|La Antigua Guatemala
Muy Noble y Muy Leal
Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala
|Nickname(s): La Antigua or Antigua|
|Criteria||ii, iii, iv|
|Designated||1979 (3rd session)|
|Region||Latin America and the Caribbean|
Antigua Guatemala (Spanish pronunciation: [anˈtiɣwa ɣwateˈmala]) (commonly referred to as just Antigua or la Antigua) is a city in the central highlands of Guatemala famous for its well-preserved Spanish Baroque influenced architecture as well as a number of spectacular ruins of colonial churches. It served as the capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala. It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Antigua Guatemala serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality of the same name. It also serves as the departmental capital of Sacatepéquez Department.
- 1 Population
- 2 History
- 3 Antigua in the 21st century
- 4 Economy
- 5 Language schools
- 6 Sports
- 7 Cuisine
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Ecology
- 10 Spanish Colony monuments
- 11 Gallery
- 12 References
- 13 Bibliography
- 14 Notes
- 15 External links
The city had a peak population of some 60,000 in the 1770s; the bulk of the population moved away in the late 18th century. Despite significant population growth in the late 20th century, the city had only reached half that number by the 1990s. According to the 2007 census, the city has some 34,685 inhabitants.
Antigua Guatemala means "Ancient Guatemala" and was the third capital of Guatemala. The first capital of Guatemala was founded on the site of a Kakchikel-Maya city, now called Iximche, on Monday, July 25, 1524—the day of Saint James—and therefore named Ciudad de Santiago de los Caballeros de Goathemalan (City of Saint James of the Knights of Guatemala). Naturally, St. James became the patron saint of the city.
After several Kaqchikel uprisings, the capital was moved to a more suitable site in the Valley of Almolonga (place of water) on November 22, 1527, and kept its original name. This new city was located on the site of present-day San Miguel Escobar, which is a neighborhood in the municipality of Ciudad Vieja. This city was destroyed on September 11, 1541 by a devastating lahar from the Volcán de Agua. As a result, the colonial authorities decided to move the capital once more, this time five miles away to the Panchoy Valley. So, on March 10, 1543 the Spanish conquistadors founded present-day Antigua, and again, it was named Santiago de los Caballeros. For more than 200 years it served as the seat of the military governor of the Spanish colony of Guatemala, a large region that included almost all of present-day Central America and the southernmost State of Mexico: Chiapas.
Santiago de los Caballeros was the third seat of the capital called kingdom of Guatemala which included the current states of Guatemala , Belize , El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, besides modern state of Chiapas in Mexico. After a flood destroyed the second city, located in the Valley of Almolonga, on the slopes of Volcán de Agua a new city was built in 1543 in the Valley of Panchoy, and it was established as head of the Real Audiencia of Guatemala in 1549. During its development and splendor was known as one of the three most beautiful cities of the Spanish Indies.
The city was laid out in a square pattern, with streets running north to south and from east to west, with a central square. For both church and government buildings were designated important places around the central plaza.[Note 1] Between 1549 and 1563, property southeast of the square was sold to the crown and occupied by the first president of the Real Audiencia de los Confines: the lawyer Alonso Lopez Cerrato, who also served as governor and captain general.[Note 2] The original building was small and paneled with portal, tile roof and adobe walls. The city is surrounded by three enormous volcanoes, and mountains, plains and hills. This territory was called "Valley of Guatemala" and had 73 villages, two towns and the city of Santiago de los Caballeros.
Due to constant problems between the conquerors and the representatives of the crown sent by the king of Spain, the Audiencia de los Confines was abolished in 1565.[Note 3] In 1570 the hearing was restored, this time independent of the viceroy of Mexico and the new organization was called Audiencia of Guatemala.
The Franciscan monks were the first to move into the valley Panchoy, the new capital of the Kingdom of Guatemala, and built a chapel on the site where later the Church Escuela de Cristo would be erected. This primitive chapel was destroyed in 1575 by an earthquake and during the next ten years collections were made to build the new complex, two blocks from the previous one.[Note 4] The Franciscan complex became a major cultural and religious center for the entire Captaincy General of Guatemala: theologians, jurists, philosophers, physicists and mathematicians studied in the school of San Buenaventura, which was located where the monastery ruins are. At that school studied Cristóbal de Villalpando , Thomas Merlo and Alonso de Paz.
The first building of a cathedral was begun in 1545 with the debris brought from the destroyed settlement in the valley of Almolonga; however, its construction was hampered by frequent earthquakes along the years. The city was the final resting place of the great Spanish chronicler Bernal Díaz del Castillo and his remains lied in one of the churches that was eventually ruined by earthquakes.
The construction of the royal houses for the residence of the Captain General and the members of the Real Audiencia strated in 1558. In the place were located the Royal Treasury, jail, Army quarters, the Hall of Arms , the housing of Audiencia members.
In the sixteenth century there were several important earthquakes on the following dates:
- March 21, 1530
- September 11, 1541
- 1565 Exact date is unknown
- 1575 Exact date is unknown
- November 30, 1577
- December 23, 1585
In 1566 King Felipe II of Spain gave it the title of "Muy Noble y Muy Leal" ("Very Noble and Very Loyal").
17th century events
The Jesuits founded the school of "San Lucas of the Society of Jesus" in 1608, which became famous and was unrivaled in terms of literature and grammar lessons; it was attended by the elite cassles of the city society, such as Francisco Antonio Fuentes y Guzman, the chronicler Francisco Vázquez and Pedro Betancourt. On 18 July 1626 the Jesuit temple was inaugurated; as the rest of the city, it suffered and was damaged by continuous earthquakes that struck the city between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries.
The monks of San Juan de Dios founded their hospital and monastery in 1636 and thereafter were in charge of the hospitals in the Kingdom of Guatemala. Their hospitals were:
- San Alejo: for indigenous people
- San Pedro: for ecclesiastical personnel
- Santiago: for Spanish and mulattos
- San Lázaro
- San Juan de Dios: in 1667 the hospital of San Alejo was delivered to the Brothers of San Juan de Dios by the Dominicans who had managed it until then; in 1685, San Alejo and Santiago hospitals joined together, forming the Hospital San Juan de Dios.
The temple of the Escuela de Cristo -School of Christ- was founded in the parish of Our Lady of Remedios in 1664 and from 1689 onward it was known as the Congregation of San Felipe de Neri. Meanwhile, around 1690 the Jesuits founded another school: the "San Francisco de Borja" where eventually would study and serve as principal the poet and priest Rafael Landivar, S.J..
In the seventeenth century there were two types of nuns: discalced and urban.
|Attribute||Discalced nuns||Urban nuns|
|Designation||Community life||Private life|
|Admission cost||None||Donation in goods or property to produce revenues for the congregation|
|Prayer||In the chorus||In the chorus|
|Austerity rules||Strict: depended on tithing, silent at all times, except to pray and never drank chocolate.[Note 5]||Relaxed: could have external income and were allowed to drink chocolate, except during fasting.|
|Rooms||Common life in recreation rooms of work. They had a tiny "celda" which they only use to sleep.||No common life at all. They lived in a large cell that was practically a small size house.|
|Feeding||They ate together in silence in dining halls. They could not eat meat.||They prepared their own food. They were allowed to eat meat unless they were fasting.|
|Help||They had to perform all the monastery chores, or work in community service for the congregation.||They could have personal servants and slaves.|
|Clothing||Austere rustic clothes fibers.||Fine clothes; often wore jewelry.|
|Footwear||Simple sandals||Shoes or slippers.|
|Special attributes||None||Tutors of girls entrusted to the convent.|
Saint Hermano Pedro
Pedro de San José Betancourt came to Guatemalan land in 1650 from his native Tenerife. Upon arrival he suffered a serious illness, during which he had the first opportunity to be with the poor and dispossessed. After his recovery he wanted to make ecclesiastical studies but unable to do so, professed as a Franciscan tertiary in the Convent of San Francisco in Santiago de los Caballeros . He founded shelters for the poor, indigenous and homeless and founded the Order of the Brothers of Our Lady of Bethlehem in 1656, to serve the poor. The Santo Hermano Pedro wrote several books, including: Instruction De la Cruz's brother, Crown of the Passion of Jesus Christ our good or Rules Confraternity Betlemitas. It is considered the great evangelist of the West Indies , just as San Francisco Javier what is the East Indies . The Holy attended poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, and was a precursor of Human Rights . On the other hand, was the first literacy of America and the Order of Betlemitas turn was the first religious order born in the Americas. The Santo Hermano Pedro was a man ahead of his time, both in their methods to teach reading and writing to illiterate and in patient treatment.
Royal and pontifical University of San Carlos Borromeo
Francisco Marroquín, first bishop of Guatemala, sent the Spanish King a letter in 1548, asking for a superior education institution for Guatemala, but the letter went unanswered. Towards the end of his life, in 1562, Marroquín left some money in his will to establish a school -which eventually was the "Santo Tomás de Aquino school"- where grammar, arts, philosophy and theology would be taught. Poor Spanish children would be the beneficiaries of this pious work, as they could not travel to those cities where there were universities already, like México City in the New Spain. Historian John Tate Lanning said on this that: "Marroquín testament is so famous, that many people that has not even laid eyes on it say that there are things in the document that are really not in it. Marroquín never talks about a University, much less establishing one..." On the other hand, there is indeed a document from Mayor Pedro Crespo Suarez, who left twenty thousand pesos after his death to setup classes in the University that "was being asked to crown".
The Jesuits opposed a university establishment, given that they did not like the idea of having the other regular clergy orders -Mercedarians, Franciscans and Order of Preachers- taking the initiative in religious and educational issues. On August 1655, the Society of Jesus had bought the whole lot from the Díaz del Castillo family and by then, their San Lucas School was well known in the region and it even granted two university degrees. In 1653, the San Lucas School had a staff of only thirteen priests, a very small number compared to the size of the building; the Jesuits, however, made a major impact on the cultural and educational life in the Capitanía General of Guatemala. The school was the city's most prestigious and from it graduated most of the elite members of society of the time. Most of its students were secular and went on to get the best positions in the country.
After several decades, petitions and lawsuits, king Carlos II expedited a royal decree, on January 31, 1676, allowing Capitanía General of Guatemala to set its university or "General Study".[Note 6] After a lengthy and cumbersome organization process that lasted five years, the university started classes on January 7, 1681, with more than sixty registered students under President Doctor José de Baños y Soto Mayor, Cathedral archdeacon, King of Spain preacher and Doctor from University of Osuna. The university began its activities under the protection of Saint Carlos Borromeo, and its norms and regulations were copied from those of the México university which, in turn, were adapted from those of the Universidad de Salamanca in Spain.
The first classes given in the university were:
- Canonic law
- Scholastic theology
- Moral theology
18th century events
San Miguel Earthquake
The strongest earthquakes experienced by the city of Santiago de los Caballeros before its final move in 1776 were the earthquakes in San Miguel in 1717 . At that time, power of the Catholic Church over the vassals of the Spanish crown was absolute and this made any natural disaster considered as divine punishment. In the city, people also believed that the proximity of the Volcano of Fire was the cause of earthquakes; great architect Diego de Porres even said that all the earthquakes were caused volcano explosions.
On August 27 there was a strong eruption of Volcán de Fuego , which lasted until August 30; the residents of the city asked for help to Santo Cristo fo the Cathedral and to the Virgen del Socorro who were sworn patrons of the Volcan de Fuego. On August 29 a Virgen del Rosario procession took to the streets after a century without leaving her temple, and there were many more holy processions until 29 September, the day of San Miguel. Early afternoon earthquakes were minor, but at about 7:00 pm there was a strong earthquake that forced residents to leave their homes; tremors and rumblings followed until four o'clock. The neighbors took to the streets and loudly confessed their sins, bracing for the worst.
The San Miguel earthquake damaged the city considerably, to the point that some rooms and walls of the Royal Palace were destroyed. There was also a partial abandonment of the city, food shortages, lack of manpower and extensive damage to the city infrastructure; not to mention numerous dead and injured. These earthquakes made the authorities consider moving to a new city less prone to seismic activity. City residents strongly oppose the move, and even took to the Royal Palace in protest; in the end, the city did not move, but the number of elements in the Army Battalion to safeguard the order was considerable. The damage to the palace were repaired by Diego de Porres, who finished repairs in 1720; although there are indications that there were more jobs done by Porres until 1736.
San Casimiro earthquake
On March 4, 1751, the San Casimiro earthquake destroyed the city of Santiago de Guatemala once more. The church roof of the Society of Jesus complex fell to the ground, forcing the Jesuits to once again ask for help to the parishioners to rebuild; once again, the building was among the most beautiful of the city when the repairs were completed. In fact, a prosperity period began after the San Casimiro earthquake, as the city saw major improvements, such as street embellishment and tap water system introduction. A new City Hall was built in and on July 17, 1753 work on the Jesuit plaza in front of the church is finished.
Santa Marta earthquake
In 1773, the Santa Marta earthquakes destroyed much of the town, which led to the third change in location for the city. The Spanish Crown ordered, in 1776, the removal of the capital to a safer location, the Valley of the Shrine, where Guatemala City, the modern capital of Guatemala, now stands. This new city did not retain its old name and was christened Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), and its patron saint is Our Lady of the Assumption. The badly damaged city of Santiago de los Caballeros was ordered abandoned, although not everyone left, and was thereafter referred to as la Antigua Guatemala (the Old Guatemala).
The terrible Santa Marta earthquake practically demolished the church and sections of the convent of the Society of Jesus. Its cloisters and towers were in ruins, the walls were at dangerous angles and the "Casa de Ejercicios" was turned into rubble. By a Royal decree of July 21, 1775, the city move to the "Virgin valley" was authorized. This was a final order that had to be obeyed by all the people, who started to move slowly, starting on December of that year. In order to build the new city it was necessary to get construction material from the old abandoned churches in Santiago de Guatemala. However, in the case of the Society of Jesus church, there was strong opposition from the neighbors to any possible dismantling of the structure since they considered that it could still be repaired.
After the capital moved to La Ermita
After the independence of Guatemala from Spain in 1821, the Jesuit complex became public property once again and was in several lawsuits that lasted until 1829, when the regular clergy and the conservative Aycinena clan were expelled from Central America after the invasion of liberal general Francisco Morazán and the establishment of a secular government. The new liberal government decreed that all the confiscated Catholic church possessions had to be turned into elementary schools and university classrooms.
As of 1850, Antigua had an estimated population of 9,000. and by 1865, the building was functioning as a vapor activated thread mill, but it was not profitable due to a lack of expert technicians and raw material; and by 1872, the Jesuits were once again expelled from Guatemala by the liberal regime of Justo Rufino Barrios.
In 1884 City Hall made an announcement that it intended to transform the old Society of Jesus buildings into a market, in spite of the strong opposition from the neighbors that already had small shops on the plaza. It was until 1912 that a market was placed in the complex.
Antigua in the 21st century
Central Park -Parque Central- is the heart of the city. The reconstructed fountain there is a popular gathering spot. Off to the side of the Central Park, the Arco de Santa Catalina is among the many notable architectural landmarks of La Antigua.
La Antigua is noted for its very elaborate religious celebrations during Lent (Cuaresma), leading up to Holy Week (Semana Santa) and Easter (Pascua). Each Sunday in Lent, one of the local parishes sponsor a Procession through the streets of Antigua. Elaborate and beautiful artistic carpets predominantly made of dyed sawdust, flowers, pine needles and even fruits and vegetables adorn the processions' path.
Due to its popularity amongst tourists and its very well developed tourism infrastructure, Antigua Guatemala is often used as a central location in which many choose to set up base and from here, visit other tourist areas in Guatemala and Central America. Cruise ships that dock at Guatemalan ports offer trips to Antigua from both the Pacific and Atlantic. Antigua also holds a sizeable retirement community from the US as well as Europe, drawn by its colonial charm and mild climate.
Antigua is known as a destination for people who want to learn Spanish through immersion. There are many Spanish language schools in Antigua, and it is one of the most popular and best recognized centers for Spanish language study by students from Europe, Asia and North America. Language institutes are one of the primary industries of Antigua, along with tourism.
Antigua GFC football club has played in the Guatemala top division for several years but have been playing in the second division lately. Their home stadium is the Estadio Pensativo which has a capacity of 9,000. They are nicknamed Los panzas verdes ("Green bellies").
There are many restaurants in Antigua. Many small eateries can be found at the Antigua marketplace, next to the central bus stop, as well as adjoining the main market and within it. Mediterranean, Italian, Asian, American, and traditional Guatemalan cuisines are represented.
Antigua is a growing tourist destination in Guatemala as it is close to Guatemala City but is much calmer and safer, with more tourist oriented activities. It is possible to take buses from Antigua to many parts of Guatemala, many travel agencies offer shuttles to the main touristic places: Monterrico beach, Atitlan Lake, Coban, Lanquin (Semuc Champey), Tikal or even Copan in Honduras, though the transportation is more central in Guatemala City. Antigua is also known for its chocolate makers and all the ruins that are part of it.
Three large volcanoes dominate the horizon around Antigua. The most commanding, to the south of the city, is the Volcán de Agua or "Volcano of Water", some 3,766 metres (12,356 ft) high. When the Spanish arrived, the inhabitants of the zone, Kakchikel Mayas, called it Hunapú (and they still do). However, it became known as Volcán de Agua after a lahar from the volcano buried the second site of the capital, which prompted the Spanish authorities to move the capital to present-day Antigua. The original site of the 2nd capital is now the village San Miguel Escobar.
To the west of the city are a pair of peaks, Acatenango, which last erupted in 1972, some 3,976 metres (13,045 ft) high, and the Volcán de Fuego or "Volcano of Fire", some 3,763 metres (12,346 ft) high. "Fuego" is famous for being almost constantly active at a low level. Steam and gas issue from its top daily, a larger eruption occurred in September 2012.
Spanish Colony monuments
|Captain General Palace||
||Residence of the Captain General of General Captaincy of Guatemala during the Spanish colony. After the Santa Marta earthquake in 1773 it was abandoned and used as a warehouse until it was rebuilt in 1936. In the 21st century the buildings includes the offices of Guatemala Institute of Tourims -INGUAT-, the city National Police headquarters and the Sacatepéquez Governor office, among others.|
Churches and Monasteries
|Cathedral of Saint James
San José Parrish
||The first building was begun in 1545 with rubble brought the from the destroyed settlement in the valley of Almolonga. Its construction was hampered by frequent earthquakes. A second sanctuary would be inaugurated in 1680. The cathedral status was obtained in 1743. The first cathedral housed the remains of the conquistador Pedro de Alvarado who had been transferred there at the request of his daughter in 1568, but disappeared following one of the multiple earthquakes that damaged the city over the years.|
|Church and Convent of Capuchins||
||Originally called "Convent and Church of Our Lady of the Pond of Zaragoza", was approved by Felipe V in 1725. Construction work began in 1731 and the building was consecrated in 1736. The daily routine of the professed was governed by strict regulatory rules including the highest poverty, penance and fasting; also the descalse nuns had to survive on handouts provided by the faithful. After the Santa Marta earthquake, and although the convent was not completely affected, assets were transferred to the new Guatemala de la Asunción by order of the Captain General.|
||In 1685 two "Recoleto" missionaries came to the city of Santiago de los Caballeros, and when some more monks of their order arrived in the following years, asked permission to the City Hall[Note 7] to build a monastery; but in 1695, the City Hall made it known that there was insufficient reasons to justify the construction because there were already enough monasteries in the city. Following this refusal, the friars went to the Real Audiencia[Note 8] which authorized construction in 1700, by a royal decree. Construction of the buildings began in 1701, and six years after the first stone of the church was placed . In 1708 the convent, library and infirmary were completed. The church was inaugurated on May 23, 1717.|
||This was the first sanctuary built on Santiago de los Caballeros in the 16th century. Since the beginning it has suffered seismic damage: in 1565 the first building was severly damaged and the tremors continued until 1773. After being abandoned for almost two hundred years, the church was rebuilt between 1961 and 1967 when the Franciscans recovered the property and has been open to Catholic worship since. The facade of the church is adorned with baroque columns and two bell towers. Adjacent to the church are the ruins of the old Franciscan convent. The temple has a special chapel that houses the remains of Saint Hermano Pedro de San José de Betancur, a missionary from the Canary Islands.|
|La Merced Church||
||Architect Juan de Dios Estrada was in charge of its construction, which began in 1749. The temple was inaugurated in 1767 and is from ultra baroque Guatemalan style with two bell towers.|
|Church and School of the Society of Jesus||
||Created by Royal Decree dated August 9, 1561, it was build with money donated in part by the chronicler Bernal Diaz del Castillo. Originally comprised three cloisters and a temple, and eventually host up to twelve Jesuits. It worked as "Colegio de San Lucas of the Society of Jesus" from 1608 until the order was expelled in 1767: "The school became famous and was unrivaled in terms of teaching of literature and grammar; it attended the elite of Santiago de los Caballeros society, and among its students were chroniclers Francisco Antonio Fuentes y Guzmán and Francisco Vázquez, and priests Pedro Betancourt and Rafael Landívar." The structure remained in relatively good condition after the 1773 earthquake, but it was eventually destroyed by the 1917-18 and 1976 earthquakes.|
|Santo Domingo Monastery||
||Originally one of the most important and largest in the city, the Convent of Santo Domingo was destroyed in 1773 and abando by the transfer of the Dominicans to your site again in Guatemala City . The ruins were sold to individuals and converted into the Hotel Casa Santo Domingo in 1989. In 2013 the 43rd was held at their facilities. General Assembly of the Organization of American States .|
|Escuela de Cristo Church||
||The temple was originally founded in the parish of the Holy Cross in 1664 and from 1689 it was known as the "Congregation of San Felipe de Neri". Due to the earthquakes in San Miguel in 1717 the building was damaged; it reconstruction was finalized in 1730 under the leadership of Mayor Architect Diego de Porres. In 1784, it was moved to "Our Lady of Remedies" parrish, when the clergy of this church moved to Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción. The façade has an architectural renaissance style and is made of stone, like the church of the Capuchins, a characteristic that distinguishes them from the other temples in the city. In this church were originally the remains of Pedro de San José de Betancur.|
|Nuestra Señora del Carmen Church||
||Even though it survived relatively well the Santa Marta earthquakes, it was almost destroyed by the earthquakes of 1917-18 and 1976. However, its façade survived in very good condition, and has been admired ever since as an example of the Guatemalan seismic Baroque.|
|San Pedro Hospital||
||The monks of San Juan de Dios congregation founded their first hospital and monastery in 1636 and were in charge of the hospitals in the Kingdom of Guatemala ever since. San Pedro Hospital in particular was exclusively for ecclesiastical people.|
|La Concepción convent||
||Renovated in the 21st century to show the cloister of the novices. It had been misidentified as the palace of Sister Juana de Maldonado, but recent research has shown that the cloister dates from the 18th century while the famous Guatemalan concepcionista nun lived in the 17th century.|
|Chapel of the Holy Cross||
Before it was declared a National Monument by president Jorge Ubico on March 30, 1944 the city ruins were practically abandoned. The following galleries show images of the destruction of the structures due to earthquakes and abandonment.
There were other churches, like Nuestra Señora del Carmen and the Society of Jesus, that endured the 1773 earthquake relatively well, but the they were abandoned and the earthquakes from 1917–18 and 1976 destroyed them. In the particular case of de San Francisco El Grande church, this was in good structural shape after the 1773 and 1917 earthquakes and it was rebuilt in 1967 when the Franciscans returned to Guatemala, which eventually protected the stsructure from the 1976 earthquake. Finally, La Merced church was practically new in 1773, and it has withstand time and earthquakes since; the church was not abandoned in 1776, but it was indeed abandoned in 1829 when the Mercedarians were expelled from Central Amercia by general Francisco Morazán, along with the rest of regular clergy and the conservative party members and Aycinena family.
Restoration efforts are evident in photographs from the last quarter of the 20th century and the first quarter of the 21st:
The most traditional processions are:
|Fifth Sunday of Lent||Jesús de la Caída||San Bartolomé Becerra||7:00 am – 10:00 pm|
|Friday of Sorrows||Viacrucis del Hermano Pedro (varones)||San Francisco el Grande||3:00 pm – 6:00 pm|
|Palm Sunday||Palm procession||Jocotenango Sacatepéquez||6:30 am – 12:00 pm|
|Palm Sunday||Palm procession (en vivo)||La Merced, Santa Ana, Escuela de Cristo, San Felipe de Jesús||8:00 am – 12:00 pm|
|Palm Sunday||Jesús Nazareno de la Reseña||La Merced||11:00 am – 11:00 pm|
|Holy Monday||Jesús Nazareno||Santa Inés del Monte Pulciano||N/A|
|Holy Tuesday||Jesús Nazareno del Silencio||El Calvario||4:00 pm – 11:00 pm|
|Holy Wednesday||Jesús Nazareno del Milagro||San Felipe de Jesús||2:50 pm – 10:00 pm|
|Holy Wednesday||Jesús Nazareno||San Mateo Milpas Altas||4:00 pm – 10:00 pm|
|Holy Thursday||Jesús Nazareno de la Humildad||San Cristóbal el Bajo||11:00 am – 10:00 pm|
|Holy Thursday||Jesús Nazareno del Perdón||San Francisco el Grande||1:00 pm 12:00 am|
|Good Friday||Jesús Nazareno de la Penitencia||La Merced||4:00 am – 3:00 pm|
|Good Friday||Crucifixion||Antigua Guatemala Cathedral, Escuela de Cristo||12:00 pm – 3:00 pm|
|Good Friday||Señor Sepultado and Virgen de Soledad||Antigua Guatemala Cathedral||3:00 pm – 1:00 am|
|Good Friday||Señor Sepultado||San Felipe de Jesús||3:00 pm – 1:00 am|
|Good Friday||Señor Sepultado||Escuela de Cristo||4:00 pm – 1:00 am|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antigua Guatemala.|
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- Fumero, Pedro (11 April 2010). "Genes aborígenes en el Santo Hermano Pedro". El día (in Spanish) (España). Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- González Davison, Fernando (2008). La montaña infinita; Carrera, caudillo de Guatemala. Guatemala: Artemis & Edinter. ISBN 84-89452-81-4.
- Guatelinda (2014). "La Iglesia del Carmen… otrora esplendorosa y elegante". Mi Guatemala linda en línea (in Spanish). Guatemala. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Hernández de León, Federico (10 April 1928). "Fenómenos de nuestra historia". Nuestro Diario, Guatemala (in Spanish).
- Hilton, Ronald (n.d.). Who's who in Latin America: A biographical dictionary of notable living men and women of Latin America (3rd ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística (2002). "XI Censo Nacional de Población y VI de Habitación". INE.gob.gt (in Spanish). Guatemala. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
Los datos se refieren al municipio
- Johnston Aguilar, Rene (2001). "Proyecto arqueológico en el claustro norponiente de la Compañia de Jesús, Antigua Guatemala". Academia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 10 February 2015.
- Martínez Peláez, Severo (1990). La patria del criollo; ensayo de interpretación de la realidad colonial guatemalteca (in Spanish). México, D.F.: Ediciones en Marcha.
- Melchor Toledo, Johann Estuardo (2011). "El arte religioso de la Antigua Guatemala, 1773-1821; crónica de la emigración de sus imágenes". tesis doctoral en Historia del Arte (in Spanish) (México, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- Molina Jiménez (2001). "La Polémica de "El problema (1899)", de Máximo Soto Hall". Revista Mexicana del Caribe (in Spanish) (Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina, el Caribe, España y Portugal;Sistema de Información Científica) VI (12).
- Moncada Maya, J. Omar (2003). "En torno a la destrucción de la Ciudad de Guatemala, 1773. Una carta del Ingeniero Militar Antonio Marín". Biblio 3W. Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales (in Spanish) (Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona) VIII (444). ISSN 1138-9796. Archived from the original on 23 June 2003. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
- Rodríguez Girón, Zoila; Flores, José Alejandro; Garnica, Marlen (1995). Laporte, L.P; Escobedo, H., ed. "El real palacio de Antigua Guatemala: arqueología y propuesta de rehabilitación" (versión digital). Simposio de investigaciones arqueológicas en Guatemala (in Spanish) (Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arquelogía y Etnología). Archived from the original on 14 September 2011.
- Santos, Bairon (2011). "Municipio de Ciudad Vieja" (in Spanish). La Tierra. Archived from the original on June 12, 2011. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario (1993). Historia general de Centroamérica (in Spanish). España: Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario. ISBN 84-86956-28-5.
- Tate Lanning, J. (1977). "La Universidad en el Reino de Guatemala" (in Spanish). Guatemala: Universitaria.
- "La Antigua Guatemala". Viaje a Guatemala (in Spanish) (Special ed.). Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- "Mapa de Antigua Guatemala". Guate4travel (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 February 2008.
- This square was also called "Plaza Mayor", "Plaza Real" and "Plaza de Armas".
- Previously the audience was in the city of "Gracias a Dios" in Honduras, but there it lacked the appropriate conditions for its activities.
- The Audiencia was called "of the Confines" because it was within the confines of New Spain and Perú.
- Parts of this construction are still preserved and may be the only ruins dating from the 16th century in the city of Antigua Guatemala.
- The chocolate was the drink of choice in Guatemala during the colonial era. It was considered a liquid food.
- During the Spanish colony, "General Study" was another name for the universities.
- i.e., Local authorities chosen among the criollo people.
- Royal emissaries from the Spanish Crown.