Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host. They may also be called vermifuges (those that stun) or vermicides (those that kill). They are used to treat people or animals who are infected by helminths - a condition called helminthiasis.
- Albendazole – effective against threadworms, roundworms, whipworms, tapeworms, hookworms
- Mebendazole – effective against pinworms, roundworms and hookworms
- Thiabendazole – effective against roundworms, hookworms
- Fenbendazole – effective against gastrointestinal parasites
- Triclabendazole – effective against liver flukes
- Flubendazole – effective against most intestinal parasites
- Abamectin – effective against most common intestinal worms, except tapeworms, for which praziquantel is commonly used in conjunction with abamectin
- Diethylcarbamazine – effective against Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, loiasis
- Niclosamide – effective against tapeworms
- Ivermectin – effective against most common internal parasites (except tapeworms)
- Suramin – It is used for treatment of human sleeping sickness caused by trypanosomes
- Pyrantel pamoate – effective against most nematode infections
- Praziquantel – effective against cestodes (i.e., tapeworms), some trematodes
- Octadepsipeptides (e.g.: Emodepside) – effective against a variety of gastrointestinal helminths
- Aminoacetonitrile derivatives (e.g., Monepantel): effective against a variety of gastrointestinal roundworms including those resistant to other anthelmintic classes.
- Spiroindoles (e.g., derquantel): effective against a range of gastrointestinal roundworms including those resistant to other anthelmintic classes
- Pelletierine sulphate effective against diverse tapeworms, ring worms and nematodes.
The ability of parasites to survive treatments that are generally effective at the recommended dose rate is a major threat to the future control of worm parasites in small ruminants and horses. This is especially true of nematodes, and has helped spur development of aminoacetonitrile derivatives for treatment against drug resistant nematodes.
The clinical definition of resistance is a 95% or less reduction in a "Fecal Egg Count" test.[clarification needed]
Treatment with an antihelminthic drug kills worms whose phenotype renders them susceptible to the drug. But resistant parasites survive and pass on their "resistance" genes. Resistant varieties accumulate and finally treatment failure occurs. See drug resistance.
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- Department of the Army Headquarters (2004). U.S. Army Survival Manual Fm 21–76. Barnes & Noble Inc. ISBN 0-7607-4988-4.
- Anthelmintics at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Plant products in the treatment and control of filariasisand other helminth infections and assay systems for antifilarial/anthelminthic activity.
- Holden-Dye, L. and Walker, R.J.Anthelmintic drugs (November 2, 2007), WormBook, ed. The C. elegans Research Community, WormBook, doi/10.1895/wormbook.1.143.1
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