Antiqua (typeface class)
Antiqua typefaces are those designed between about 1470 and 1600, specifically those by Nicolas Jenson and the Aldine roman commissioned by Aldus Manutius and cut by Francesco Griffo. Antiqua letterforms were modelled on a synthesis of Roman inscriptional capitals and Carolingian writing. They are also known as Venetian types and occasionally as old style, differentiated from modern styles by the more or less uniform thickness of all strokes and by slanted serifs. The term "Antiqua" later came to sometimes be used for Roman type in general as opposed to blackletter, as in the Antiqua-Fraktur dispute in the German-speaking world.
Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944), a Czech designer who did significant work on book and type design - created 'Preissig Antiqua' for Czechoslovakia type designs. Designers in Czechoslovakia felt that they should have a specific typeface that represented the Czech design culture. Preissig created 'Preissig Antiqua' roughly around the early 20th Century that would influence the style of print and type designs not only in Czechoslovakia, but also all over Europe in general.
Forms and types
- Antiqua's Germanic opposite is blackletter, in which the letter forms are broken or fractured. In 19th- and 20th-century Germany there was a dispute over whether German should be written in antiqua or the highly developed Fraktur blackletter. In 1911, the German Reichstag rejected an official switch by only three votes: 85 to 82. Hitler advocated a switch in 1934 but took no action until 1941 when a decree in Germany outlawed the use of blackletter in favour of antiqua See an English Translation of Martin Bormann's 1941 memo mandating the use of Antiqua.
- Carson Antiqua
- Made by Berne Nadall (1896–98), Restored by American type foundry Barnhart Bros & Spindler. The type face restored is not Caslon's work but it was created by imagining how it would look during the time (1900's).
- Preissig Antiqua
- Made by Vojtěch Preissig (1873-1944), a type designer and writer.
- Renner Antiqua
- Made by Paul Renner, Revived by Patrick Strietzel (1939) Crafted at D. Stempel AG Foundry.
- Zapf Renaissance Antiqua
- Made by Hermann Zapf, Typeface Designer,
- Script typeface
- History of western typography
- Record type
- Roman type
- Old-style figures
- Nesbitt, Alexander The History and Technique of Lettering (c) 1957, Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-20427-8, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number: 57-13116. The Dover edition is an abridged and corrected republication of the work originally published in 1950 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. under the title Lettering: The History and Technique of Lettering as Design.
- The Inline Printer (Page 382), Designer and Engravers of type by William E.Loy No. XXVII -- Berne Nadall <http://www.galleyrack.com/images/artifice/letters/press/typemaking/literature/general/loy/inland-printer-v025n3-1900-06-p0382-hathi-mich-img0442-loy-no-28-berne-nadall.pdf>
- Wikipedia, Hermann Zapf URL:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Zapf#List_of_typefaces
- Linotype, FONT DESIGNER – PAUL RENNER URL: http://www.linotype.com/762/paulrenner.html
- "Vojtěch Preissig's types for Czech alphabets." University of St. Thomas – A private, Catholic liberal arts university in Minnesota — University of St. Thomas : Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 December 2011. <http://www.stthomas.edu/facethenation/fullcase_vojtechpreissig.html>
- FONT DESIGNER – BERNE NADALL, www.linotype.com, <http://www.linotype.com/745/berndnadall.html>
- Linotype, RENNER ANTIQUA-Renner Antiqua – Reviving a serif typeface from the designer of Futura – PAUL RENNER URL: http://www.linotype.com/5689/rennerantiqua.html