Antimony pentachloride

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Antimony pentachloride
Antimony pentachloride SbCl5-dimensions-by-ED-from-CRC-91-2D.png
Antimony pentachloride in an ampoule.jpg
Identifiers
CAS number 7647-18-9 YesY
PubChem 24294
ChemSpider 10613049 YesY
EC number 231-601-8
RTECS number CC5075000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula Cl5Sb
Molar mass 299.02 g mol−1
Appearance colorless or yellow (fuming) liquid, oily
Odor pungent, offensive
Density 2.336 g/cm3 (20 °C)[1]
2.36 g/cm3 (25 °C)[2]
Melting point 2.8 °C (37.0 °F; 275.9 K)
Boiling point 140 °C (284 °F; 413 K)
decomposes from 106 °C[4]
79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)
at 22 mmHg[1]
92 °C (198 °F; 365 K)
at 30 mmHg[2]
Solubility in water reacts
Solubility soluble in alcohol, HCl, tartaric acid, CHCl3, CS2, CCl4
Solubility in selenium(IV) oxychloride 62.97 g/100 g (25 °C)
Vapor pressure 0.16 kPa (25 °C)
4 kPa (40 °C)
7.7 kPa (100 °C)[3]
Refractive index (nD) 1.59255
Viscosity 2.034 cP (29.4 °C)[1]
1.91 cP (35 °C)
Structure
Molecular shape Trigonal bipyramidal
Dipole moment 0 D
Thermochemistry
Specific
heat capacity
C
120.9 J/mol·K (gas)[4]
Std molar
entropy
So298
295 J/mol·K[4]
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
-437.2 kJ/mol[4]
Gibbs free energy ΔG -345.35 kJ/mol[4]
Hazards
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The environment pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[2]
GHS signal word Danger
GHS hazard statements H314, H411[2]
GHS precautionary statements P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310[2]
EU Index 051-002-00-3
EU classification Corrosive C Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
R-phrases R34, R51/53
S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S45, S61
Inhalation hazard Toxic
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gas Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g., cesium, sodiumNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 77 °C (171 °F; 350 K)
LD50 1115 mg/kg, (rat, oral)[4]
Related compounds
Other anions Antimony pentafluoride
Other cations Phosphorus pentachloride
Related compounds Antimony trichloride
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5. It is a colourless oil, but typical samples are yellowish due to impurities. Owing to its tendency to hydrolyse to hydrochloric acid, SbCl5 is a highly corrosive substance.

Preparation and structure[edit]

Antimony pentachloride is prepared by passing chlorine gas into molten antimony trichloride:

SbCl3 + Cl2 → SbCl5

Gaseous SbCl5 has a trigonal prismatic structure.[5]

Reactions[edit]

Antimony pentachloride hydrolyses readily to give hydrochloric acid:

2 SbCl5 + 5 H2O → Sb2O5 + 10 HCl

This reaction is suppressed in the presence of a large excess of chloride, owing to the formation of the hexachloroantimonate complex ion:

SbCl5 + Cl- → [SbCl6]-

The mono- and tetrahydrates are known, SbCl5·H2O SbCl5·4 H2O.

This compound forms adducts with many Lewis bases. It is used as the standard Lewis acid in the Gutmann scale of Lewis basicity.[6]

It is also a strong oxidizing agent.[7]

Applications[edit]

Antimony pentachloride is used as a polymerization catalyst and for the chlorination of organic compounds.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c http://www.inchem.org/documents/ukpids/ukpids/ukpid36.htm
  2. ^ a b c d e Sigma-Aldrich Co., Antimony(V) chloride. Retrieved on 2014-05-29.
  3. ^ Antimony pentachloride in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-29)
  4. ^ a b c d e f http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=1979
  5. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  6. ^ V. Gutmann (1976). "Solvent effects on the reactivities of organometallic compounds". Coord. Chem. Rev. 18 (2): 225. doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)82045-7. 
  7. ^ Connelly, N. G. and Geiger, W. E. (1996). "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry". Chem. Rev. 96: 877–922. doi:10.1021/cr940053x. PMID 11848774. 

External links[edit]