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A simple counting of the elements of dialectics (any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments) is that of thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Hell is the antithesis of Heaven; disorder is the antithesis of order. It is the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in a balanced way. In rhetoric, it is a figure of speech involving the bringing out of a contrast in the ideas by an obvious contrast in the words, clauses, or sentences, within a parallel grammatical structure, as in the following:
- When there is need of silence, you speak, and when there is need of speech, you are dumb;
when you are present, you wish to be absent, and when absent, you desire to be present;
in peace you are for war, and in war you long for peace;
in council you descant on bravery, and in the battle you tremble.
Antithesis is sometimes double or alternate, as in the appeal of Augustus:
- Listen, young men, to an old man to whom old men were glad to listen when he was young.
Other literary examples 
Some other examples of antithesis are:
- A) Man proposes, God disposes.
- B) Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
- C) Many are called, but few are chosen.
- D) Rude words bring about sadness, but kind words inspire joy.
- E) Never give in — never, never, never, never, in nothing great or small, large or petty, never give in except to convictions of honour and good sense. Never yield to force; never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy. (by Winston Churchill)
- F) 'Cause you're hot then you're cold, you're yes then you're no, you're in then you're out, you're up then you're down, you're wrong when it's right, it's black and it's white, we fight, we break up, we kiss, we make up (Katy Perry, from the song, Hot n Cold)
Biblical use of antitheses 
Matthew's Antitheses is the traditional name given to a section of the Sermon on the Mount
The Jewish Encyclopedia: Brotherly Love states:
Jesus' six antitheses are on six topics. In each of them, Jesus opens the statement with words to the effect: "You have heard it said...but I say to you...." These antitheses only appear in Matthew. At the outset, Jesus made it clear that he greatly respects Old Testament Law in the Torah, and fulfilling the Law was one of his purposes for coming to Earth.
Daniel Harrington believes that the community for which Matthew wrote primarily but not exclusively Jewish Christians. If so, that may explain why Matthew could use Jewish rhetoric and themes without explanation. Harrington says that is not the case for 21st-century Americans and others who read the Gospel today. In the six antitheses Jesus either extends through the Commandment's scope by going to the root of the abuse (avoiding anger and lust to prevent murder and adultery) or going beyond a biblical commandment as in the case of divorce and oaths. Harrington writes that Matthew presents the six antitheses as examples of the principle that Jesus came not to abolish but to fulfill the Law and the Prophets.
Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished. Anyone who breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven.
The first antithesis (vv. 21-22) attacks anger as the root of murder. The two loosely connected illustrations (23-24, 25-26) point out the value of reconciling with one's enemy.
You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, "Do not murder,
The second antithesis (vv. 27-28) attacks lust as the root of adultery. The sayings about the right eye in the right-hand as causes of scandal (29-30) are further instances of going to the sources of sin.
You have heard that it was said, "Do not commit adultery."
The third antithesis (vv. 31-32) explains Jesus' prohibition of divorce as a way of avoiding the divorce procedure outlined in .
It has been said, "Anyone who divorces his wife must give her a certificate of divorce."
The fourth antithesis (vv. 33-37) about oaths says to avoid oaths entirely so as never to swear falsely.
Again, you have heard that it was said to the people long ago, "Do not break your oath, but keep the oaths you have made to the Lord." But I tell you, Do not swear at all: either by heaven, for it is God"s throne; or by the earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King. And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make even one hair white or black. Simply let your "Yes" be "Yes," and your "No," "No"; anything beyond this comes from the evil one.
An eye for an eye 
The fifth antithesis on non-retaliation (vv. 38-39a) also urges the followers of Jesus to not seek revenge through violence. The examples not only prohibit violence, but also require that brutality and force be met with goodness.
You have heard that it was said, "Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth."
Love for enemies 
The final antithesis (vv. 43-48) defines "neighbor". Here Jesus urges that love include even enemies instead of restricting love only to those who either can benefit us or who already love us.
You have heard that it was said, "Love your neighbor
See also 
- Ferreira, Gladwyn. English Kumarbharati Grammar,Language Study & Writing Skills Std.X.
- Cody, Sherwin (2007-12-31). The Art of Writing and Speaking the English Language. ISBN 1406846570.
- Harrington, Daniel J. The Gospel of Matthew . Liturgical Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0814659649
- Some manuscripts say "brother or sister without cause"─NIV notes
- "Raca" is an Aramaic term of contempt.─NIV notes