Antimony pentoxide

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Antimony pentoxide
Antimony-pentoxide-xtal-1979-3D-balls.png
Identifiers
CAS number 1314-60-9 YesY
PubChem 14813
ChemSpider 14129 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula Sb2O5
Molar mass 323.517 g/mol
Appearance yellow powdery solid
Density 3.78 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 380 °C (716 °F; 653 K) (decomposes)
Solubility in water 0.3 g/100 mL
Solubility insoluble in nitric acid
Thermochemistry
Specific
heat capacity
C
117.69 J/mol K
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
-1008.18 kJ/mol
Hazards
EU classification not listed
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Healt (blue): no hazard code Reactivity (yellow): no hazard code Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Antimony pentoxide (Sb2O5) is a chemical compound of antimony and oxygen. It always occurs in hydrated form, Sb2O5·nH2O.[citation needed] It contains antimony in the +5 oxidation state.

Structure[edit]

Antimony pentoxide has the same structure as the B form of niobium pentoxide and can be derived from the rutile structure, with antimony coordinated by six oxygens in a distorted octahedral arrangement. The SbO6 octahedra are corner- and edge-sharing.[1]

Antimony-pentoxide-xtal-1979-Sb-coord-3D-balls-O.png
Antimony-pentoxide-xtal-1979-O1-coord-B-3D-balls.png
Antimony-pentoxide-xtal-1979-O2&3-coord-B-3D-balls.png
Sb coordination
edge sharing
corner sharing

Preparation[edit]

The hydrated oxide is prepared by hydrolysis of antimony pentachloride; or by acidification of potassium hexahydroxoantimonate(V). It may also be prepared by oxidation of antimony trioxide with nitric acid.[2]

Uses[edit]

It finds use as a Flame retardant in ABS and other plastics, a flocculant in the production of titanium dioxide and is sometimes used in the production of glass, paint and adhesives.[3][4]

It is also used as an ion-exchange resin for a number if cations in acidic solution including Na+ (especially for their selective retentions); and as a polymerization and oxidation catalyst.

Properties and reactions[edit]

The hydrated oxide is insoluble in nitric acid, but dissolves in concentrated potassium hydroxide solution to give potassium hexahydroxoantimonate(V), KSb(OH)6.[5]

When heated at 700 °C the yellow hydrated pentoxide converts to an anhydrous white solid with a formula Sb6O13 containing both Sb(III) and Sb(V). Heating at 900 °C produces a white insoluble powder of Sb2O4 of both α and β forms. The β form consists of Sb(V) in octahedral interstices and pyramidal Sb(III) O4 units. In these compounds, Sb(V) atom is octahedrally coordinated to six –OH groups.

The pentoxide can be reduced to antimony metal by heating with hydrogen or potassium cyanide.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ M. Jansen (March 1979). "Die Kristallstruktur von Antimon(V)-oxid". Acta Cryst. B35 (3): 539–542. doi:10.1107/S056774087900409X. 
  2. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8
  3. ^ Bartlett, Jeffrey (1997-03-19). "Colloidal Antimony Pentoxide in Flame Retarded ABS". Nyacol Products, Inc. Archived from the original on 3 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-28. 
  4. ^ "ANTIMONY PENTOXIDE". chemicalLAND21.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-28. 
  5. ^ Pradyot Patnaik (2002). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill. p. 54. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. 
  6. ^ "Antimony" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 606.