Antiochus I Theos of Commagene
|Antiochus I Theos|
|King of Commagene|
|Reign||70 BC – 38 BC
|Predecessor||Mithridates I Callinicus|
|Spouse||Princess Isias Philostorgos of Cappadocia|
|Issue||Mithridates II of Commagene
Laodice, Queen of Parthia
Prince Antiochus II
Athenais, Queen of Media Atropatene
|Father||King Mithridates I Callinicus of Commagene|
|Mother||Princess Laodice VII Thea of the Seleucid Empire|
|Born||c. 86 BC|
Antiochus I Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philorhomaios Philhellenos (Armenian: Անտիոքոս Երվանդունի, Greek: Ἀντίοχος ὀ Θεός Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανής Φιλορωμαίος Φιλέλλην, meaning Antiochos, a just, eminent god, friend of Romans and friend of Greeks, c. 86 BC – 38 BC, ruled 70 BC – 38 BC) was a king from the Kingdom of Commagene and the most famous king of that kingdom.
The ruins of the tomb-sanctuary of Antiochus are magnificent to behold even today. The site of his interment atop Mount Nemrut, a.k.a. Nemrut dagi, was named to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1987. Several sandstone bas reliefs discovered at the site contain the oldest known images of two figures shaking hands.
Family, Ancestry and Early Life
Antiochus I was the son and probably the only child of King Mithridates I Callinicus and Queen Laodice VII Thea of Commagene. Antiochus was half Armenian, a distant member of the Orontid Dynasty and half Greek. Antiochus’ father Mithridates was the son of King of Commagene Sames II Theosebes Dikaios, while his mother is unknown. Mithridates in descent was related to the kings of Parthia and, according to archaeological research at Mount Nemrut, was also a descendant from the family of King Darius I of Persia.
Antiochus’ mother, Laodice VII Thea, was a Greek Princess of the Seleucid Empire. Laodice’s father was the Seleucid King Antiochus VIII Grypus while her mother was Ptolemaic Princess and later Seleucid Queen Tryphaena (see Cleopatra VI of Egypt). Thus, Antiochus was a direct descendant of Seleucus I Nicator of the Seleucid Empire, Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt, Antigonus I Monophthalmus of Macedonia and Asia, Lysimachus of Thrace and the Macedonian regent, Antipater. The five men had served as generals under Greek Macedonian King, Alexander the Great. Antiochus’ parents had married as part of a peace alliance between their kingdoms, while his father had embraced Greek culture. Little is known of his early life. When his father died in 70 BC, Antiochus succeeded his father as king.
- Mithridates II of Commagene, succeeded Antiochus as King of Commagene after his death in 38 BC
- Laodice, who married King Orodes II of Parthia
- Prince Antiochus II of Commagene
- Antiochis of Commagene
- Athenais, who married King Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene
Relations with the Romans
While the Roman Republic was annexing territories in Anatolia through skilled diplomacy, Antiochus was able to keep Commagene independent from the Romans. Antiochus is first mentioned in the ancient sources in 69 BC, when Lucullus campaigned against the Armenian King Tigranes the Great. Antiochus made peace with general Pompey in 64 BC, when Pompey successfully invaded Syria. Antiochus and Pompey then became allies. Antiochus in 59 BC was granted the Toga Praetexta and was given official recognition from the Roman Senate as an ally to Rome. Antiochus was given an ivory sceptre, an embroidered triumphal robe and he was greeted as king, ally and friend. This recognition was a tradition, which recognises and rewards the allies to Rome. From his reign onwards, monarchs from Commagene proved to be the most loyal Roman allies. When Marcus Tullius Cicero was Roman governor of Cilicia in 51 BC, Antiochus provided Cicero with intelligence of the movements of the Parthians. During the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey, Antiochus provided troops for Pompey.
In 38 BC, a legatus of Triumvir Mark Antony, Publius Ventidius Bassus, after campaigning against the Parthians, wanted to attack Antiochus and his kingdom. Mark Antony and Publius Ventidius Bassus were attracted to the treasury and wealth that Commagene had. Yet as Antony and Bassus were preparing to march against Commagene and its capital Samosata, Antiochus negotiated a peaceful settlement with them.
Antiochus is famous for building the impressive religious sanctuary of Nemrud Dagi or Mount Nemrut. When Antiochus reigned as king he was creating a royal cult for himself and was preparing to be worshipped after his death. Antiochus was inspired to create his own cult in the Greek form of the religion Zoroastrianism. Antiochus left many Greek inscriptions revealing many aspects of his religion and explaining his purpose of action. In one inscription, Antiochus wrote erecting his tomb in a high and holy place should be remote from people and should be close to the gods and be in rank with them. Antiochus wanted his body to be preserved for eternity. The gods he worshipped were a syncretism of Greek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Hercules-Vahagn, Zeus-Aramazd or Oromasdes (associated with the Iranic god Ahura Mazda), Tyche, and Apollo-Mithras. The monumental effigies of the site show both Persian and Greek iconographic influences. Persian influences can be seen in the clothes, headgear and the colossal size of the images, while the depiction of their physical features derives from Greek artistic style.
Antiochus practised astrology of a very esoteric kind, and laid the basis for a calendrical reform, by linking the Commagene year, which till then had been based on the movements of the Sun and Moon, to the Sothic-Anahit (Star of Sirius) and Hayk (Star of Orion) cycle used by the Egyptians as the basis of their calendar. This would suggest that Antiochus was knowledgeable about, if not fully initiated into Hermeticism.
Antiochus’ tomb complex was constructed in a way that religious festivities could occur. Each month Antiochus had two festivities: his birthday which was celebrated on the 16th of each month and his coronation which was celebrated on the 10th of each month. He allocated funds for these events from properties legally bound to the site. He also appointed families of priests and hierodules, whose descendants were intended to, continue the ritual service in perpetuity. Priests wore traditional Persian robes and adorned with crowns of gold the images of the gods and Antiochus' ancestors. The priests offered incense, herbs, and other unspecified "splendid sacrifices" on altars set before each image. All the citizens and military garrison were invited to the banquets in honor of the illustrious deceased. During feasts, grudging attitudes were forbidden and Antiochus decreed that the people should enjoy themselves, eat and drink wine, and listen to the sacred music performed by the temple musicians.
Antiochus’ tomb was forgotten for centuries, until 1883 when archaeologists from Germany excavated it. According to the inscriptions found, Antiochus appears to have been a pious person and had a generous spirit. In another city of the kingdom Arsameia, ruins have found of the royal palace. This palace is known as Eski Vale or Old Castle. In Arsameia, Antiochus has left many inscriptions in Greek of his public works program and how he glorified the city.
|Ancestors of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene|
- Campbell-Scott, Roger. "Nimrud Dagh - A Sacred Mountain in Anatolia", in Vanished Civilizations: The Hidden Secrets of Lost Cities and Forgotten Peoples, pp. 194–197. Reader’s Digest Services P/L, Hong Kong, 1988. ISBN 0-276-42658-4.
- Adrian Gilbert, Magi, Bloomsbury Publishing, 1996.
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