scholars define two types of anti-Ukrainian sentiment: one based on discrimination of Ukrainians based on their ethnic or cultural origin (similar to other manifestations of xenophobia and racism), and another based on the conceptual rejection of Ukrainians, Ukrainian culture and language as artificial and unnatural. At the turn of the 20th century, several authors supported an assertion that Ukrainian identity and language had been created artificially in order to undermine Russia.[3] This argument has been promulgated by several conservative Russian authors.[1]

Russian Empire[edit]

The rise and spread of Ukrainian self-awareness around the time of the Revolutions of 1848 produced an anti-Ukrainian sentiment within some layers of society within the Russian empire. In order to retard and control this movement, the use of Ukrainian language within the Russian empire was initially restricted by official government decrees such as the Valuev Circular (July 18, 1863) and later banned by the Ems ukaz (May 18, 1876) from any use in print (with the exception of reprinting of old documents). Popularly the anti-Ukrainian sentiment was promulgated by such organizations as "Black Hundreds", which were vehemently opposed to Ukrainian self-determination. Some restrictions on the use of Ukrainian language were relaxed in 1905-1907. They ceased to be policed after the February Revolution in 1917.

Russian gendarmes in 1914 at the Taras Shevchenko burial.

Beside the Ems ukaz and Valuev Circular, there was a multiple number of other anti-Ukrainian sentiments starting from the 17th century after Russia was governed by the House of Romanovs. In 1720 Peter the Great issued an edict prohibiting to print books in the Ukrainian language and since 1729 all edicts and instructions were only in the Russian language. In 1763 Catherine the Great issued an edict prohibiting to give lectures in the Ukrainian language at the Kiev-Mohyla Academy. In 1769 the Most Holy Synod prohibits to print and use the Ukrainian alphabet book. In 1775 the Zaporizhian Sich was destroyed. In 1832 all studying at schools of the Right-bank Ukraine transitioned to exclusively Russian language. In 1847 the Russian government persecuted all members of the Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius and prohibiting the better works of Taras Shevchenko, Panteleimon Kulish, Nikolay Kostomarov (Mykola Kostomarov) and others. In 1862 all free Sunday schools for adults in Ukraine were closed. In 1863 the Russian Minister of Interior Valuev decided that the Little Russian language (Ukrainian language) has never existed and could not ever more to exist. During that time in the winter of 1863-64 the January Uprising took place at the western regions of the Russian Empire that united peoples of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Next year in 1864 there has appeared the "Regulation about elementary school" which claimed that any teaching should be conducted in the Russian language. In 1879 the Russian Minister of Education Dmitry Tolstoy (later the Russian Minister of Interior) officially and openly stated that all people of the Russian Empire should be Russified. In 1880s were issued several edicts that prohibited education in the Ukrainian language at privately held schools, theatric performances in the Ukrainian language, any use of such language in official institutions as well as baptizing by Ukrainian names. In 1892 another edict prohibited translation from the Russian language to the Ukrainian language. In 1895 the Main Administration of Publishing prohibited printing children books in the Ukrainian language. In 1911 the resolution that was adopted at the 7th Congress of Noblemen in Moscow prohibited the use of any other languages than Russian. In 1914 the Russian government officially prohibited celebrations of the 100th Anniversary of Shevchenko birthday and posted gendarmes at the Chernecha Hill. The same year Nicholas II of Russia issued an edict on prohibition of the Ukrainian press.

Soviet Union[edit]

"In their time Marko Kropyvnytsky, Ivan Tobilevych, Mykola Sadovsky, Maria Zankovetska, Panas Saksahansky all should have been hanged. Then no one would even have heard about Ukraine."

 Mikhail Artemyevich Muravyov, Red Commander[4]

Under Soviet rule in Ukraine, a policy of korenization was adopted after defeat of the Ukrainian People's Republic and initially supported Ukrainian cultural self-awareness. This policy was phased out in 1928 and terminated entirely in 1932 in favor of general Russification.

In 1929 Mykola Kulish wrote a theatrical play "Myna Mazailo" where the author cleverly displays the cultural situation in Ukraine. There was supposedly no anti-Ukrainian sentiment within the Soviet government, which began to repress all aspects of Ukrainian culture and language as contrary to the ideology of Proletarian Internationalism.

In 1930 in Kharkiv took place the Union for the Freedom of Ukraine process after which number of former Ukrainian politicians or their relatives were deported to the Middle Asia. The ethnical cleansing against the Ukrainian intelligentsia was never evaluated and is poorly documented. The contemporary historical reevaluations of that period are being accepted in hostile manner from the leadership of the Russian Federation at very least as non friendly (see 2009 Medvedev speech).[5]

During the Soviet era, the population of Ukraine was reduced by the artificial famine called Holodomor in 1932-33 along with the population of other nearby agrarian areas of the USSR.

Many prominent Ukrainians were labelled as nationalists or anti-revolutionaries, and many were repressed and executed as enemies of the people.[6]

In January 1944 during a session of Politbureau of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Stalin personally gave a speech "About anti-Lenin mistakes and nationalistic perversions in a film-tale of Alexander Dovzhenko "Ukraine in flames".[7]

On July 2, 1951 the Communist newspaper Pravda published an article "On Ideological Perversions in Literature" in regards of the Volodymyr Sosyura's poem "Love Ukraine" where it stated the following: "This poem could have been signed by such foes of the Ukrainian people as Petliura and Bandera ... For Sosiura writes about Ukraine and the love of it outside the limits of time and space. This is an ideologically vicious work. Contrary to the truth of life, the poet sings praises of a certain ‘eternal’ Ukraine full of flowers, curly willows, birdies, and waves on the Dnipro."[8]

Dobosh Affair or Arrested Kolyada[edit]

Prior to the 50th Anniversary of the establishment of the USSR in 1972, KGB initiated a special operation on the neutralization of people with an explicit public opinion. The special operation led to mass pogroms of the opposing intelligentsiya and hundreds of arrests with more serious convictions. An announcement from the KGB of Ukrainian SSR was sent to the First secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine, comrade Shelest.

A former wife of Vyacheslav Chornovil, doctor Olena Antoniv decided to organize a vertep in Lviv and conducted some preparations to the event at her apartment at vulytsia Spokiyna, 13. Vertep was to be held "with Malanka" (participation of a goat) and Bountiful Evening. Among the participants of the vertep were Lyubomyra Popadyuk, Vasyl Stus, Olena Antoniv, Iryna Kalynets, Maria and Hanna Sadovski, Mykhailo and Olha Horyn, Stefania Shabatura, Marian Hatalo, Oleksandr Kuzmenko and many others. Photos of those events are kept at the National Museum "Prison at Lontskoho". Vasyl Stus sided with the Lviv vertep on December 31 right after arriving from Morshyn where he has been treated. After couple of days when visiting Kalynets family he gave them a collection of poetry "Winter trees" and an article about Tychyna "The epoch phenomena", while receiving back a vyshyvanka (decorated shirt).

KGB as in the best of its traditions sent numerous agents among the local population to help tracking and uncovering any anti-Soviet activities. One of the agents was an employee of the Museum of Folk Architecture in Pyrohove, Borys Kovhar, who sent a letter of confession to the KGB Major Danylenko. Kovhar, however, eventually sided with the dissidents, for which he paid by being sent to a psychiatric hospital.

In order to convict the vertep participants in more serious crimes than not following the Soviet atheistic principles and celebrating religious holidays, it was decided to connect the "nationalistic underground of Ukraine with the Ukrainian centers and organizations abroad". The "Dobosh Affair" was invented by the Soviet state security authorities where the lead role was given to a Belgian student of Ukrainian descent Yaroslav Dobosh. According to the scenario Dobosh intended to collect in Kiev and Lviv copies of samizdat, photocopies of "Ukrainian Herald" and take them abroad for the Ukrainian Relief Committee and Society of Ukrainian Youth, of which he was a member.

The day January 4, 1972 was the starting point in conducting operations against dissidents. Dobosh was not permitted to leave the Soviet Union when he was detained on a border in Chop, while also a copy of "Rhyme dictionary of Ukrainian language" from political prisoner Svyatoslav Karavansky was confiscated from him. The student was accused "in conducting subversive anti-Soviet activities". Notice of his arrest appeared only after 11 days in the newspaper of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Ukraine "Radyanska Ukrayina" (Soviet Ukraine).

The direct actions against opposition members started on January 12, 1972. One of the dissidents described the ominous day as following

After the conducted searches behind bars found themselves leaders of dissidents Ivan Svitlychny, Vasyl Stus, Yevhen Sverstyuk, Zinovia Franko, Leonid Seleznenko, Leonid Plyushch and others.

Soviet language policy in cinematography of Ukraine[edit]

The biggest film studio of Ukraine, Dovzhenko Film Studios (Kiev), explicitly shows the Soviet language policy even during the so-called policy of "korenizatsiya". A simple analysis of all studio productions which accounts for some 378 films shows that 338 films (88.9%) were produced either completely in the Russian language or the Ukrainian language could be heard in few episodes or in folkloristic scenes (such as songs) to distinct Ukrainian region. Only 22 (5.8%) films were produced in the Ukrainian language and language production of another 14 (3.7%) films was difficult to evaluate, while 6 (1.6%) films were really bilingual (Russian-Ukrainian).[9]

Other incidents[edit]

About the fact of Russification were written numerous publications by number of academicians and literary specialists such as Nina Virchenko, Rostyslav Dotsenko, Mykhailyna Kotsiubynska (niece of Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky), and many others.

Ukraine[edit]

On Sunday July 15, 2012 the national television broadcasting station in Ukraine First National in its news program "Weekly overview" (Ukrainian: Підсумки тижня) showed a video footage on a development of anti-Ukrainian sentiments within Ukraine.[10]

Other Regions[edit]

Caricature from Vidsich on the linguistic situation in Ukraine. It shows the big man, representing Russian language, telling the girl, representing Ukrainian language, to "stop repressing me"

On February 24, 2009 Ihor Markov, a deputy of Odessa city council and leader of the pro-Russian organization Rodina — along with associates — beat up picketers who were protesting against raising of the monument of the Russian empress Catherine II in Odessa.[11][12] Catherine II was the founder of the city of Odessa, but she is sometimes reviled in Ukraine for the destruction of Zaporizhian Host and for spreading serfdom to Ukrainian territory.

On April 17, 2009, Maksym Chaika, a 20-year old student of Odessa National University, was murdered in Odessa.[13] Chaika was a member of Sich, a patriotic youth movement in Ukraine. Some observers say that Chaika had openly criticized the pro-Russian activities of Markov, his party, Rodina, and the local TV channel ATB, which sympathizes with Markov.[13] On April 24, 2009 during the TV-show Shuster-Live Markov called murdered Chaika neo-fascist and stated that Ukraine follows the same political route as the Nazi Germany.[14] With the help from Mykolaiv city Prosecutor's Office Markov was able to evade any responsibilities.[15]

A propaganda article posted on the website of the Kremenchuk department of the Communist Party of Ukraine argues that history that was published during the Soviet regime was the true history, and that new historical facts being uncovered from the archives are false.[16] The article also denies the existence of the Ukrainian culture.

Mykola Levchenko, a Ukrainian parliamentarian from Party of Regions, and the deputy of Donetsk City Council states that there should be only one language, Russian. He says that the Ukrainian language is impractical and should be avoided. Levchenko called Ukrainian the language of folklore and anecdotes. However, he says he will speak the literary Ukrainian language on principal, once Russian is adopted as the sole state language.[17] Anna German, the spokesperson of the same party, highly criticized those statements.[18]

Mykhailo Bakharev, the vice-speaker of the Crimean Autonomous Republic parliament (and the main editor of Krymskaya Pravda), openly says that there is no Ukrainian language and that it is the language of the non-educated part of population. He claims that it was invented by Taras Shevchenko and others. He also believes that there is no Ukraine nation, there is no future for the Ukrainian State, and that Ukrainization needs to be stopped.[19]

Volodymyr Rybak complained on March 14, 2013 that he is not permitted to speak in a foreign language in the Supreme Council of Ukraine.[20]

On May 25, 2013 a resident of Kiev was beaten up simply for speaking in the Ukrainian language.[21]

On May 27, 2013 the Kiev Administrative Court of Appeals rejected the appeal of Iryna Farion against the court decision in regards to ensure the Ukrainian translation of foreign language speeches in the Supreme Council of Ukraine - Verkhovna Rada.[22]

Minister of Education of Ukraine[edit]

The former Ukrainian Minister of Science and Education, Dmytro Tabachnyk, sparked protests calling him anti-Ukrainian in some parts of Ukraine due to this statements about Western Ukrainians, his preference for the Russian language, and his denial of the Holodomor.[23][24] Tabachnyk's view of Ukraine’s history includes the thesis that western Ukrainians aren’t really Ukrainian. In an article for the Russian newspaper Izvestia Tabachnyk wrote last year: “Halychany (western Ukrainians) practically don’t have anything in common with the people of Great Ukraine, not in mentality, not in religion, not in linguistics, not in the political arena” “We have different enemies and different allies. Furthermore, our allies and even brothers are their enemies, and their ‘heroes’ (Stepan Bandera, Roman Shukhevych) for us are killers, traitors and abettors of Hitler’s executioners.”[23] By March 17, 2010 four of western Ukraine’s regional councils had passed resolutions calling for the minister’s dismissal. A host of civic and student organizations from all over the country (including Kherson in southern Ukraine and Donetsk in eastern Ukraine), authors and former Soviet dissidents also signed petitions calling for his removal.[23] Tabachnyk also denies the Holodomor,[25] considering it an invention of foreign historians for political motives. Tabachnik also had stated that Ukrainian history textbooks contained "simply false" information and announced his intention to rewrite them.[26][27]

Shevchenko-phobia[edit]

Shevchenkophobia is a variant of Ukrainophobia. According to Ivan Dzyuba, such sentiment appeared already in the beginning of the Taras Shevchenko's work. One of the most notable depiction of such sentiment today became publication of Oles Buzyna "Vuladak Taras Shevchenko", the goal of which is to discredit the Shevchenko's personality cult.

Russia[edit]

In a poll held by Levada Center in June 2009 in Russia 75% of Russian respondents respected Ukrainians as ethnic group but 55% were negative about Ukraine as the state. In May 2009, 96% of Ukrainians polled by Kyiv International Sociology Institute were positive about Russians as ethnic group, 93% respected Russian Federation and 76% respected Russian establishment.[28]

Some Russian media seem to try to discredit Ukraine.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] Media like Komsomolskaya Pravda seem to try to intensify the bad relationship between Ukraine and Russia.[38] A series of Russian films used anti-Ukrainian slurs without any criticism from their government[not in citation given]. Anti-Ukrainian attitude persists among several Russian politicians, such as the former mayor of Moscow, Yuri Luzhkov, and the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and the Deputy Speaker of the Russian Parliament, Vladimir Zhirinovsky.[39]

Ukrainians form the third largest ethnic group in Russian Federation after Russians and Tatars. In 2006, in letters to Vladimir Putin, Viktor Yushchenko and Vasily Duma, the Ukrainian Cultural Centre of Bashkortostan complained of anti-Ukrainian sentiment in Russia, which they claim includes wide use of anti-Ukrainian ethnic slurs in the mainstream Russian media, television and film.[40] The Urals Association of Ukrainians also made a similar complaint in a letter they addressed to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 2000.[41]

According to the Ukrainian Cultural Centre of Bashkortostan, despite their significant presence in Russia, Ukrainians in that country have less access to Ukrainian-language schools and Ukrainian churches than do other ethnic groups.[41] In Vladivostok, according to the head of the Ukrainian government's department of Ukrainian Diaspora Affairs, local Russian officials banned a Ukrainian Sunday school in order not to "accentuate national issues"[42]

According to the president of the Ukrainian World Congress in 2001, persistent requests to register a Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate or a Ukrainian Catholic Church were hampered due to "particular discrimination" against them, while other Catholic, Muslim and Jewish denominations fared much better.[43] According to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, by 2007 their denomination had only one church building in all of Russia.[44]

Some Russians mass-media continues their policy of turning the population of Ukraine against its government and trying to convince of non-existence of the Ukrainian culture, such as some Alexei Itsenkov from Gazeta 2000 who posted his article under domain's name litvin.com.ua.[45] In his article Mr.Itsenkov gives an impression of being an expert of ethnography, implying that the Ukrainian ethnicity never existed and is simply an invention of the Motherland's deserters who emigrated to Poland, United States, and Canada. Interestingly that his name can also be traced to the pro-presidential website of the Russian Federation.

In 2008 Nikolai Smirnov released a documentary in which he claims that Ukraine is part of one whole Russia that was split away by different western powers such as Poland, particularly.[46][47]

In November 2010, the High Court of Russia cancelled registration of one of the biggest civic communities of the Ukrainian minority, the “Federal nation-cultural autonomy of the Ukrainians in Russia” (FNCAUR).[48] According to the author Mykhailo Ratushniy Ukrainian activists continue to face discrimination and bigotry in much of Russia.[49]

Deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation Konstantin Zatulin identifies Ukrainians as the Russians who live in Crimea.[50]

The anchorman of a news program "Sunday Time" on the Channel One (Russia) Pyotr Tolstoi announced on July 8, 2012 about the enforced Ukrainization in Ukraine, 20 millions Russians, an invented genocide about Ukrainians, and the distortion of the Russian historiography.[51]

Television[edit]

State television company of Orenburg city portrays Taras Shevchenko as a Russophobian and an ungrateful poet of questionable status. It questions the reason to celebrate the birthday of Ukrainian national poet who was exiled to Orenburg.[52]

List of Russophone films with clear anti-Ukrainian sentiments[edit]

Poland[edit]

Anti-Ukrainian sentiment in Poland first became significant in the mid-17th century in the aftermath of the revolt led by Khmelnytsky in 1648. It continued with numerous outbursts during the Haydamak revolts of the 18th century.

The 20th-century anti-Ukrainian Stalinist actions such as Operation Vistula left a deep and endemic mark on the ethnic Ukrainians living within the Polish state.

Ukrainian organizations in Poland are disturbed by a new wave of anti-Ukrainian actions that have recently erupted such as those that appeared during the festival of Ukrainian culture in Poland in the border town of Przemyśl in 1995 where numerous threats against participants and numerous acts of vandalism took place. A rise in incidences of graffiti with anti-Ukrainian slogans, and the office of “Związek Ukraińców w Polsce” was set alight.[55] In some cities anti-Ukrainian assaults, vandalism acts of an organized character have targeted centers of Ukrainian culture, schools, churches, memorials.[56]

Polish publishing house Nortom was banned from the Frankfurt Book Fair in 2000, for selling anti-German and antisemitic books.[57] Ukrainophobic and antisemitic authors (mainly interbellum Endecija activists) published by Nortom[58] include: Roman Dmowski,[59] Janusz Dobrosz, Jędrzej Giertych, Jan Ludwik Popławski, Maciej Giertych, Stanisław Jastrzębski, Edward Prus,[60][61] Feliks Koneczny. In 2000, Nortom was forced to withdraw its 12 controversial titles from the Frankfurt Book Fair by the Polish Ministry of Culture representative Andrzej Nowakowski overlooking the Polish exposition. Nortom was accused of selling anti-German, Anti-Ukrainian and antisemitic books, especially the following titles: "Być czy nie być" by Stanisław Bełza, "Polska i Niemcy" by Jędrzej Giertych and "I tak nie przemogą. Antykościół, antypolonizm, masoneria" by his son Maciej Giertych. As a result of the above request, the president of the Polish delegation Andrzej Chrzanowski from Polska Izba Książki decided to penalize Nortom by removing it from the 2000 book fair altogether.

Canada[edit]

Anti-Ukrainian discrimination was present in Canada from the arrival of Ukrainians in Canada around 1891 until the late 20th Century. In one sense this was part of a larger trend towards nativism in English Canada during the period. But Ukrainians were singled out for special discrimination because of their large numbers, visibility (due to dress and language), and political activism. During the First World War, around 8,000 Ukrainian Canadian were interned by the Canadian government as "enemy aliens" (because they came from the Austrian Empire). In the interwar period all Ukrainian cultural and political groups, no matter what their ideology was, were monitored by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and many of their leaders were deported.[62]

This attitude began to slowly change after the Second World War, as Canadian immigration and cultural policies generally moved from being explicitly pro-British to a more pluralistic foundation. Ukrainian nationalists were now seen as victims of communism, rather than dangerous subversives. Ukrainians began to hold high offices, and one, Senator Paul Yuzyk was one of the earliest proponents of a policy of "multiculturalism" which would end official discrimination and acknowledge the contribution of non-English, non-French Canadians. The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism of the 1960s, which had originally been formed only to deal with French-Canadian grievances, began the transition to multiculturalism in Canada because of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's desire to court Ukrainian votes in Western Canada. The Commission also included a Ukrainian commissioner, Jaroslav Rudnyckyj.

Since the adoption of official multiculturalism under Section Twenty-seven of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982, Ukrainians in Canada have had legal protection against discrimination.

Slang references to Ukrainians and Ukrainian culture[edit]

Caricature "Khokhly" by Igor Serdyukov. The use of ethnic slurs and stereotypes in relation to Ukrainians in Russian media[63][dead link] is one of Ukrainian community's concerns in Russia.[40] Caption reads, "So that's howBin Laden looks like!" and the sign reads "Caution: Khokhols" - a reference to the alleged aggression and terrorism of Ukrainians against the Russian population

Ethnic slurs[edit]

  • Bohunk
  • Khokhol
  • Saloyed (salo' eater; based on a stereotype and a running joke that salo is a national food favorite)
  • Ukr (plural:Ukry): After gaining its independence, Ukrainians started rebuilding their history after a long period of Polonization and Russification. This nation-building drive was derided by Russians. A Russian running joke is that Ukrainians derive the name of the country Ukraine from the name of the ancient tribe of "Ukrs" (also derisively called "Great Ukrs", Великие Укры).
  • Ukrop (literally "dill", a pun: ukrainian<->ukrop)[64]

Political insults and historical nicknames[edit]

  • Maloros - Ukrainian, literally "dweller of Malorossiya (Little Russia)". In 19th century it was a neutral word in Russian language, but perceived as discriminatory by Ukrainians
  • Orangoid (Orange Revolution supporter)[citation needed]

There are a number of Russian insults based on the alleged opposition of all Ukrainians to all things Russian (or all things Soviet, in the past)

Other[edit]

  • Mova - a Russian derisive slang reference to Ukrainian language (mova literally means "language" in Ukrainian, but there is no such word in formal Russian language)

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

References and footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Andriy Okara. Ukrainophobia is a gnostic problem. Retrieved 12.27.08.
  2. ^ James Stuart Olson, Lee Brigance Pappas, Nicholas Charles Pappas, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. ISBN 0-313-27497-5.
  3. ^ Russia and Ukraine By Myroslav Shkandrij. Retrieved 12.27.08
  4. ^ Orel, S. Хутір Надія — колиска театру корифеїв (Khutir Nadiya - a cradle of a theater of coryphaeus). Newspaper "Day". 2003-04-04
  5. ^ Dmitri Medvedev speech to Viktor Yushchenko on YouTube.
  6. ^ Basil Dmytryshyn, Moscow and the Ukraine, 1918-1953: A Study of Russian Bolshevik Nationality Policy, Bookman Associates, 1956
  7. ^ Shapoval, Yu. Гітлер, Сталін і Україна: безжальні стратегії (Hitler, Stalin and Ukraine: merciless strategies). Ukrayinska Pravda. May 9, 2013
  8. ^ Siundiukov, I. Volodymyr Sosiura and the Oppressors of National Spirit. The Day. February 17, 2004
  9. ^ Dovzhenko Film Studios as a mirror of Russification policy in the USSR. Ukrayinska Pravda. July 17, 2013.
  10. ^ (Ukrainian)2012: історія русифікації від провладного телеканалу (2012: History of Russification by the pro-state TV-station), Ukrayinska Pravda (July 18, 2012)
  11. ^ the proud Ukrainophobe (Russian)
  12. ^ the Ukrainophobes in Odessa beat the Ukrainians on YouTube
  13. ^ a b (Ukrainian) Вбивство в Одесі студента Максима Чайки отримало додатковий резонанс, Ukrinform (April 19, 2009)
  14. ^ И.Марков о фальсификации и грядущей нацификации on YouTube
  15. ^ Депутат Игорь Марков заказал избиение демонстрантов on YouTube
  16. ^ http://kremenchug-kpu.nm.ru/read/Shulygin.htm?i "Украинствующие и мы"
  17. ^ M. Levchenko interview
  18. ^ Anna German statement to Levchenko's interview
  19. ^ «ОБЪЯВИТЬ КРЫМ ЗОНОЙ ИНТЕЛЛЕКТУАЛЬНОГО БЕДСТВИЯ...» Zerkalo nedeli
  20. ^ Rybak: I only my mouth open with Russian - already whistle spreads. Ukrayinska Pravda. 2013-03-14
  21. ^ Kiev activist was beaten up for the Ukrainian language. Ukrayinska Pravda. May 26, 2013
  22. ^ Court did not help Iryna Farion to punish Rada for oppression Ukrainian deputies. Ukrayinska Pravda. May 27, 2013.
  23. ^ a b c http://www.kyivpost.com/news/nation/detail/62086/ "Furor over Tabachnyk appointment rising"
  24. ^ http://www.kyivpost.com/news/opinion/op_ed/detail/84817/"Ukrainian Education Minister Tabachnyk Confirms His Russian Nationalist Credentials"
  25. ^ "1932-1933 genocide in Ukraine was invented by foreign historians, Tabachnyk says". 
  26. ^ http://ukranews.com/uk/news/ukraine/2010/05/13/18566 "Табачник: українські й російські вчителі будуть викладати історію за спільним посібником"
  27. ^ http://www.kyivpost.com/news/opinion/op_ed/detail/62058/ "Tabachnyk’s views are dangerous in classroom"
  28. ^ Russians about Ukraine, Ukrainians about Russia (Russian)
  29. ^ Russian attitudes not as icy towards Ukraine, Kyiv Post (October 15, 2009)
  30. ^ Ukraine-Russia tensions are simmering in Crimea, The Washington Post (October 18, 2009)
  31. ^ 56% Of Russians Disrespect Ukraine, Kyiv Post (June 17, 2009)
  32. ^ Russia, Ukraine relationship going sour, say polls, Kyiv Post (October 2, 2008)
  33. ^ Why Ukraine will always be better than Russia, Kyiv Post (June 12, 2009)
  34. ^ Poll: Russians like Ukrainians half as much as the other way round, Kyiv Post (November 6, 2009)
  35. ^ Report mistake, BBC (May 20, 2008)
  36. ^ False Hitler Doll Reports Vex Ukraine, Deutsche Welle (May 15, 2008)
  37. ^ Kremlin-loyal media make Merkel sing to Medvedev’s tune, Kyiv Post (August 20, 2009)
  38. ^ (Russian) Виктор Черномырдин: Выборы на Украине - это не футбол. Болеть не надо..., Komsomolskaya Pravda (February 2, 2009)
  39. ^ The Ukrainian Pravda. Why Cannot Zhirinovsky and Zatulin Wash Their Feet in the Black Sea on the Ukrainian coast? Retrieved 11.20.07
  40. ^ a b Letter to President Putin from the Union of Ukrainians in Bashkiria, retrieved 28-12-2008
  41. ^ a b Open letter to the Comissar of the OSCE from the Union of Ukrainians in the Urals Retrieved 11.20.07
  42. ^ The Ukrainian Weekly. 2003: The Year in Review. Diaspora Developments: news from East to West.Retrieved 11.20.07
  43. ^ Regarding the census in Russia and the rights of Ukrainians. Retrieved 11.20.07
  44. ^ http://www.ugcc.org.ua/eng/press-releases/article;5911/
  45. ^ Ukraine doomed to be destroyed and involved in war
  46. ^ Smirnov, N. History of Russia, part 57. "Novoe vremya", 2008 on YouTube
  47. ^ Brief description of the movie
  48. ^ Nalyvaichenko to OSCE: Rights of Ukrainians in Russia systematically violated
  49. ^ http://www.kyivpost.com/news/opinion/op_ed/detail/103783/
  50. ^ Zatulin at Ukrainian talk show on YouTube
  51. ^ Російського ведучого підвищили за брехню про Україну (Russian anchorman was promoted for his lies about Ukriane) on YouTube
  52. ^ The state television calls not to celebrate Shevchenko's days
  53. ^ http://www.ukemonde.com/palance/russianfilmfest.html
  54. ^ http://www.nr2.ru/kiev/106380.html
  55. ^ The last besieged fortress: Peremyshl wracked by Ukrainian-Polish confrontation Petro Tyma. The Ukrainian Weekly, July 21, 1996, No. 29, Vol. LXIV
  56. ^ Assaults to Ukrainian schools in Poland. Lvivska gazette. 31.10.2006 issue № 27 (27)
  57. ^ "Wycofani z targów" (in Polish). rmf.fm. 20 October 2001. Retrieved 2009-09-22.  (see Google translate).
  58. ^ http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2000-1/poland.htm
  59. ^ http://zaxid.net/home/showSingleNews.do?roman_dmovskiy_lviv_ta_ukrayinske_pitannya&objectId=1101537
  60. ^ http://www.ji.lviv.ua/n28texts/isajevych.htm
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  62. ^ Hewitt, Steve. "Policing the Promised Land: The RCMP and Negative Nation-building in Alberta and Saskatchewan in the Interwar Period", The Prairie West as Promised Land ed. R. Douglas Francis and Chris Kitzan (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2007), 318-320.
  63. ^ Андрей Моченов, Сергей Никулин. "Хохлы", "пиндосы", "чухонцы" и прочие "бусурмане" в Рунете и российской прессе. 28 июня 2006. MCK
  64. ^ Putin unapologetic, uncompromising on war against Ukraine, Kyiv Post (Dec. 18, 2014)

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