Anton Felix Schindler (13 June 1795 – 16 January 1864) was an associate, secretary, and early biographer of Ludwig van Beethoven. He was born in Medlov, Moravia and died in Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main).
Subsequent discredit and recent revival of credibility
Although as early as the 1850s the inconsistencies of Schindler's account were clear enough to lead Alexander Wheelock Thayer to commence research for his own pioneering biography, it was a series of musicological articles published since the 1970s that essentially demolished Schindler's reputation of reliability. It was demonstrated that he falsified entries in Beethoven's Conversation Books (into which he inserted many spurious entries after Beethoven's 1826 death) and that he had exaggerated his period of close association with the composer (his claimed '11 or 12 years' was likely no more than five or six). It was also believed that Schindler also destroyed more than half of the conversation books. The Beethoven Compendium (Cooper 1991, p. 52) goes so far as to say that Schindler's propensity for inaccuracy and fabrication was so great that virtually nothing he has recorded can be relied on unless it is supported by other evidence. More recently, Theodore Albrecht has re-examined the question of Schindler's reliability, and as to his presumed destruction of a huge number of conversation books, concludes that this widespread belief could not be true.
Although Anton Schindler forged documents and acquired the position of a persecuted music historian, his accounts on Beethoven's style of performing his own piano works are indispensable sources. Dr. George Barth, in his book "The Pianist as Orator" [Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1992] brings to light an approach to music rhetoric in the Beethoven keyboard literature, based on Schindler and his testimonies, quite different than the Czerny angle on Beethoven the world has grown used to since Schindler's forgeries shadowed his credibility. Discrepancies in metronome markings by Czerny as well as accounts on Beethoven's own rhythm and tempo create a more complete image of Schindler's credibility and his valuable persona in coming to perform a piece by Beethoven.
- Anton Schindler (1840): Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven. [Biography of Ludwig van Beethoven.] Münster. (2nd ed. 1845; 3rd ed. 1860; 5th ed. 1927.)
- Anton Felix Schindler (1996). Donald W. MacArdle, ed. Beethoven as I knew him. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-29232-8.
- Anton Felix Schindler, Ignaz Moscheles (ed), The life of Beethoven: including numerous characteristic traits and remarks on his musical works, Volumes 1-2,Gamut Music Co., 1966
- Alessandra Comini (2008). The Changing Image of Beethoven: A Study in Mythmaking. Sunstone Press. ISBN 978-0-86534-661-1.
- Edmund Morris (2005). Beethoven: the universal composer. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-075974-2.
- See Stadlen (1977), Goldschmidt (1977, p. 470, n. 138), Herre & Beck (1978), Beck & Herre (1979), Howell (1979), Newman (1984).
- "In any case, it now becomes abundantly clear that Schindler never possessed as many as ca. 400 conversation books, and that he never destroyed roughly five-eighths of that number." (Albrecht 2010)
- George Barth, "The Pianist as Orator" Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1992
- Theodore Albrecht, 'Anton Schindler as destroyer and forger of Beethoven’s conversation books: A case for decriminalization', Music’s Intellectual History, RILM 2010, 168-81.
- Dagmar Beck & Grita Herre (1979): "Anton Schindlers fingierte Eintragungen in den Konversationsheften." [Anton Schindler's Fabricated Entries in the Conversation Books.] In: Harry Goldschmidt (ed.): Zu Beethoven. Aufsätze und Annotationen. [On Beethoven. Essays and Annotations.] Leipzig.
- Barry Cooper, gen. ed., The Beethoven Compendium, Ann Arbor, MI: Borders Press, 1991, ISBN 0-681-07558-9.
- Grita Herre & Dagmar Beck (1978): "Einige Zweifel an der Überlieferung der Konversationshefte." [Some Doubts about the Conversation Books.] Bericht über den Internationalen Beethoven–Kongreß Berlin 1977. Leipzig.
- Howell, Standley (1979): "Beethoven's Mälzel Canon. Another Schindler Forgery?", The Musical Times Vol. 120, No. 1642, pp. 987-990. In German as "Der Mälzelkanon - eine weitere Fälschung Schindlers?", in: Harry Goldschmift (ed.): Zu Beethoven. Aufsätze und Dokumente, vol. 2. Berlin: Neue Musik 1984, pp. 163-171.
- William S. Newman, 'Yet Another Major Beethoven Forgery by Schindler?', The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 3, No. 4. (Autumn, 1984), pp. 397-422.
- Peter Stadlen, 'Schindler's Beethoven Forgeries', The Musical Times, Vol. 118, No. 1613. (July 1977), pp. 549-552.
- Alexander Wheelock Thayer, Ludwig van Beethoven's Leben, 5 vols., Berlin 1866-1908 (vols. 4 and 5 posthumously ed. by Hugo Riemann).