Anting (bird activity)
In the behavior called anting, birds rub insects on their feathers, usually ants, which secrete liquids containing chemicals such as formic acid, that can act as an insecticide, miticide, fungicide, bactericide, or to make them edible by removing the distasteful acid. It possibly also supplements the bird's own preen oil. Instead of ants, birds can also use millipedes. Over 250 species of bird have been known to ant.
It has been suggested that anting acts as way of reducing feather parasites such as mites or in controlling fungi or bacteria, although there has been little convincing support for any of the theories. It is possible that the use of certain kinds of ants indicates the importance of the chemicals they release. Some cases of anting involved the use of millipedes or Puss Moth caterpillars, and these too are known to release powerful defensive chemicals.
Another suggested function, based on observation of Blue Jays, is that the bird makes the insects edible, by discharging the harmful acid onto their feathers. The birds were found to show anting behaviour only if the ants had a full acid sac, and with subjects whose acid sacs had been experimentally removed, the behaviour was absent.
This behaviour was first described by Erwin Stresemann in German as einemsen in the German ornithology journal Ornithologische Monatsberichte (Volume XLIII, p. 138) in 1935. Indian ornithologist Salim Ali interpreted an observation by his cousin Humayun Abdulali in the 1936 volume of Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society and included a on Stresemann's paper suggesting that the term could be translated into English as "anting".
- Revis, H.C. and Waller, D.A. (2004). "Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an evaluation of anting behavior as a Method of Self-medication in Songbirds". The Auk 121 (4): 1262–1268. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2004)121[1262:BAFAOA]2.0.CO;2. JSTOR 4090493.
- Lunt, N, P.E.Hulley, A. J. F. K. Craig (2004). "Active anting in captive Cape White-eyes Zosterops pallidus". Ibis 146 (2): 360–362. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2004.00264.x.
- Clunie, F. (1976). "Jungle mynah "anting" with millipede". Notornis 23: 77.
- Eisner, T.; Aneshansley, D (2008). ""Anting" in Blue Jays, evidence in support of a food-preparatory function". Chemoecology 18 (4): 197–203. doi:10.1007/s00049-008-0406-3. PMC 2630239. PMID 19169379.
- Power, E. E and D. C. Hauser 1974. Relationship of anting and sunbathing to molting in wild birds (1974). "Relationship of Anting and Sunbathing to Molting in Wild Birds". The Auk 91 (3): 537–563. doi:10.2307/4084474.
- Ali, Salim (1936). "Do birds employ ants to rid themselves of ectoparasites?". Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 38 (3): 628–631.
- Kelso, L. and Nice, Margaret M. (1963). "A Russian contribution to anting and feather mites". The Wilson Bulletin 75 (1): 23–26.
- Taber, Stephen Welton (1998). The World of the Harvester Ants. W.L. Moody, jr. Natural History Series 23. Texas A&M University Press.