Anwar Sadat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Anwar El Sadat)
Jump to: navigation, search
  • Muhammad Anwar El-Sadat
  • أنور السادات
Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg
3rd President of Egypt
In office
15 October 1970 – 6 October 1981
Acting: 28 September 1970 – 15 October 1970
Prime Minister
Vice President
Preceded by Gamal Abdel Nasser
Succeeded by Sufi Abu Taleb (Acting)
Hosni Mubarak
Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
15 May 1980 – 6 October 1981
President Himself
Preceded by Mustafa Khalil
Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak
In office
26 March 1973 – 25 September 1974
President Himself
Preceded by Aziz Sedki
Succeeded by Abd El Aziz Muhammad Hegazi
Vice President of Egypt
In office
19 December 1969 – 14 October 1970
President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded by Hussein el-Shafei
Succeeded by Ali Sabri
In office
17 February 1964 – 26 March 1964
President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded by Hussein el-Shafei
Succeeded by Zakaria Mohieddin
Speaker of the National Assembly of Egypt
In office
26 March 1964 – 12 November 1968
President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded by Abdel Latif Boghdadi
Succeeded by Mohamed Labib Skokeir
In office
21 July 1960 – 27 September 1961
President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded by Abdel Latif Boghdadi
Succeeded by Himself
Personal details
Born Muhammad Anwar El-Sadat
(1918-12-25)25 December 1918
El Monufia, Egypt
Died 6 October 1981(1981-10-06) (aged 62)
Cairo, Egypt
Nationality Egyptian
Political party National Democratic Party
Other political
affiliations
Arab Socialist Union
Spouse(s)
Religion Sunni Islam
Signature

Muhammad Anwar El Sadat (Arabic: محمد أنور الساداتMuḥammad Anwar as-Sādāt  Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt]; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, whom he succeeded as President in 1970.

In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy. As President, he led Egypt in the October War of 1973 to liberate Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty; this won him and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin the Nobel Peace Prize. Though reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was generally favorable among Egyptians,[1] it was rejected by the country's Muslim Brotherhood and leftists in particular, who felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a Palestinian state.[1] With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) strongly opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel without prior consultations with the Arab states.[1] His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989.[2][3][4][5] The peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination.

During Nasser's presidency[edit]

Top Egyptian leaders in Alexandria, 1968. From left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat, Ali Sabri and Hussein el-Shafei

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954. He was also appointed editor of the newly founded daily Al Gomhuria.[6] In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly (1960–1968) and then vice president and member of the presidential council in 1964. He was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969.

Presidency[edit]

كس امك يا عرص

Some of the major events of the Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" (or Infitah) of Egypt's economy, and finally his assassination in 1981.

1972 newsreel about the early Sadat years

Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in October 1970.[7] Sadat's presidency was widely expected to be short-lived.[8] Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right.[9] On 15 May 1971,[10] Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution, purging the government, political and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists. Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, which had been suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be socially conservative he gave them "considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support.[11]

In 1971, three years into the War of Attrition in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring, which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel nor the United States of America accepted the terms as discussed then.

Corrective Revolution[edit]

Shortly after taking office, Sadat shocked many Egyptians by dismissing and imprisoning two of the most powerful figures in the regime, Vice President Ali Sabry, who had close ties with Soviet officials, and Sharawy Gomaa, the Interior Minister, who controlled the secret police.[8] Sadat's rising popularity would accelerate after he cut back the powers of the hated secret police,[8] expelled Soviet military from the country and reformed the Egyptian army for a renewed confrontation with Israel.[8] During this time, Egypt was suffering greatly from economic problems caused by the Six-Day War and the Soviet relationship also declined due to their unreliability and refusal of Sadat's requests for more military support.[12]

October War[edit]

On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad of Syria, Sadat launched the October War, also known as the Yom Kippur War (and less commonly as the Ramadan War), a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula, and the Syrian Golan Heights in an attempt to liberate these respective Egyptian and Syrian territories that had been occupied by Israel since the Six Day War six years earlier. The Egyptian and Syrian performance in the initial stages of the war astonished both Israel, and the Arab World. The most striking achievement (Operation Badr, also known as The Crossing) was the Egyptian military's advance approximately 15 km into the occupied Sinai Peninsula after penetrating and largely destroying the Bar Lev Line. This line was popularly thought to have been an impregnable defensive chain.

As the war progressed, three divisions of the Israeli army led by General Ariel Sharon had crossed the Suez Canal, trying to encircle first the Egyptian Second Army, and, when this failed, the Egyptian Third Army. Prompted by an agreement between the United States of America, and the Soviet Union, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 338 on 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate ceasefire.[13] Although agreed upon, the ceasefire was immediately broken.[14] Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, cancelled an official meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anker Jørgensen to travel to Egypt where he tried to persuade Sadat to sign a peace treaty. During Kosygin's two-day long stay it is unknown if he and Sadat ever met in person.[15] The Israeli military then continued their drive to encircle the Egyptian army. The encirclement was completed on 24 October, three days after the ceasefire was broken. This development prompted superpower tension, but a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on 25 October to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo.

Peace with Israel[edit]

The initial Egyptian and Syrian victories in the war restored popular morale throughout Egypt and the Arab World and, for many years after, Sadat was known as the "Hero of the Crossing". Efforts to make peace with Israel through diplomacy would soon gain popular support among Egyptians as well.[8] Israel recognized Egypt as a formidable foe, and Egypt's renewed political significance eventually led to regaining and reopening the Suez Canal through the peace process. His new peace policy led to the conclusion of two agreements on disengagement of forces with the Israeli government. The first of these agreements was signed on 18 January 1974, and the second on 4 September 1975.

One major aspect of Sadat's peace policy was to gain some religious support for his efforts. Already during his visit to the US in October–November 1975, he invited Evangelical pastor Billy Graham for an official visit, which was held a few days after Sadat's visit.[16] In addition to cultivating relations with Evangelical Christians in the US, he also built some cooperation with the Vatican. On 8 April 1976, he visited for the first time at the Vatican, and got a message of support from Pope Paul VI regarding achieving peace with Israel, to include a just solution to the Palestinian issue.[17] Sadat, on his part, extended to the Pope a public invitation to visit Cairo.[18]

Sadat also used the media to promote his purposes. In an interview he gave to the Lebanese paper El Hawadeth in early February 1976, he claimed he had secret commitment from the US government to put pressure on the Israeli government for a major withdrawal in Sinai and the Golan Heights.[19] This statement caused some concern to the Israeli government, but Kissinger denied such a promise was ever made.[20]

In January 1977, a series of 'Bread Riots' protested Sadat's economic liberalization and specifically a government decree lifting price controls on basic necessities like bread. The riots lasted for two days and included hundreds of thousands in Cairo. 120 buses and hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Cairo alone.[21] The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls.[22][23] During this time, Sadat was also taking a new approach towards improving relations with the West.[8]

The United States and the Soviet Union agreed on 1 October 1977, on principles to govern a Geneva conference on the Middle East.[8] Syria continued to resist such a conference.[8] Not wanting either Syria or the Soviet Union to influence the peace process, Sadat decided to take more progressive stance towards building a comprehensive peace agreement with Israel.[8]

On 20 November 1977, Sadat became the first Arab leader to visit Israel officially when he met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and spoke before the Knesset in Jerusalem about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the Arab–Israeli conflict, which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338. He said during his visit that he hopes "that we can keep the momentum in Geneva, and may God guide the steps of Premier Begin and Knesset, because there is a great need for hard and drastic decision".[24]

Sadat (left) shaking hands with Israeli Defense Minister Ezer Weizman, 1978
President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin acknowledge applause during joint session of Congress in Washington, D.C., during which President Jimmy Carter announced the results of the Camp David Accords, 18 September 1978
President Jimmy Carter shaking hands with Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty on the grounds of the White House, 1979
President Sadat with U.S. Senator Joe Biden (left), and U.S. Senator Frank Church (center), at Camp David, 1979.

The Peace treaty was finally signed by Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in Washington, D.C., United States, on 26 March 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978), a series of meetings between Egypt and Israel facilitated by US President Jimmy Carter. Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for creating the treaty. In his acceptance speech, Sadat referred to the long awaited peace desired by both Arabs and Israelis:

Let us put an end to wars, let us reshape life on the solid basis of equity and truth. And it is this call, which reflected the will of the Egyptian people, of the great majority of the Arab and Israeli peoples, and indeed of millions of men, women, and children around the world that you are today honoring. And these hundreds of millions will judge to what extent every responsible leader in the Middle East has responded to the hopes of mankind.[25]

The main features of the agreement were the mutual recognition of each country by the other, the cessation of the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and the complete withdrawal by Israel of its armed forces and civilians from the rest of the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had captured during the 1967 Six-Day War.

The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and recognition of the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways. The agreement notably made Egypt the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel. The peace agreement between Egypt and Israel has remained in effect since the treaty was signed.

The treaty was extremely unpopular in most of the Arab World and the wider Muslim World.[26] His predecessor Nasser had made Egypt an icon of Arab nationalism, an ideology that appeared to be sidelined by an Egyptian orientation following the 1973 war (see Egypt). The neighboring Arab countries believed that in signing the accords, Sadat had put Egypt's interests ahead of Arab unity, betraying Nasser's pan-Arabism, and destroyed the vision of a united "Arab front" for the support of the Palestinians against the "Zionist Entity". However, Sadat decided early on that peace is the solution.[8][27] Sadat's shift towards a strategic relationship with the US was also seen as a betrayal by many Arabs. In the United States his peace moves gained him popularity among some Evangelical circles. He was awarded the Prince of Peace Award by Pat Robertson.[28]

In 1979, the Arab League suspended Egypt in the wake of the Egyptian–Israel peace agreement, and the League moved its headquarters from Cairo to Tunis. Arab League member states believed in the elimination of the "Zionist Entity" and Israel at that time. It was not until 1989 that the League re-admitted Egypt as a member, and returned its headquarters to Cairo. As part of the peace deal, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula in phases, completing its withdrawal from the entire territory except the town of Taba by 25 April 1982 (withdrawal from which did not occur until 1989).[8] The improved relations Egypt gained with the West through the Camp David Accords soon gave the country resilient economic growth.[8] By 1980, however, Egypt's strained relations with the Arab World would result a period of rapid inflation.[8]

Relationship with Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran[edit]

Queen Farah Diba, President Anwar Sadat and Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Tehran in 1975

The relationship between Iran and Egypt had fallen into open hostility during Gamal Abdul Nasser's presidency. Following his death in 1970, President Sadat turned this around quickly into an open and close friendship.

In 1971, Sadat addressed the Iranian parliament in Tehran in fluent Persian language, describing the 2,500 years old historic connection between the two lands.

Overnight, the Egyptian and Iranian governments were turned from bitter enemies into fast friends. The relationship between Cairo and Tehran became so friendly that the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, called Sadat his "dear brother".

After the 1973 war with Israel, Iran assumed a leading role in cleaning up and reactivating the blocked Suez Canal with heavy investment. She also facilitated the withdrawal of Israel from the occupied Sinai Peninsula by promising to substitute the loss of the oil to the Israelis with free Iranian oil if they withdrew from the Egyptian oil wells in Western Sinai.

All these added more to the personal friendship between Sadat and the Shah of Iran. (The Shah's first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt. She was the eldest daughter of Sultan Fuad I of Egypt and Sudan (later King Fuad I) and his second wife Nazli Sabri.)

After his overthrow, the deposed Shah spent the last months of his life in exile in Egypt. When the Shah died, Sadat ordered that he be given a state funeral and be interred at the Al-Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo, the resting place of Egyptian Khedive Isma'il Pasha, his mother Khushyar Hanim, and numerous other members of the royal family of Egypt and Sudan.[29]

Assassination[edit]

The last months of Sadat's presidency were marked by internal uprising.[8] Sadat dismissed allegations that the rioting was incited by domestic issues, believing that the Soviet Union was recruiting its regional allies in Libya and Syria to incite an uprising that would eventually force him out of power.[8] Following a failed military coup in June 1981, Sadat ordered a major crackdown that resulted in the arrest of numerous opposition figures.[8] Though Sadat still maintained high levels of popularity in Egypt,[8] it has been said that he was assassinated "at the peak" of his unpopularity.[30]

Earlier in his presidency, Islamists had benefited from the 'rectification revolution' and the release from prison of activists jailed under Nasser[10] but Sadat's Sinai treaty with Israel enraged Islamists, particularly the radical Egyptian Islamic Jihad. According to interviews and information gathered by journalist Lawrence Wright, the group was recruiting military officers and accumulating weapons, waiting for the right moment to launch "a complete overthrow of the existing order" in Egypt. Chief strategist of El-Jihad was Abbud al-Zumar, a colonel in the military intelligence whose "plan was to kill the main leaders of the country, capture the headquarters of the army and State Security, the telephone exchange building, and of course the radio and television building, where news of the Islamic revolution would then be broadcast, unleashing—he expected—a popular uprising against secular authority all over the country".[31]

In February 1981, Egyptian authorities were alerted to El-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information. In September, Sadat ordered a highly unpopular roundup of more than 1500 people, including many Jihad members, but also the Coptic Pope and other Coptic clergy, intellectuals and activists of all ideological stripes.[32] All non-government press was banned as well.[33] The round up missed a Jihad cell in the military led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli, who would succeed in assassinating Anwar Sadat that October.[34]

According to Tala'at Qasim, ex-head of the Gama'a Islamiyya interviewed in Middle East Report, it was not Islamic Jihad but his organization, known in English as the "Islamic Group", that organized the assassination and recruited the assassin (Islambouli). Members of the Group's 'Majlis el-Shura' ('Consultative Council') – headed by the famed 'blind shaykh' – were arrested two weeks before the killing, but they did not disclose the existing plans and Islambouli succeeded in assassinating Sadat.[35]

On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Egypt's crossing of the Suez Canal.[36] Islambouli emptied his assault rifle into Sadat's body while on the stands, instantly killing the President. In addition to Sadat, eleven others were killed, including the Cuban ambassador, an Omani general, a Coptic Orthodox bishop and Samir Helmy, the head of Egypt's Central Auditing Agency (CAA).[37][38] Twenty-eight were wounded, including Vice President Hosni Mubarak, Irish Defence Minister James Tully, and four US military liaison officers.

The assassination squad was led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli after a fatwā approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman.[39] Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed by firing squad in April 1982.

Aftermath[edit]

Sadat was succeeded by his vice president Hosni Mubarak, whose hand was injured during the attack. Sadat's funeral was attended by a record number of dignitaries from around the world, including a rare simultaneous attendance by three former US presidents: Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Richard Nixon. Sudan's President Gaafar Nimeiry was the only Arab head of state to attend the funeral. Only 3 of 24 states in the Arab LeagueOman, Somalia and Sudan – sent representatives at all.[40] Sadat was buried in the unknown soldier memorial in Cairo, across the street from the stand where he was assassinated.

Over three hundred Islamic radicals were indicted in the trial of assassin Khalid Islambouli, including Ayman al-Zawahiri, Omar Abdel-Rahman and Abd al-Hamid Kishk. The trial was covered by the international press and Zawahiri's knowledge of English made him the de facto spokesman for the defendants. Zawahiri was released from prison in 1984. His brother Muhammad al-Zawahiri was imprisoned from 2000 until 17 March 2011, and then re-arrested on 20 March 2011.[41] Abboud al-Zomor and Tareq al-Zomor, two Islamic Jihad leaders imprisoned in connection with the assassination, were released on 11 March 2011.[42]

Despite these facts, the nephew of the late president, Talaat Sadat, claimed that the assassination was an international conspiracy. On 31 October 2006, he was sentenced to a year in prison for defaming Egypt's armed forces, less than a month after he gave the interview accusing Egyptian generals of masterminding his uncle's assassination. In an interview with a Saudi television channel, he also claimed both the United States and Israel were involved: "No one from the special personal protection group of the late president fired a single shot during the killing, and not one of them has been put on trial," he said.[43]

Media portrayals of Anwar Sadat[edit]

In 1983, Sadat, a miniseries based on the life of Anwar Sadat, aired on US television with Oscar-winning actor Louis Gossett, Jr. in the title role. The film was promptly banned by the Egyptian government, as were all other movies produced and distributed by Columbia Pictures, over allegations of historical inaccuracies. A civil lawsuit was brought by Egypt's artists' and film unions against Columbia Pictures and the film's directors, producers and scriptwriters before a court in Cairo, but was dismissed; the court held, "the distortions and the slanders found in the film took place outside the country," so that "the crimes were not within the Egyptian courts' jurisdiction."[44]

Western authors attributed the film's poor reception to racism – Gossett being African American – in the Egyptian government or Egypt in general.[45] Either way, one Western source wrote that Sadat's portrayal by Gossett "bothered race-conscious Egyptians and wouldn't have pleased [the deceased] Sadat".[46] – The two-part series earned Gossett an Emmy nomination in the United States.

The first Egyptian depiction of Sadat's life came in 2001, when Ayyam El Sadat (English: Days of Sadat) was released in Egyptian cinemas. This movie, by contrast, was a major success in Egypt, and was hailed as Ahmed Zaki's greatest performance to date.[47]

The BBC also produced a film on Sadat titled "Why Was Cairo Calm?". Film director and blogger Adam Curtis summarizes the documentary: "It tells the story of Sadat's presidency—and how the American TV networks created a fantasy vision of him as a wise democratic leader who had opened up the Egyptian economy to the free market, and was loved by his people for making peace for Israel. As the film shows—this was a complete illusion."[48]

The young Sadat is a major character in Ken Follett's thriller The Key to Rebecca, taking place in World War II Cairo. Sadat, at the time a young officer in the Egyptian Army and involved in anti-British revolutionary activities, is presented quite sympathetically; his willingness to cooperate with German spies is clearly shown to derive from his wish to find allies against British domination of his country, rather than from support of Nazi ideology. Some of the scenes in the book, such as Sadat's arrest by the British, closely follow the information provided in Sadat's own autobiography.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Sadat, Anwar (1954). قصة الثورة كاملة (The Full Story of the Revolution) (in Arabic). Cairo: Dar el-Hilal. OCLC 23485697. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1955). صفحات مجهولة (Unknown Pages of the Revolution) (in Arabic). Cairo: دار التحرير للطبع والنشر،. OCLC 10739895. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1957). Revolt on the Nile. New York: J. Day Co. OCLC 1226176. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1958). Son, This Is Your Uncle Gamal - Memoirs of Anwar el-Sadat. Beirut: Maktabat al-ʻIrfān. OCLC 27919901. 
  • Sadat, Anwar (1978). In Search of Identity: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-013742-8. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Peace with Israel
  2. ^ Graham, Nick (21 August 2010). "Middle East Peace Talks: Israel, Palestinian Negotiations More Hopeless Than Ever". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  3. ^ Vatikiotis, P. J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt (4th edition ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443.
  4. ^ "The Failure at Camp David - Part III Possibilities and pitfalls for further negotiations". Textus. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  5. ^ "Egypt and Israel Sign Formal Treaty, Ending a State of War After 30 Years; Sadat and Begin Praise Carter's Role". The New York Times. 
  6. ^ Alterman, Jon B. (1998). "New Media New Politics?". The Washington Institute 48. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  7. ^ "Big 'yes' for Anwar Sadat". Ottawa Citizen (Cairo). AP. 16 October 1970. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Anwar el-Sadat, the Daring Arab Pioneer of Peace with Israel". The New York Times. 
  9. ^ "Egypt Corrective Revolution 1971". Onwar. 16 December 2000. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, p. 74
  11. ^ Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, p. 83
  12. ^ "Anwar Sadat". Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  13. ^ Mary Ann Fay (December 1990). "A Country Study". The Library of Congress. pp. Chapter 1, Egypt: The Aftermath of War: October 1973 War. Retrieved 13 February 2008. 
  14. ^ "Situation report in the Middle East". Department of State. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  15. ^ Golan, Galia (1990). Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War Two to Gorbachev. Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 89. ISBN 978- 0521358590. 
  16. ^ "Text of diplomatic cable regarding Graham's visit to Egypt (US government website)". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  17. ^ "Text of Pope's message to Sadat". Vatican. 1976. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  18. ^ "John Anthony Volpe (US Ambassador to Italy), cable describing Sadat's visit to the Vatican". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  19. ^ "Sadat interview to El Hawadeth" (PDF). Archived from the original on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  20. ^ "Telephone conversation between Kissinger and Rabin, February 5, 1976" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  21. ^ Mary Ann Weaver, Portrait of Egypt, p. 25
  22. ^ Olivier, Roy (1994). Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-674-29140-9. 
  23. ^ Weaver, Mary Ann (1999). Portrait of Egypt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 25. ISBN 0-374-23542-2. 
  24. ^ "Sadat Visits Israel: 1977 Year in Review.". UPI. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  25. ^ "Anwar Al-Sadat". Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009. 
  26. ^ Vatikiotis, P.J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt (Fourth ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443. ISBN 0-8018-4214-X. 
  27. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1978 - Presentation Speech". Nobel prize. 1978. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  28. ^ "Teaching". Pat Robertson. Archived from the original on 21 December 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  29. ^ An Ideology of Martyrdom - TIME
  30. ^ Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, p. 192
  31. ^ Wright, 2006, p. 49
  32. ^ 'Cracking Down', Time, 14 September 1981
  33. ^ Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, pp. 103–4
  34. ^ Wright, 2006, p. 50
  35. ^ For an account that uses this version of events, look at Middle East Report's January–March 1996 issue, specifically Hisham Mubarak's interview with ? On pages 42–43 Qasim deals specifically with rumors of Jihad Group involvement in the assassination, and denies them entirely.
  36. ^ "1981 Year in Review". UPI. 1981. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  37. ^ "Taher Helmi: Feats of circumstance". Al Ahram Weekly. 23 March 2005. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  38. ^ "Taher Helmy's Speech at the AUC Commencement Ceremony 2008". YouTube. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  39. ^ J. Tyler Dickovick (9 August 2012). Africa 2012. Stryker Post. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-1-61048-882-2. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  40. ^ Tuhoy, William (11 October 1981). Most of Arab world ignores Sadat funeral. The Spokesman-Review.
  41. ^ Brother of Al-Qaeda's Zawahri re-arrested, Sherif Tarek, Ahram Online, 20 March 2011
  42. ^ Egypt Releases Brother of Al Qaeda's No. 2, Liam Stack, The New York Times, 17 March 2011
  43. ^ Sadat nephew in court appearance. BBC News. 18 October 2006.
  44. ^ Reuters (1984). Suit Over Film 'Sadat' Is Dismissed in Cairo The New York Times Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  45. ^ Benjamin P. Bowser, Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective (Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, Volume 13), (Sage Publications, Inc: 1995), p. 108
    Upset by 'Sadat,' Egypt Bars Columbia Films
  46. ^ Walter M. Ulloth, Dana Brasch, The Press and the State: Sociohistorical and Contemporary Studies, (University Press of America: 1987), p. 483
  47. ^ Adel Darwish (31 March 2005). "Ahmed Zaki: 'Black Tiger' of Egyptian film". The Middle East Internet News Network. Retrieved 13 February 2008. 
  48. ^ Adam Curtis (21 February 2011). "Sadat's Dat". BBC. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Abdul Latif El-Bughadi
President of the People's Assembly of Egypt
1960–1968
Succeeded by
Dr. Mohamed Labib Skokeir
Preceded by
Gamal Abdel Nasser
President of Egypt
1970–1981
Succeeded by
Sufi Abu Taleb acting
Preceded by
Aziz Sedki
Prime Minister of Egypt
1973–1974
Succeeded by
Abdelaziz Muhammad Hejazi
Preceded by
Mustafa Khalil
Prime Minister of Egypt
1980–1981
Succeeded by
Hosni Mubarak
Party political offices
Preceded by
None
Chairman of the National Democratic Party
1978–1981
Succeeded by
Hosni Mubarak

ضطرززززززز