Anton Raphael Mengs

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Self-portrait.

Anton Raphael Mengs (March 22, 1728[1] – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.

Early life[edit]

Mengs was born in 1728 at Ústí nad Labem (German: Aussig) in Bohemia, the son of Ismael Mengs (da), a Danish painter who eventually established himself at Dresden. In 1741 Mengs's father took him from Dresden to Rome.

Career[edit]

Lying male nude propped on left arm, gazing upward, by Anton Raphael Mengs
The notorious fake antique fresco of Jupiter and Ganymede, tailored to deceive Winckelmann has been attributed to Mengs or Giovanni Casanova[2]
The Triumph of History over Time, Allegory of the Museum Clementinum, ceiling fresco in the Camera dei Papiri, Vatican Library.

In Rome, his fresco painting of Parnassus at Villa Albani gained him a reputation as a master painter. In 1749 he was appointed first painter to Frederick Augustus, elector of Saxony, but this did not prevent him from spending much of his time in Rome. There he married Margarita Guazzi, who had sat for him as a model in 1748. He converted to Catholicism, and in 1754 he became director of the Vatican school of painting.

In 1749 Mengs accepted a commission from the Duke of Northumberland to make a copy, in oil on canvas, of Raphael's fresco The School of Athens for his London home. Executed in 1752–5, Mengs' painting is full-sized, but adapts the composition to a rectangular format, with some additional figures.It is now in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum.[3]

On two occasions he accepted invitations from Charles III of Spain to go to Madrid. There he produced some of his best work, most notably the ceiling of the banqueting hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid, the subject of which was the Triumph of Trajan and the Temple of Glory. After the completion of this work in 1777, Mengs returned to Rome, where he died two years later, in poor circumstances, leaving twenty children, seven of whom were pensioned by the king of Spain. His portraits and self-portraits recall an attention to detail and insight often lost in his grander paintings.

His closeness to Johann Joachim Winckelmann[4] has enhanced his historical importance. Mengs came to share Winckelmann's enthusiasm for classical antiquity, and worked to establish the dominance of Neoclassical painting. At the same time, however, the influence of the Roman Baroque remained strong in his work, particularly in his religious paintings. He would have fancied himself the first neoclassicist, while in fact he may be the last flicker of Baroque art. Rudolf Wittkower wrote: "In the last analysis, he is as much an end as a beginning".[5] In Winckelmann und sein Jahrhundert, Goethe regretted that "so much learning should have been allied to a total want of initiative and poverty of invention, and embodied with a strained and artificial mannerism."

Mengs had a well-known rivalry with the contemporary Italian painter Pompeo Batoni. He was also a friend of Giacomo Casanova. Casanova provides accounts of his personality and contemporary reputation through anecdotes in his Histoire de Ma Vie. Among his pupils in Italy were Antonio Maron (Vienna, 1731- Naples 1761).[6] His pupils in Spain included Agustín Esteve.

Besides numerous paintings in Madrid, the Ascension and St Joseph at Dresden, Perseus and Andromeda at Saint Petersburg, and the ceiling of the Villa Albani are among his chief works. In 1911, Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland, possessed Mengs's work entitled Holy Family, and the colleges of All Souls and Magdalen, at Oxford, possessed altar-pieces by Mengs.

Theoretical writings[edit]

In his writings, in Spanish, Italian, and German, Mengs expressed an eclectic theory of art, seeing perfection as attainable by a well-schemed combination of diverse excellences: Greek design, with the expression of Raphael, the chiaroscuro of Correggio, and the colour of Titian.

Death[edit]

Mengs died in Rome in June 1779 and was buried in the Roman Church of Santi Michele e Magno.

Selected works[edit]

  • Ascension (Dresden, Court Church), 1751/1766
  • St Joseph (Dresden, Court Church), 1751/1766
  • The Glory of Saint Eusebius (ceiling fresco, Sant'Eusebio, Rome), 1757 (modello, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Canada Ottawa)
  • Charles III (Madrid, Museo del Prado), 1761

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Anton Raphael Mengs (Bohemian painter)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 30, 2012. 
  2. ^ A case for an attribution to Giovanni Casanova, brother of the famous memoirist and rake, was made by Thomas Pelzel, "Winckelmann, Mengs and Casanova: A Reappraisal of a Famous Eighteenth-Century Forgery", The Art Bulletin 54.3 (September 1972:300-315).
  3. ^ "The School of Athens (after Raphael)". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 3 July 2014. 
  4. ^ Portratit of Winckelmann
  5. ^ Wittkower, p 469
  6. ^ Supplemento alla Serie dei trecento elogi e ritratti degli uomini i più illustri in Pittura , Scultura, e Architettura. by Pellegrino Antonio Orlandi, published by Stamperia Allegrini, Pisoni, e comp, Florence (1776); column 1368-1369.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]