Antidesma

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Antidesma
Antidesma.platyphyllum3web.jpg
Hame (Antidesma platyphyllum) - habit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Phyllanthaceae
Tribe: Antidesmeae
Subtribe: Antidesminae
Genus: Antidesma
L. 1753 not Wall. 1832[1]
Type species
Antidesma alexiteria
L.[1]
Synonyms[2]
Bignay
Hama (Antidesma platyphyllum) - ripe berries
Hama (Antidesma platyphyllum) - unripe fruits

Antidesma is a genus of tropical plant in the Phyllanthaceae formally described by Linnaeus in 1753.[3][1] It is native to tropical Africa, S + E + SE Asia, Australia, and various oceanic islands. The greatest diversity occurs in Southeast Asia.[2][4][5][6]

Description[edit]

Antidesma is a variable genus which may be short and shrubby or tall and erect, approaching 30 metres in height.It has large oval shaped leathery evergreen leaves up to about 20 centimetres long and seven wide. The flowers have a strong, somewhat unpleasant scent. The staminate flowers are arranged in small bunches and the pistillate flowers grow on long racemes which will become the long strands of fruit. The fruits are spherical and just under a centimeter wide, hanging singly or paired in long, heavy bunches. They are white when immature and gradually turn red, then black.When they are still white they have sour and astringent taste, sour taste when they are red and have sweet and sour taste when they are black.


The evergreen (sometimes deciduous) simple leaves have fine hairs and show no glands. They grow in an alternate arrangement, with entire, symmetrical blades. They are connected to the stem with a petiole (leaf stalk) and stipules (appendage at the base of a leaf stalk).

The flowers grow in a raceme, with 1 bract per flower, on a short pedicel (tiny stalk, supporting a single flower). Their color is light yellowish green, but may turn red when mature. These plants are dioecious, i.e. unisexual, with male and female flowers on separate plants. There are 3 to 8 fused sepals, but no petals. The male flowers have 2 to 8 stamens, but no pistils. The female flowers have 2 to 6 stigmas. They have a 1-locular ovary with 2 ovules.

The globose to ellipsoid fruits resemble a drupe. Their color varies from green to white, red and black. The fleshy and juicy fruits are edible with a sour to bitter sweet taste. Some individuals find Antidesma bunius berries to have a bitter taste. Those who detect this bitter taste (about 15% of subjects tested) cannot taste PTC, and similarly those who can taste PTC (about 68% of the subjects) cannot taste any bitterness in Antidesma bunius, while a minority of people cannot taste bitterness in either.[7][8]

Species[edit]

Accepted species[2]

  1. Antidesma acidum - Indian Subcontinent, Indochina, Java, S China
  2. Antidesma alexiteria - S India, Sri Lanka
  3. Antidesma ambiguum - Yunnan, Vietnam
  4. Antidesma annamense - Vietnam
  5. Antidesma baccatum - New Guinea, Maluku
  6. Antidesma bhargavae - Andaman & Nicobar
  7. Antidesma brachyobotrys - Malaysia, Borneo
  8. Antidesma brevipes - Sulawesi
  9. Antidesma bunius - Queensland, Christmas I, New Guinea, SE Asia, Indian Sub., China
  10. Antidesma catanduense - Catanduanes
  11. Antidesma celebicum - Sulawesi, Timor, Maluku
  12. Antidesma chalaranthum - Papua New Guinea
  13. Antidesma chonmon - Yunnan, Vietnam
  14. Antidesma cochinchinense - Cambodia, S Vietnam
  15. Antidesma comptum - Tamil Nadu
  16. Antidesma concinnum - Papua New Guinea
  17. Antidesma contractum - New Guinea
  18. Antidesma coriaceum - Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Nicobar Is
  19. Antidesma costulatum - Sichuan, Yunnan
  20. Antidesma cruciforme - W Malaysia
  21. Antidesma curranii - Philippines
  22. Antidesma cuspidatum - Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra
  23. Antidesma dallachyanum - Queensland
  24. Antidesma digitaliforme - Philippines
  25. Antidesma eberhardtii - Laos, Vietnam
  26. Antidesma edule - Philippines
  27. Antidesma elassophyllum - Viti Levu, Vanua Levu
  28. Antidesma elbertii - Maluku, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Is
  29. Antidesma erostre - New Guinea, Queensland
  30. Antidesma excavatum - Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku, Philippines, Papuasia, Micronesia
  31. Antidesma ferrugineum - Papua New Guinea
  32. Antidesma fleuryi - Laos, Vietnam
  33. Antidesma forbesii - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Sumatra
  34. Antidesma fordii - Laos, Vietnam, S China
  35. Antidesma fruticosum - Vietnam
  36. Antidesma fruticulosum - Myanmar
  37. Antidesma ghaesembilla - S China, S + SE Asia, Papuasia, N Australia
  38. Antidesma gillespieanum - Fiji
  39. Antidemesma hainanense - Laos, Vietnam, S China
  40. Antidesma helferi - S Myanmar, S Thailand, W Malaysia, N Sumatra
  41. Antidesma heterophyllum - Java, Lesser Sunda Is, Sulawesi, Maluku
  42. Antidesma insulare - Viti Levu
  43. Antidesma japonicum China, Japan, Indochina, Philippines, W Malaysia
  44. Antidesma jayasuriyae - Sri Lanka
  45. Antidesma jucundum - Papua New Guinea
  46. Antidesma × kapuae - South Kona
  47. Antidesma keralense - Kerala
  48. Antidesma khasianum - Meghalaya
  49. Antidesma kunstleri - Perak
  50. Antidesma laciniatum - W + C + E Africa
  51. Antidesma laurifolium - Thailand, Cambodia, Johor
  52. Antidesma leucocladon - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Sumatra
  53. Antidesma leucopodum - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines
  54. Antidesma macgregorii - Philippines
  55. Antidesma maclurei - Hainan, Vietnam
  56. Antidesma madagascariense - Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, Réunion
  57. Antidesma membranaceum - tropical + southern Africa
  58. Antidesma messianianum - New Caledonia
  59. Antidesma microcarpum - Philippines
  60. Antidesma minus - Sumatra, W. Java
  61. Antidesma montanum - China, S + SE Asia, New Guinea, Queensland
  62. Antidesma montis-silam - Sabah
  63. Antidesma myriocarmum - New Guinea
  64. Antidesma neurocarpum - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra
  65. Antidesma nienkui - Guangdong, Hainan, N Thailand
  66. Antidesma nigricans Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Myanmar
  67. Antidesma oblongum - Liberia, Ivory Coast
  68. Antidesma orthogyne - S Thailand, W Malaysia
  69. Antidesma pachybotryum - Cameroon
  70. Antidesma pachystachys - W Malaysia
  71. Antidesma pacificum - Vanua Levu, Moala
  72. Antidesma pahangense - W Malaysia
  73. Antidesma parvifolium - Queensland, Northern Territory
  74. Antidesma pendulum - S Thailand, W Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra
  75. Antidesma petiolatum - New Guinea
  76. Antidesma phanrangense - Vietnam
  77. Antidesma platyphyllum - Hawaii
  78. Antidesma pleuricum - Taiwan, Philippines
  79. Antidesma poilanei - S Vietnam
  80. Antidesma polystylum - Borneo
  81. Antidesma pulvinatum - Hawaii[9]
  82. Antidesma puncticulatum - Sri Lanka, Andaman Is, Indochina, Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra
  83. Antidesma pyrifolium - Sri Lanka
  84. Antidesma rhynchophyllum - New Guinea
  85. Antidesma riparium - Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, New Guinea
  86. Antidesma rufescens - tropical Africa
  87. Antidesma sinuatum - Queensland
  88. Antidesma sootepense - Thailand, Yunnan, Laos, Cambodia
  89. Antidesma spatulifolium - New Guinea, Tanimbar
  90. Antidesma stipulare - Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
  91. Antidesma subbicolor - Vietnam
  92. Antidesma subcordatum - Philippines, Lesser Sunda Is
  93. Antidesma tetrandrum - Andaman & Nicobar, Bali, Java, Sumatra
  94. Antidesma tomentosum - Nicobar Is, S Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia
  95. Antidesma tonkinense - N Vietnam
  96. Antidesma trichophyllum - Viti Levu
  97. Antidesma vaccinioides - Papua New Guinea
  98. Antidesma velutinosum - E Himalayas, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, W Indonesia
  99. Antidesma velutinum - Bangladesh, Andaman Is, Indochina
  100. Antidesma venenosum - Borneo
  101. Antidesma venosum - Africa, China, Indochina
  102. Antidesma vogelianum - tropical Africa

Other species

  1. Antidesma pentandrum - Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Philippines

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Tropicos, Antidesma L.
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 1027 in Latin
  4. ^ Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  5. ^ Flora of China Vol. 11 Page 209 五月茶属 wu yue cha shu Antidesma Burman ex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1027. 1753.
  6. ^ Hoffmann, P. 1999. The genus Antidesma (Euphorbiaceae) in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Kew Bull. 54(4): 877–885
  7. ^ Henkin, R.I> and W.T. Gillis. (1977). Divergent taste responsiveness to fruit of the tree Antidesma bunius Nature:265:536 - 537.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Antidesma pulvinatum Hillebr.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 

External links[edit]