Antonio José de Sucre
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|Antonio José de Sucre|
|2nd President of Bolivia|
29 December 1825 – 18 April 1828
|Preceded by||Simón Bolívar|
|Succeeded by||José María Pérez de Urdininea|
|6th President of Perú|
23 June 1823 – 17 July 1823
|Preceded by||José de la Riva Agüero|
|Succeeded by||José Bernardo de Tagle|
February 3, 1795|
Cumaná, Viceroyalty of New Granada (in present-day Venezuela)
|Died||June 4, 1830
Pasto, Republic of New Granada (in present-day Colombia)
|Resting place||Cathedral of Quito|
|Spouse(s)||Maríana de Carcelén y Larrea, Marquise of Solanda|
|Children||Teresa Sucre y Carcelén|
|Honorary title||Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho|
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (Spanish: [anˈtonjo xoˈse ðe ˈsukɾe j alkaˈla]; 1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" (English: "Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader. Sucre was one of Simón Bolívar's closest friends, generals and statesmen.
The aristocratic Sucre family trace its roots back to origins in Flanders. It arrived in Venezuela through Charles de Sucre y Pardo, a Flemish nobleman, son of Charles Adrian de Sucre, Marquess of Peru and Buenaventura Carolina Isabel Garrido y Pardo, a Spanish noblewoman. Charles de Sucre y Pardo served as a soldier in Catalonia in 1698 and was later named Governor of Cartagena de Indias and Captain General of Cuba. On December 22, 1779, Charles de Sucre y Pardo arrived in Cumaná, Venezuela, having been named Governor of New Andalucia, which includes present-day Sucre state.
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In 1814, Antonio José de Sucre joined the battles for South American independence from Spain. The Battle of Pichincha took place on May 24, 1822, on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano, 3,500 meters above sea level, right next to the city of Quito in what is now Ecuador. The encounter, fought in the context of the Spanish American wars of independence, pitted a Patriot army under Sucre against a Royalist army commanded by Field Marshal Melchor Aymerich. The defeat of the Royalist forces brought about the liberation of Quito and secured the independence of the provinces belonging to the Real Audiencia de Quito, or Presidencia de Quito, the Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which the Republic of Ecuador would eventually emerge.
As of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of the south of Peru as well as of Real Felipe Fort in the port of Callao. On December 9, 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho (Battle of La Quinua) took place at Pampa de La Quinua, a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua between Royalist and Independentist forces. The general Sucre, as Simón Bolívar's lieutenant, led the Independentist forces to victory over the Viceroy José de la Serna who was wounded. After the battle second commander-in-chief José de Canterac signed the final capitulation of the Royalist army.
After the victory at Ayacucho, following precise orders from Bolívar, Sucre nominated as Ayacucho's Grand Marshall entered Upper Peru (today's Bolivia) territory on February 25, 1825. Besides having orders of installing an immediately independent administration, his role was limited to giving an appearance of legality to the process that Upper Peruvians themselves had started already. Royalist general Pedro Antonio Olañeta stayed in Potosí, where he received by January the "Union" Battalion coming from Puno under the command of colonel José María Valdez. Olañeta then summoned a War Council, which agreed to continue the resistance in the name of Ferdinand VII. Next, Olañeta distributed his troops between Cotagaita fortress with the "Chichas" Battalion. in charge of colonel Medinacelli, while Valdez was sent to Chuquisaca with the "Union" and Olañeta himself marched toward Vitichi, with 60,000 pieces of gold from the Coin House in Potosí. The majority of royalist troops of Upper Peru refused to continue fighting against the powerful army of Sucre. Colonel Medinacelli with 300 soldiers also revolted against Olañeta, and on April 2 of 1825 they faced each other in the Battle of Tumusla, which ended with the death of Olañeta. A few days later, on April 7, general José María Valdez surrendered in Chequelte to general Urdininea, putting an end to the war in Upper Peru.
Through a decree it was determined that the new state in Upper Peru would carry the name of República Bolívar, in honor of the liberator, who was designated as "Father of the Republic and Supreme Chief of State". Bolívar thanked them for these honors, but declined the presidency of the Republic, a duty he gave instead to Sucre as Ayacucho's Grand Marshall. After some time, the subject of the name of the young nation arose again, and a Potosian deputy named Manuel Martín Cruz offered a solution, suggesting that in the same manner in which from Rome comes from Romulus, from Bolívar ought to come Bolivia:He began his career of government in which all charges would perform civil administration until President in Bolivia . On 7 October the same year (1817 ) he was appointed Chief of Staff of the division of the province of Cumana, under the command of General Bermudez, appointed commander of that great unity . These appointments were intended to further reduce the dissent that reigned in Cumana. "General Bermudez and you will do great things in Cumana and maybe one day be called the saviors of their country," said Bolivar Sucre on that occasion. In August 1819 he was promoted to brigadier general by Vice Venezuela, Francisco Antonio Zea ; degree Bolívar shall be ratified by the February 16, 1820 . Travel to the Netherlands commissioned to acquire war material; mission accomplish successfully. That same year he plays, temporarily, the portfolio of War and Navy and titular head of the General Staff . It was one of the commissioners to arrange the Treaties of Trujillo ( Armistice and Regularization of War) in November 1820 signed Pablo Bolivar and Morillo general . It was his first diplomatic business, start another career in which he also excels with his usual brilliance. This regularizer instrument 's match, which represents a significant milestone in international law say that Bolívar was " ... the most beautiful monument to piety applied to war"
The January 11, 1821, in Bogotá, Bolívar was named commander of the Southern Army, replacing General Manuel Valdés, was the force that, since 1820, operated in Popayan and Pasto. Sucre received the job because of political reasons Nature and made strategic Bolívar annul such appointment and give him commission to go to Guayaquil, where General José Mires replace and assume the mission that had been entrusted to him to make the province ( which had become independent in Spanish in October 1820 ) was incorporated to the Republic of Gran Colombia and take command of the troops had in Guayaquil, as previous steps for the release of Quito, which was the primary purpose of ejecutasen operations . On April 6 Sucre arrived at Guayaquil and submitted to the Governing Board, explained the reason for his presence there and the idea of a union of the province with Colombia . The 15th of the same month a treaty was concluded between Sucre (for Colombia ) and José Joaquín de Olmedo, Francisco Rafael Roca and Jimena, members of the Board. The treaty stipulated that Guayaquil maintain its sovereignty, but under the protection of Colombia . At that time Sucre was empowered to open the campaign against the royalists, and on this occasion, Guayaquil offered all available resources. In July 1821, Field Marshal Melchor Aymerich, at the head of a column of 1,700 men opened operations against Guayaquil, for Guaranda, Babahoyo and Yaguachi ; combined action with executed by Colonel Francisco Gonzalez with 1,000 men, of Cuenca to Yaguachi . On August 7 Sucre moved some 1,000 infantry and 200 cavalry, against column González who defeated the 19th of the same month at the Battle of Yaguachi . Sucre Aymerich countermarched to face, but this one, refusing to fight, he retired to Sabaneta and then Guaranda, under the persecution of a republican unit. Sucre 's victory Yaguachi fail to urge the Governing Board again to define the fate of Guayaquil. On September 3, the Board ruled in favor of union with Colombia, but was not made due to the hesitation of Rafael Jimena and hostility toward Colombia Colonel Francisco Roca. The political situation in Guayaquil was suspended . In September of that same year undertook operations against Sucre column Aymerich, and their advance was defeated by Francisco González column in Huachi September 12 . Sucre retired to Guayaquil, where reconstituted their forces and increased with the troops recruited in the province and with that came from Colombia in October of that year. By December the political situation in Guayaquil became somewhat delicate by the arrival of General Francisco Salazar and José de La Mar, from Peru, the first ambassador of Peru and the second in order to take command in the province and its military forces. Both agents developed activities for the Peruvian case, which triggered the spirit of the opposite party, that resulted in the decision to Porto Viejo, December 16, when it declared its incorporation in Colombia, followed by the localities example jipijapa and Manabi . The Board appointed governor of La Mar province and entrusted the task to submit by force the people who had spoken for Colombia . Sucre intervened and convinced one and all that the most important thing was to fight against the common enemy and set aside the partisan struggle for freedom when were consolidated . Sucre immediately sent his personal delegate to the republican authorities of Lima Heres Colonel Thomas, who scored Peru's sending troops to help the company Sucre. These troops, commanded by Colonel Andrés de Santa Cruz, were named Division Peruana . The diplomatic and political success of Sucre in Guayaquil, reinforcing the troops of Santa Cruz, the good opinion of Colombia had formed Guayaquileans and information on the progress of the forces of Simon Bolivar to Pasture conditions put in Sucre favorable for continuing operations for the liberation of Quito.
His general plan considered a concentration of forces in the area between Loja, Saraguro and Ona ; should join him in that area the Division Peruana . In coordination with the expected concentration act a secondary force whose purpose was to threaten Quito and Riobamba realistic communications . This mission entrusted to Lieutenant Colonel Sucre Cestari Cayetano, who has Babahoyo was to lie in the vicinity of Latacunga, with 120 infantry and 40 cavalry. From Sucre Samborondón sent a small force under the command of Captain Jose Antonio Ponton, to Alausí, realistic intercept communications between Cuenca and Riobamba. The royalist forces were made up of 3,000 men, distributed in Cuenca, Riobamba, Ambato and Quito. Meanwhile Sucre available 2 divisions: one from Colombia and one from Peru . This set gave the name of the United Army, whose cash was approximately 2,500 men. In late January 1822 and began operation in mid-February and most of the Republican troops were concentrated in Saraguro . This operation and the subsequent occupation of Cuenca were carried out with relative ease, thanks to the actions of Cestari and Pontoon . After a few days in Cuenca, General Sucre continued its offensive to Riobamba, which was taken on April 21 . Days earlier, Colonel Diego Ibarra, commander of the vanguard, had contacted the royalists in the town, and as a result, and took some prisoners captured retreating forces that garrisoned . On April 29, resumed the march and Sucre on May 2 took possession of Latacunga where he spent 10 days in standby 2 battalions from Panama by sea, commanded by Colonels José María Córdoba and Hermogenes Maza. On May 13, Republicans resumed the march, and to avoid a frontal attack, Sucre moved by the slopes of Cotopaxi reaching Snapper valley, separated from the heights of Quito Puengasí . To neutralize the planned involvement in Sucre, realists retrogradaron and reentered Quito on May 16 . In Pasto knowledge that progressed from a realistic unit reinforcement troops were in Quito under the orders of Marshal Melchor Aymerich field Sucre sent Lieutenant Colonel Cayetano Cestari in the direction of Pasto to retard the progress of realistic reinforcement. Sucre, with thick, began to move to the suburbs of Iñaquito where present battle to the royalists, with good chances of success, in view of the advantages offered by the use of cavalry. During execution of this shift came the battle on the slopes of Pichincha volcano, immediate Quito on May 24, 1822, in fact, realizing Aymerich who performed the maneuver Republicans marched and presented them with battle Pichincha . The victory was Sucre, which was completed with the capitulation that the patriot leader Marshal Aymerich granted on May 25 of that year. With operations whose final actions occurred on the slopes of Pichincha in Quito, Sucre decided in his favor hesitant and delicate situation of Guayaquil, gave freedom to the territory that today constitutes the Republic of Ecuador, and facilitated their incorporation into Gran Colombia . On June 18 of that year, Bolivar amounts to major general and appointed him quartermaster department Quito. Leading destinations Ecuador develops a positive work progress : case the Court of Justice of Cuenca and Quito the first Republican newspaper of the time : The Monitor. Installs in that city the Economic Society . From your personal activity is good evidence that, on September 6, 1822 and signed in Quito issued 52 notices. Interested in education can affirm that found in Cuenca 7 schools and 20 left .
In early 1823 Peru calls Simon Bolivar to take charge of the liberating enterprise, but it was impossible to travel immediately appointed to Sucre and credentials provided to the committees should meet in Peru: ask ratification of the treaty of alliance concluded by the plenipotentiaries of Peru and Colombia on July 6, 1822, drafting a plan of operations for the campaign that should develop or reform those which are in force, remain in the country as a diplomatic agent, free to intervene in military operations, and on behalf of the Republic of Colombia treaty could secure any evacuation of the territory occupied by the Spanish arms, or suspension of hostilities between Peruvian and royalist forces . The May 10, 1823 came to Lima and the next day he presented his credentials at a time when Peru was facing a very embarrassing situation, due to the political instability and the recent failure of the Republicans in the first campaign to Intermediate . By this time preparations were made for a second season, also Middle, in which, with the Auxiliary Sucre ( grancolombiana ) Division was to march to the city of Arequipa, which act in combination with the actions taken by General Andrés Santa Cruz . On May 30 Sucre received the appointment of Army Commander UK, and on July 21 was proclaimed supreme military commander, a position accepted by Sucre provided only exercise in the theater of war. Although Santa Cruz 's victory at the Battle of Zepita ( 25/08/1823 ), the campaign degenerated into failure. Sucre returned to Lima, after removal of Arequipa ; operation highly praised by critics, particularly Carlos Dellepiane, who says : " the thoughtful provisions of Sucre in Arequipa , through timely and voluntary withdrawal , enabled him to save the army that if it had been committed , it would have made more useless sacrifice ... "
On 1 September of the same year came Bolivar to Peru, and from the day received the cooperation of Sucre in the execution of multiple tasks, both military and political . As an Army Commander General UK participated in the operations that led to the victory of the Republicans in the Battle of Junín ( 08/06/1824 ) and continued operations until reaching the troops Andahuailas territory . He received the custom Bolivar conducting the final operations of the campaign to liberate Peru, this decision originated in the Act of Congress of Colombia from July 28, 1824, which not only repealed the extraordinary powers that had previously been conferred Bolivar, but he withdrew the command of the troops grancolombianas exist in Peru . In late October of that year from Cuzco launched its offensive against the royalists Kingdom Liberation Army. Sucre maneuver to avoid having to wage combat at a disadvantage and moved his forces to the field of Ayacucho where realistic faces on 9 December, with victory for the republican arms, after which the vanquished are delivered by a capitulation granted by Sucre. It was the last battle of the emancipation process . Under orders from Sucre fought an effective representation of continental unity in official from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Guatemala, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, Curaçao, Puerto Rico and Mexico, in addition to others from different nations of Europe. Bolivar, who writes and publishes in 1825 his succinct summary of the life of General Sucre, only work of its kind conducted by the Father of the Nation, is full of praise to the crowning achievement of his faithful lieutenant : " ... The Battle of Ayacucho is the acme of American glory, and the work of General Sucre. the provision of it has been perfect , and divine execution [ ... ] the future generations expect the victory of Ayacucho to bless and behold sitting on the throne of freedom , dictating to Americans exercising their rights, and the sacred rule of nature ... "Bolívar reiterates with emphasis : " ... General Sucre is the father of Ayacucho is the redeemer of the children of the Sun : is the one who has broken the chains that wrapped Pizarro the empire of the Incas posterity will represent Sucre with one foot in the Pichincha and the other in Potosi, carrying in his hands the birthplace of Manco Capac and contemplating chains . of Peru, broken by the sword ... "The Congress of Colombia then you made Sucre in chief, and the Congress of Peru gave him the rank of Grand Marshal of Ayacucho , equivalent to general in chief of Colombia .
Following the triumphant victory of Ayacucho Sucre enters the Cuzco and freedoms after the provinces of Upper Peru . In 1825 invites representatives of these provinces to meet in assembly, and with the acquiescence of Bolívar decided to create this Bolivia , New Republic ( 08/06/1825 ) , of which Sucre is elected president later. Is significant work accomplished by Marshal Sucre in Bolivia , especially in the organization of the Treasury and general administration. He insisted on promoting freedom of the slaves and the distribution of land to the Indians , and especially for the benefit of education and culture. Before Congress was categorical in stating that : " Believing that a people can not be free, if society consists not know what their duties and their rights, have devoted special attention to public education." During the 13 weeks ranging from 3 February to May 5, 1826 , gave Bolivia 13 decrees concerning the creation of colleges of arts and sciences , more institutions for orphans and orphans in all departments , and to establish schools primaries in all counties of the Republic . History records the account of his pride : "Public education is what has made more progress Schools are established and going well in all the capitals of the departments , which also opened schools of mutual instruction that advance quickly [ . . ..] for education, the government has a plan of studies similar to the illustration of the century. " However, no agreement between Sucre and Simón Rodríguez as governor as an educator, which does not allow the development of projects in Bolivia second . In his political management returns to show repeatedly that his equanimity of property and their right sense of justice, which had encouraged them available in La Paz, 1825, for " ... that one side is published in all departments inviting citizens to those who believe they have not given justice or have any other complaint against me as a public official, the rise to the Liberator in legal terms, the concept that more that SE will make justice I are concerned, I offer never have the slightest resentment therefore claim any and if satisfaction seeing begin to enjoy the freedom that so many sacrifices have been made , and are worthy citizens live under the laws enforced know require of judges ... "The events of military and political anarchy waving to new and confused nation has its climax in the mutiny where Sucre Chuquisaca wounded in the right arm ( 18/04/1828 ) . By then sends power to marry in Quito with Mariana Carcelén and Larrea, Marchioness of Solanda (20 April). In August embarks on road to your home, and is set to arrive in Quito.
In 1829 the Republic requires his services to command the army must face the Peruvian offensive in southern Ecuador . Win the battle of TARQUI ( 27/02/1829 ) and offers a capitulation that is overdue model Americanist generous fraternity , true to its motto "Our justice was the same before and after the battle ." His daughter Theresa, who live only two years, was born on July 10, 1829 . In La Paz was born a natural Rosalía Cortés and his son, Joseph Mary on January 13, 1826 . The province of Cumana, which he kept standing affection chose him as their representative to Congress. On the way to Bogotá is aware of the separatist agitation promotes José Antonio Páez in Venezuela . In the difficult circumstances of 1830, stands on the political agenda for its result to the person and work of Bolivar. The Admirable Congress, meeting in Bogota, chooses its president in January of that year, in February, the same body commissioned a conciliatory mission to the Government of Venezuela ; accompany Jose Maria Estevez, Bishop of Santa Marta and vice president of the Congress, and Rep. Francisco Aranda. In mid-March the committee has come to Venezuela, but the imposition of the Government of Venezuela has to return to the Villa del Rosario de Cúcuta, where he held talks, lasting four days, not achieved positive results. Sucre returns to Bogotá, while the situation worsens and the work of Bolivar is fragmented . When going back to meet his family in Quito, Marshal Antonio José de Sucre is killed by treachery in the mountains of Berruecos (southern Colombia ), on June 4, 1830, José María Obando was designated as mastermind Apolinar Morillo and as executor of the crime.
Sucre 's life was a continuous struggle . Fought against human failings, against the elements, against distances. His concern for services, for administrative efficiency, filled many of their hours. He was unyielding in his probity vigilant . Unhesitatingly punished with extreme rigor, crime, vice and corruption, but was magnanimous vanquished enemies and adversaries. Especially highlighted in Sucre concepts of American patriotism, honor, gratitude and loyalty. In the last letter of Antonio José de Sucre, Simon Bolivar, Bogota written in the May 8, 1830, recorded " ... the pain of parting more painful ... " and so in his own hand writing : " No are words that can easily explain the feelings of my soul about you : you know them, they know me a long time and knows it is not his power, but their friendship that has inspired me the most tender affection to his person . 'll keep it , whatever that fits us luck , and I flatter myself that you always keep me appreciation you have given me . 'll know in all circumstances merit it . Goodbye, sir, get you by my friendship gaje tears at this point makes me pour you no Be happy you everywhere and everywhere count on the services and the gratitude of his most loyal and passionate friend
"Si de Rómulo, Roma; de Bolívar, Bolivia".
After being summoned once again the Deliberant Assembly in Chuquisaca by Sucre, on July 8 of 1825, and then concluded, it was determined the complete independence of Upper Peru under the republican form. Finally, the Assembly president José Mariano Serrano, together with a commission, wrote down the "Independence Act of the Upper Peruvian Departments" which carries the date of August 6, 1825, in honor of the Battle of Junín won by Bolivar.
In the Battle of Tarqui, fought on February 27, 1829, heavily outnumbered two to one, the Marechal Sucre defeated a Peruvian invasion force led by third President and General of Peru José de La Mar, whose intentions had been to annex Guayaquil and the rest of Ecuador to Peru.
When a strong movement arose against Bolívar, his followers, and the Bolivian constitution in 1828, Sucre resigned.
Assassination of Sucre at Berruecos
Sucre was killed on June 4, 1830. General Juan José Flores wanted to separate the southern departments (Quito, Guayaquil, and Azuay), called the District of Ecuador, from the Gran Colombia so as to form an independent country and become its first President. General Flores foresaw that if Antonio José de Sucre arrived in Quito from Bogota, he could thwart his plans, since Sucre was very popular due to his reputation as hero and leader in the Battles of Pichincha, Tarqui and Ayacucho. General Juan José Flores put himself in contact with the anti-Bolívar and anti-Sucre leader Brigadier-General and the Commanding General of Cauca, José María Obando, who was not present at Sucre's death but who delegated this criminal act to the Venezuelan Colonel Apolinar Morillo. Commander Juan Gregorio Sarria (who later confessed he had been paid by Obando), José Erazo (a highway bandit and guerrilla fighter), and his[clarification needed] three peons were accomplices. The plan was to ambush José Antonio de Sucre on the morning of June 4, 1830, in the cold and bleak forested district of Berruecos, along a narrow path that was perennially covered with fog. The five assassins were hiding behind trees along the part of the trail known as La Jacoba waiting for Sucre's party, which would be passing the area single file. Sucre's retinue comprised seven persons: two muleteers with the baggage, two sergeants, one being the Marshal's orderly, a representative to the Congress from Cuenca, and his[clarification needed] servant, and finally Sucre himself. When Sucre approached La Jacoba, he was struck by three bullets, two inflicting superficial wounds to his head and one piercing his heart. He fell from his mule, which had been shot in the neck, and died almost instantly. His body remained there for twenty-four hours, as his companions, fearful of a similar fate, had fled in panic. Later, Juan Gregorio Sarria and Colonel Apolinar Morillo confessed that it was Obando who had convinced them to assassinate Sucre. Commander Juan Gregorio Sarria also confessed that Obando had paid him to kill Sucre, since there were anti-Bolivar politicians and officers in Bogota that wanted to see both Bolívar and Sucre eliminated. The ringleader of the anti-Bolívar faction in Bogota was Santander, who was Obando's friend and who had failed in his attempt to assassinate Bolivar. The three peons who were part of the Sucre assassination party were poisoned by Apolinar Morillo to prevent them from testifying about Sucre's murder. In the end, Colonel Apolinar Morillo was convicted and shot in the main square of Bogota for the murder of Sucre on November 30, 1842, and José Erazo died in prison that same year. José Maria Obando should have met the same fate[clarification needed] but was granted immunity due to the fact that he was too powerful in the Department of Cauca. Francisco de Paula Santander, although indirectly involved with Sucre's death, was directly involved with Bolívar's attempted assassination and was exiled.
Burial and aftermath
The following day Sucre's orderly, a sergeant named Lorenzo Caicedo, with some help from others, buried the body and marked the makeshift grave with a cross formed of branches. When the widow received news of the assassination, she promptly brought Sucre's remains from Berruecos to Quito, where they were interred in secret in the oratory of the chapel of "El Dean" on one of her haciendas. Subsequently, she had the remains transferred, also in secret, to the Carmen Bajo Convent in Quito, where they were placed facing the main altar of the church. Seventy years later, in April 1900, Sucre's remains were discovered and, their authenticity scrupulously verified, transferred to the Quito Cathedral on June 4, 1900, in a sumptuous parade led by the Executive and his Ministers, the high dignitaries of the Church, and the diplomatic corps. At the time, the government ordered the building of a crypt, but it was not inaugurated until thirty-two years later, on August 4, 1932. This mausoleum consisted of a nine-ton monolith of granite from the quarries of the Pichincha volcano. Its cover, on which a cross is carved in high relief, was so heavy that thirty persons were required to move it into place.
According to the December 19, 1830 Gaceta de Colombia, Issue No. 495, a power-hungry, ambitious General Obando paid an assassin to kill Sucre by falsely informing the assassin that Sucre was a traitor and had to be stopped because Sucre's intentions were to go to Quito and separate the Department of Cauca and the three southern departments of Colombia and unite them with Peru. In reality, Sucre, a protégé of Bolívar, was going to Quito to stop the separation of the District of Ecuador from the Gran Colombia and to retire as soon as possible in Quito to live a quiet life with his wife. Some have argued that Sucre was ordered assassinated by General Obando so as to leave no clear successor to Bolívar in the Gran Colombia. Before his death, Bolívar believed Sucre to be the only man who could have reunited the Gran Colombia; however, Bolívar's generals and the majority of the politicians running the separate departments of the Gran Colombia had other selfish and ambitious plans. Sucre represented, according to historian Tomás Polanco Alcántara, "the indispensable complement to Simón Bolívar". Upon hearing the news of Sucre's death, Bolívar said, "Se ha derreamado, Dios excelso, la sangre del inocente Abel..." ("The blood of the innocent Abel has been spilled, God almighty..."). Bolívar later wrote (Gaceta de Colombia, July 4, 1830):
|“||If he had breathed his spirit upon the theater of victory, with his last breath he would have given thanks to heaven for having given him a glorious death; but cowardly murdered in a dark mountain, he leaves his fatherland the duty of prosecuting this crime and of adopting measures that will curb new scandals and the repetition of scenes as lamentable and painful as this.||”|
- Sherwell, Guillermo A. (1924). Antonio José de Sucre (Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho): Hero and Martyr of American Independence. Washington, D.C.: Byron S. Adams.
- Monroy, Ramón Rocha (June 5, 2009). "Ultimas cartas de Sucre" (in Spanish). Bolpress.
- Diccionario de Historia de Venezuela. 2nd edition. Caracas: Fundación Polar, 1997.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antonio José de Sucre.|
- (Spanish) Historic document: Memoria a la asamblea del Alto Perú en el día de su instalación.
|President of Bolivia
December 29, 1825 – April 18, 1828
José María Pérez de Urdininea
José de la Riva Agüero
|President of Peru
June 23, 1823 – July 17, 1823
José Bernardo de Tagle