Anticlericalism and Freemasonry
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The question of whether Freemasonry is Anticlerical is the subject of debate. The Catholic Church has long been an outspoken critic of Freemasonry, and Catholic scholars have often accused the fraternity of anticlericalism. The Catholic Church forbids its members to join any masonic society under pain of interdiction. Freemasons usually take a diametrically opposite view, stating that there is nothing in Freemasonry that is in any way contrary to Catholicism or any other religious faith.
Impartial scholars note that the situation is far more nuanced. Whether Freemasonry is Anticlerical often depends on how one defines Anticlericalism and what branch of Freemasonry one is talking about.
Anglo/American Freemasonry v. Continental Freemasonry
Starting in the late eighteenth century, and rapidly expanding in the nineteenth, Freemasonry became polarized over the issue of whether the discussion of religion and politics was appropriate in lodges. Those Grand Lodges that adhered to the Anglo-American form of Freemasonry (a significant[quantify] majority world wide) maintained a strict rule that such discussion was banned. Historian John Robinson notes this fact in reaching the conclusion that Freemasonry is not anticlerical.
The Grand Lodges that followed the Continental form of Freemasonry, on the other hand, not only allowed political and religious discussions but often made official statements on political and religious topics. Some of these pronouncements can be seen as being Anticlerical. Such pronouncements, however, did not necessarily reflect the opinions of all Freemasons within the jurisdiction and often led to schisms and the formation of rival Grand Lodges that issued contrary opinions.
The fact that the Continental branch of Freemasonry was concentrated in traditionally Catholic countries, may account for the fact that the fraternity has been seen by Catholic critics as an outlet for anti-Catholic disaffection. Many particularly anti-clerical regimes in traditionally Catholic countries were perceived as having a strong Masonic element.
Extent of the anticlericalism
According to historians Christopher Clark and Wolfram Kaiser, Freemasonry was not anticlerical from the outset. They state that this changed in the nineteenth century (in part because of measures by the Catholic Church) and that Freemasonry (mostly continental Freemasonry), developed an anticlerical outlook. They note, however, that the influence of freemasonry should not be given too much weight; even in Italy it was eclipsed in influence by non-Masonic groups such as the Carbonari. They also note that lodges did not hold one consistent political line, many being completely apolitical.
The historian Stanley Payne believed that the influence of Freemasonry has often been overstated noting that Spanish Catholics had been accused of suffering from a "Masonic psychosis" and notes that, numbering near 65,000 in 1890, “they sometimes figured prominently in Spanish liberalism and republicanism, but their direct collective influence on both politics and anticlericalism has doubtless been considerably exaggerated".
According to historian Stanley G. Payne, members of the Masonic lodges played a major role in the rise of Portuguese liberalism and anticlericalism. However, he notes that the fraternity was not always united in opinion. Masons were found on both sides of the Gomes da Freire revolt in 1817. In 1820, however, Masons were devoted almost unanimously to the liberal cause in politics, and in the 1830s they had become the principal promoters of anticlericalism. After the triumph of constitutionalism, however, Portuguese Freemasonry split into more radical and more conservative groups, and by the 1860s it had ceased to play a catalytic role in politics. The upper middle class, established in power and wealth, were less attracted to it, and by the late nineteenth century Masons were drawn mainly from the lower middle class ranks of white-collar employees. Its place in radical politics at the turn of the century was taken over largely by secret republican radical political societies, especially the non-masonic Carbonária, and by 1912 the Masons had fewer than 3,000 members.
The Grand Orient de France has been seen by many historians as being particularly hostile to Catholicism During the Affaire Des Fiches (1904-1905) it was discovered that army promotions were partly determined by the Grand Orient of France's card index on public officials, detailing which were Catholic and who attended Mass. French Masonic publications called for religious orders to be expelled from France.
- War of Anti-Christ with the Church and Christian Civilization
- Christianity and Freemasonry
- Clarification concerning status of Catholics becoming Freemasons
- Letter of April 19, 1985 to U.S. Bishops Concerning Masonry
- Papal Documents relating to Freemasonry
- Papal ban of Freemasonry
- Gruber 1910.
- Ridley, Jasper (2001), The Freemasons, New York: Arcade Publishing, p. [page needed]
- Robinson, John J., A Pilgrim's Path, New York: M. Evans and Company, p. [page needed]
- "In France, in 1877, and in Portugal in 1910, Freemasons took control of the government for a time and enacted laws to restrict the activities of the Church, particularly in education. In Latin America, the Freemasons have expressed anti-Church and anti-clerical sentiment" (Saunders 2007).
- Clark & Kaiser 2003, pp. 54-55.
- Clark & Kaiser 2003, p. 55.
- Clark & Kaiser 2003, p. 213.
- Payne 1984, p. 127.
- Payne 1973, Chapter 22.
- "The Grand Lodge of France was among the most violently anticlerical of the world" (Redzioch, Wlodzimierz, Interview with Zbigniew Suchecki, Catholic Culture
- Hodapp, Christopher (10 January 2008), French President To Meet With Grand Orient Over Church and State, Freemasons For Dummies).
- "So far does this militant atheism of 'Latin Freemasonry' in France go" (Johnston, Charles (24 February 1918), Caillaux's "Secret Power Through French Masonry", The New York Times Magazine).
- Franklin 2006, p. 9 (footnote 26) cites Larkin, Maurice, Church and State after the Dreyfus Affair, pp. 138–141: "Freemasonry in France", Austral Light 6, 1905: 164–172, 241–250
- "The Republic must rid itself of the religious congregations, sweeping them off by a vigorous stroke. The system of half measures is everywhere dangerous; the adversary must be crushed with a single blow" (Gruber 1910, footnote 159 cites Compte rendu du Grand Orient de France., 1903, Nourrisson, "Les Jacobins", 266–271).
- Clark, Christopher; Kaiser, Wolfram (2003), Culture wars: secular-Catholic conflict in nineteenth-century Europe, Cambridge University Press, pp. 54–55, 213
- Franklin, James (2006), "Freemasonry in Europe", Catholic Values and Australian Realities, Connor Court Publishing Pty Ltd, pp. 7–10, ISBN 9780975801543
- Gruber, Hermann (1910). "Masonry (Freemasonry)". Catholic Encyclopedia 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Payne, Stanley G. (1973), "Chapter 22 Portugal under the Nineteenth-Century Constitutional Monarchy", A History of Spain and Portugal 2, University of Wisconsin Press
- Payne, Stanley G. (1984), Spanish Catholicism: An Historical Overview, University of Wisconsin Press, p. 127
- Saunders, Fr William (2007), "Catholics and the Freemason 'Religion'", Arlington Catholic Herald