Apaseo el Grande

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Apaseo el Grande
Palacio de Herrera
Palacio de Herrera
Official seal of Apaseo el Grande
Seal
Motto: Et Campi tui Replebentur Ubetate
Location of Apaseo el Grande
Country  Mexico
State  Guanajuato
Foundation June 24, 1536
Government
 • Mayor Lorenzo Licea Rojas (PRI) 2012-2015
Area
 • Total 415.26 km2 (160.33 sq mi)
Population 85,319
Demonym Apaseense
Código INEGI 005
Website www.apaseoelgrande.gob.mx

Apaseo el Grande is a Mexican city (and municipality) located in the state of Guanajuato. The municipality has an area of 415.26 square kilometres (1.37% of the surface of the state) and is bordered to the north by Comonfort and San Miguel de Allende, to the east by the state of Querétaro, to the south by Apaseo el Alto, and to the west by Celaya. The municipality had a population of 85,319 inhabitants according to the 2010 census.[1]

In pre-Columbian times, the region was known as Andahe ("Close to the water") and Atlayahualco ("Place of where water flows") by the Otomí and Nahua inhabitants. It was eventually known as Apatzeo ("Yellow flower") by the P'urhépecha. It received its present name of Apaseo el Grande in 1525 upon conquest by the Spaniards. It was the first city to be founded in what is now the state of Guanajuato.

The municipal president of Apaseo el Grande and its many smaller outlying communities is Lorenzo Licea Rojas.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The name of the town and municipality was initially Apatzeo, first used by Hernán Pérez de Bocanegra y Córdoba, apparently influenced by the expression in Purépecha, or Tarascan language whose meaning is "Place of Weasels".

Other names of the present city of Apaseo el Grande were Andehe (in the Otomi language) that appears in an inscription which is placed in the choir of the parish church and means "by the water". Another name, used by the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza is Atlayahualco, from the Nahuatl language, meaning "by the lake".

On February 22, 1957, the Legislature of the State of Guanajuato ordered the publication in the Official Gazette of the State of Guanajuato, Decree Number 64, by which the city and the municipality of Apaseo took the nickname Apaseo el Grande ("greater" or "larger"). This change was intended to resolve conflicts caused by the use of the nickname Apaseo el Bajo ("Lower Apaseo") by residents of the smaller neighboring town of Apaseo el Alto ("Upper Apaseo").

History[edit]

The present city of Apaseo el Grande, was inhabited in ancient times, probably along with other towns in the region such as Izcuinapan (San Miguel Viejo, near San Miguel de Allende) and Tlachco (the present city of Querétaro), by various indigenous groups of Nahuatl, Otomi and Guamar as an area after the occupation of Mexico.

Conquest and colonization[edit]

The territory was conquered by Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán in 1530, but its formal incorporation into the orbit of the Spanish empire did not occur until 1538, by act of congregation issued by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, taking the upper quality Indian villages. In 1537 Don Hernán Pérez Bocanegra, started the process of forming a noble heritage for his family by buying from Don Fernando P. Motoci, lord of several properties in Xuaxo. On October 11, 1564, Bocanegra and his wife Doña Beatriz Pacheco instituted "mayorazgo". Spanish for an institution for legal continuity of a lineage and their property, this area became East Bajío, under which Spaniards, Creoles, Mestizos, Indians, blacks and mulattos called the properties of the principal landowner of region.

Chichimecas nations in 1550

In 1547, deposits of silver were discovered in Zacatecas, inducing a steady stream of supplies and greed causes of the Chichimecas, starting the first attacks against herders and traders in the border are discovered. The village of Apaseo, headed by Don Hernán Pérez Bocanegra, participated in defense against the Chichimecas. To combat Chichimecas since 1555 decided to initiate the establishment of Spanish colonies, with the title of villas will increase population density. Thus the foundation of the town of Celaya was authorized. The Chichimeca war ended in 1586, removing the policy of enslaving captives Chichimecas and inaugurating the military policy of "peace by purchase" for which grants are awarded to Chichimecas to settle in villages and undertake not to attack the road traders silver or indigenous peoples or the Spanish villas.

Viceroyalty in Apaseo[edit]

During the decade of 1640-1650, Apaseo started taking economic vocation would not leave it for the remainder of the viceroyalty when the traditional livestock haciendas of Ixtla, el Peñón and Apaseo el Alto, manufacturing fabrics is mainly in the Ixtla area. In 1640 is already very advanced work of the parish church, which was not as we now know, because it had not cruise, but existed baptistery.

Camino Real

Apaseo mid-seventeenth century is a terriotorio inhabited mostly by Indians, especially Otomi, which are already in process of ladinoization, it is when they stop using indigenous surnames such as Xicani, Endexi, etcetera. They adopt Spanish surnames such as Valencia, Arrieta, Esparragoza, Sánchez, González or surnames are translations like Águila (Eagle) or Conejo (Rabbit). Blacks and mulattos were employed as servants, on farms and haciendas and generally enslaved located mainly in the village of Ixtla. In 1690 Apaseo's main building, the parish church, was built with existing architectural form when the Bachiller Francisco Licea, owner of the estate Mirror Aguascalientes and San Nicolás, help with construction costs.

These were times of economic prosperity and diversification for Apaseo that united traditional grain crops fruit production, cattle sheep producing meat and wool, which carded and woven garments were woven in Obraje de San Diego de Ixtla and Obrajuelo, supply wholesale squares Zacatecas and Guadalajara or retail a wide market including the City of Mexico and the Bajío zone through the Camino Real.

By 1748, Apaseo was the fourth biggest city within the future state of Guanajuato. At this time, some indigenous people of Apaseo starts a temple on the Calle Real, which ended around 1824 is dedicated to the Divina Pastora, better known today as the Pastorcita. In December 1786, the village of Apaseo and jurisdiction were incorporated into the nascent Municipality of Guanajuato, along with all the rest of the city of Celaya. In 1788 relationships between Apaseo and Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, since he is appointed Sacristan Mayor Parish Apaseo by few months. For those years with the founding of the village of Apaseo el Alto other problems soon arose, mainly due to the large population that had gathered there, so that neighbors requested an extension of the legal fund and distribution of lots to each of the neighboring. In addition there was the problem of water supply in direct conflict with Mayorazgo.

The independent time in Apaseo[edit]

Both Mr. Cura Hidalgo and Allende captain were known and esteemed people in the village of Apaseo, since the former had enjoyed a perk of Apaseo Parish and the second, had his sister Dona Maria Josefa married to Lieutenant Mayor of Apaseo.

When the armed uprising began and was approaching to the city of Celaya, a panic broke out in that city. Starting on September 22, 1810 all Spaniards were sent to Querétaro, with the same action soon taking place for peninsular people living in Apaseo.

Félix María Calleja

The village of Apaseo became engaged in the War of Independence on September 26, 1810 when, perhaps in their first offensive action, colonial troops attacked Apaseo at night to arrest Deputy Justice Don Domingo Busce, who was accused of complicity with the insurgents. These actions allow mid-November, the Camino Real and Plaza Apaseo are confident enough to allow to stay overnight in the village of Apaseo 7,000 men under the command of Don Felix Maria Calleja prepare to beat troops of Don Ignacio Allende. On September 9, 1812 the rebel Colonel Don Antonio Velasco attacked the village of Apaseo, defeating their small colonial garrison with relative ease. To avoid future similar situations, Apaseo established at least three colonial garrisons, one in the village, another on El Tunal and a third on Obrajuelo. Don Agustin de Iturbide was promoted to colonel and began a relentless war against the insurgents, mainly in the Bajio. During this, he partnered with Don Manuel María Rodeles, Parish Priest of Apaseo, and many other families in the village of Apaseo. Agustin de Iturbide was in the village of Apaseo in August 1814 and was informed of the return of King Ferdinand VII to the Spanish throne.

In late 1815, the insurgents began to show activity near Apaseo and on December 19, 1815 killed three soldiers of the garrison of El Tunal. Insurgents continued their tactics of damaging the economic basis of the town, attacking the Hacienda de Ameche on April 25, 1818. The situation of insecurity and economic disaster Bajio this is so serious, that Colonel Don Antonio Linares ordered on July 9, 1818 the organization of safeguards for merchants and artisans, mainly from Celaya can attend with minimal risk their activities in Apaseo. On December 30, 1819, the insurgent Pablo Esquivel, leader of the Picacho Rebels, was captured by the garrison of Apaseo and beheaded. On January 6, 1820, insurgent José Trinidad Aguado was captured and executed and it seems the victory of the royal arms over the insurgency in Apaseo is complete.

After Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero agreed to end the conflict in 1821, Apaseo see happen with all official honors at the last Spanish troops - Marking the end of the colonial era in the Bajio. In November 1821, all other locations of the country, civil and military authorities, church and corporations swore Independence.

Apaseo achieves April 14, 1826 to be recognized as an integral part of the territory of the State of Guanajuato and retains its status and prerogatives as municipality. The Apaseenses elected their first constitutional mayor Don José Pablo Gomez. The year 1830 was economically terrible for Apaseo caused by the failure of the mills as a result of the importation of British textiles, a similar situation faced with Querétaro and San Miguel Allende and other textile areas of the country, This year a serious cholera epidemic killing 680 people.

In 1856 Don Octaviano Muñoz Ledo purchasedthe Hacienda Mayorazgo and the adjoining haciendas of San Jose and San Cristobal, inaugurating the long-standing family relationship with Apaseo.

Miguel Miramón

During the Reform War, Apaseo participates actively involved in subsequent events, as a place of passage forced into the Bajio. The General Don Luis G. Osollo, acting in combination with Casanova and General Mejia, commanding 5,400 men and 40 guns, The town of Apaseo was used to attack the General Don Anastasio Parrodi with 7,090 men and 30 guns. Osollo chases and defeats Parrodi in Salamanca.

Liberals suffer a serious defeat and the persecution continues to Celaya. Meanwhile Apaseo witness an example of chivalry from General Miramon, who knowing that General Don Santiago Tapia was seriously injured a refuged in Apaseo, Miramon promises not disturbed the wounded and sent his doctor to treat him. Finally The Liberal victory means full implementation of the 1857 Constitution and the laws of reform, mainly the Confiscation Act, which affected the church and community assets. In Apaseo were expropriated substantial church properties that included several farms, and lands. When the "Pastry War" started because of unpaid debts that Mexico owed to foreign powers, President Juarez across Apaseo during his withdrawal due to the advance of Franco- Mexican troops, on June 5, 1863. Liberals Apaseo receive it and invite him to a snack in the house of Don Marcos Corona. The resistance crumbled and in November 29, 1863 neighbors from Apaseo and Celaya signed the instrument of accession to the Empire in the presence of General Don Tomás Mejía. French troops appeared in Apaseo and Celaya on December 3, 1863, under the command of General Douay, accompanied by 5,000 men and 2,000 conservatives led by General Miramon.

François Achille Bazaine

Maximilian of Habsburg of Belgium, accompanied by his wife Charlotte went to Mexico to take his throne. The Emperor decided to make a trip to the Bajío in August 23, 1864, with his private secretary Don Nicolás Poliakovits, his ministers and easements, escorted by cavalry Colonel Don Miguel Lopez. Maximiliano was warmly received in Apaseo. Some liberals in Apaseo, including Don Canuto Gómez eager to spoil the party, hid the clappers of the bells of the temples, and must then improvise with several hammers a peal of welcome. Maximilian, staying at the Casa de los Perros, where officials and leading citizens offer a meal, then goes to meet the population surrounded by children who went to greet him. The next morning after sleeping here, continued on his way.

Marshal Bazaine, commander in chief of the French Expeditionary Army was widowed soon and found among the young girls of the capital a wife. Bazaine married Doña María Josefa de la Peña y Azcarate,on June 26, 1865. The Emperor Maximilian is displayed on this very splendid occasion and delivering as dowry to the new Mrs. Bazaine two rustic farms, in Apaseo and the state of Mexico. The Emperor had given more than half of the old Party Apaseo including not only mortmain particular properties but even some conservatives known, like the Hacienda Mayorazgo of Don Octaviano Muñoz Ledo.

There were many people who had risen to defend the Republic, attacked the French garrisons in the old Camino Real, now called the National Road, the attacks occur in the communities of El Rayo, Castillo and other Coachití, its central figure is a woman captain of Bandidos called" the Carambada "whose main point of assault was called "cerca pinta" located near of Caleras de Ameche. "The Carambada" was apparently originally from Punta de Obrajuelo.

After all this discontent throughout the country, Maximilian decided with Mejia and Miramon, enclosed in Querétaro and wait for the concentration of the Republican troops. Due to its proximity to Querétaro, Apaseo becomes passing troops both Imperial and Republican who concentrate for the final confrontation. On 22 and 23 February 1867, three thousand men of the Imperial General Mendez Brigade stayed in Apaseo on their way to join Maximilian. Behind them, the Republicans conformed by 17,000 men passed through here on 4 and March 8.

Porfirism in Apaseo[edit]

Under Porfirio Díaz, peace allowed the creation of much-delayed public works, particularly in the current Plaza Hidalgo, that was the court of the first parish church and cemetery Apaseense.

On June 30, 1870, the town of Apaseo received the title of Villa.

On May 18, 1874, Don Octaviano Muñoz Ledo died at 68 years, after an eventful life that was Senator, Minister, Governor of Guanajuato and Querétaro, introduced the telegraph, At end of his life he had many difficulties to recover their properties.

In 1897 Don Juan Oliveros donated land to the City for the current Municipal cemetery on the way to El Cerrito. By 1880 Apaseo witnessed the construction of the embankment, culverts and railway station. On March 31, 1882 Apaseo passed the first locomotive with a train of passenger cars. The uncomfortable proximity to Querétaro and Celaya were that the railroad closer than before, Apaseo prompted to enter a condition metropolis of an agricultural area, where activities take place outside the village, in the work of the field of real estate and Ranch. The Villa of Apaseo thereby acquired a stunted and simple city life.

The Revolution of 1910—2000[edit]

Vicente A. Ruiz García

Few data exist on these dates but we can infer that Don Vicente A. Ruiz won the elections at the triumph of the Revolution Maderista and continued in his post as Political Chief until the time of the battles of Celaya. Don Vicente A. Ruiz managed to make several progressive measures, notably the introduction of electricity, the drilling for water supply and the organization of civil defense. Don Vicente A. Ruiz y Garcia, who was political Chief, had also been appointed Chief of the Constitutionalist Army.

General Francisco Villa and Venustiano Carranza disagreed as to how to reorganize the country and reach the final break on October 10, 1914. In these circumstances is that Apaseo witness fighting between the two sides in the Battle of Celaya, so on 3 and 4 April 1915 infantry, artillery and cavalry under General Maycotte fought against Villa. The second battle of Celaya was held on 13, 14 and 15 April 1915, in its preparations for combat, General Don Álvaro Obregón ordered the cavalry General Cesareo Castro concentrate and then placed hidden in existing forests at Hacienda de La Labor. This brigade of cavalry acting together with the departure of Álvaro Obregón infantry resulted in a decisive victory over General Villa's army.

While these events were happening, some young Apaseenses commanded by Mayor Don Vicente A. Ruiz decided to take up arms and fight on the side of General Villa against General Obregon, many never returned and this loss was deeply felt as the same Don Vicente A. Ruiz, who died in the battle of Celaya. The loss of the Mayor and the appearance of bandits called "The Cerro de la Rosa", probably ex-villistas, led severe insecurity in the region of Apaseo. This produced the abandonment of the haciendas of El Peñón, Ojo Zarco, El Saucillo and Obraje de Ixtla and also the village of San Miguel de Ixtla. The reduction of the population in the haciendas and the retirement to Apaseo and other populations compounds the problems of insecurity and supply.

In 1917 returns to Apaseo bonanza since the entry of the United States in the Great War, causing the price of garlic to rise rapidly, bringing the Apaseenses Don Magdaleno Rodriguez, Don Jaime and Don Gumersindo Francisco Mejia big profits.

Iturbide street in 1930

In 1918 the epidemic of Spanish influenza took place, taking 1,500 victims in a month. On December 13, 1920, through a telegram, are officially inaugurated the National Telegraph Services in the municipal seat. The works in the current Town Hall were be completed in 1924.

On November 26, 1924 the town of Apaseo received the title of City.

During 1925 Apaseo serious incidents happened because President Don Plutarco Elías Calles causes severe crisis known as the Cristero War. On July 31, 1926 the Mexican Episcopate declared suspension of guarantees for Catholic worship. The priests of the parish decided to hide in Apaseo, the Apaseenses Cristeros faced federal army troops on January 4, 1927 at the Cerro del Capulin (now in the municipality of Apaseo el Alto). The casualties on both sides totaled at about one hundred. To the north of the town begins to operate the Cristero General Don Manuel Frías, a person very appreciated in Apaseo. Meanwhile, the men's section (ACJM) and the female section (JCFM) Catholic youths organized activities to raise funds for arms and ammunition for the combatants. On the first of April 1927, in the afternoon, the Cristero General Don Manuel Frias unexpectedly enters in the County seat, surrounding the Jardín Hidalgo with his troops and arrest Don Ranulfo Molina, city treasurer, and force him to open the Municipal building to deliver the funds deposited there. Later Don Manuel Frias raided the railway station and telegraph terminals and steals money from scratches. With the collected money buying food for their troops and leave the square. The bishops called arrangements between the Mexican government and were signed on June 21, 1929 ending the conflict. Public worship were resumed in the Parish Church of Apaseo on July 12, 1929.

In 1939 the Pan American Highway was plotted on its stretch Querétaro - Apaseo el Alto - Celaya and completed in 1942. In February 1940, the efforts of Father Martinez Flores succeeded in getting the Sisters of the Verbo Encarnado reverend took charge of the reorganized Parish School girls "Guanajuato", which still subsists.

During the holidays of 1945 Guadalupe the Father Martinez Flores hits the parish coronation of the image of the virgin venerated in La Villita.

1947 marked the breaking of the old Party and District in two municipalities: Apaseo el Grande and Apaseo el Alto.

In June 1950 the first agricultural Parade was organized, with floats adorned with chariots and decorated with allegories to the life of San Juan Bautista, scenes of conquest, evangelization, and local characters. By 1954 Miss Doña María Concepción Manriquez Orchard donated his house to be built there for school children, today the Institute Dr. Carlos Navarro Origel, while Mrs. Dona Julia Frias donated the land where the College of Guanajuato would be constructed. Around 1956, construction of the elementary public school that is now called Mr. Victor Jose Lizardi on the Matamoros street began.

On October 7, 1955, in Cinema Oliveros, some "funny" exploded gunpowder caused a panic among those attending a cinematic representation, the event was followed by a stampede produces four dead and many beaten. In the early 1956 when during a visit by Bishop Dr. Don Salvador Martínez Silva proposed that this city of Apaseo adopt the adjective "El Grande" and Don José Estrella Vazquez, sent a memorandum to Congress requesting the Great as a nickname for the county. The XLIII State Legislature memorandum responds to Decree No. 64 of February 22, 1957 by which the city and municipality of Apaseo were collectively changed to the title of Apaseo el Grande.

In 1957 occurred an earthquake that was almost simultaneous to the slow and gradual drying of the spring El Nacimiento, that meant the end of cheap water and the extinction of large gravity irrigation areas in the municipality that early this century were estimated at 105 caballerías (equivalent to 4,440 surface acres) and the subsequent impoverishment of Apaseenses, it would be only partially alleviated many years after the installation of factories within the municipal boundaries.

In 1958 the construction of the Superhighway Querétaro-Irapuato began. In 1961 deserved National Charro Championship in Querétaro obtained by charros team of Apaseo el Grande, most notable members of that team were Don Miguel Urquiza and Don José Luis Oliveros Ramirez. Apaseo City improves its services sector December 11, 1961 with the opening of a branch of the Bank of Commerce S. A. whose first office was in the north goal. In the following year 1964 the works were completed in the parochial school 'Guanajuato' girls starting courses in the new building in February of this year.

On December 11 at a local looking to the north side of the parish was inaugurated a branch of Banco Nacional de Mexico (Banamex). This year begins the construction of the Technical Secondary School No. 8; opened during the visit of the President of the Republic, Mr. Don Gustavo Diaz Ordaz on March 19, 1969.

On October 12, 1979, the first stone was placed of the municipal market Antonio Plaza and was inaugurated by the Mayor. On August 3, 1980 tax incentives to companies setting up in what would become known as the Bajio Industrial Corridor, are granted. It is from this page that accelerates installation of industries in the town. In 1991 works began, culminating with the relocation of industrial plant at Procter and Gamble. With private funds, was started the construction of a "lienzo charro" called "Guadalupano" and opened on October 20, 1996. On October 19 of that year opened a new hospital built by the State Government.

On January 1, 1998 Mayor Dr. Miguel Macias Olvera took office as Mayor of the National Action Party (PAN), being the first to hold this position after many years of PRI rule.

Government and politics[edit]

In the last elections for Mayor in 2012 the winner was Mr. Lorenzo Licea Rojas from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in alliance with the Green Party (PVEM). The H. City Council was formed as follows.

MAYOR Lorenzo Rojas Licea PRI
SYNDIC Moisés Ulises Macías Muñoz PVEM
REGIDOR Jose Juan Cardena Maldonado PRI
REGIDOR Alfonso Cabrera Oliveros PRI
REGIDOR María De Los Angeles Bautista Cervantes PRI
REGIDOR Moisés Guerrero Lara PAN
REGIDOR Román Gómez Bravo PAN
REGIDOR Ana Lilia Rodriguez Molina PAN
REGIDOR Efrain Rubio Rico PRD
REGIDOR Carlos Martínez Ramírez PVEM

The Municipality is organized in 49 delegations to manage the various communities that comprise it, which in turn democratically elect delegates to represent them. The Federal Deputy District XIV is José Luis Oliveros Usabiaga and Local Representative is Martin Lopez Camacho, both representatives of the National Action Party (PAN).

Geography[edit]

Localities in Apaseo el Grande

Apaseo el Grande is the municipal seat of the homonymous municipality in the state of Guanajuato. The City of Apaseo el Grande is bordered on the north by the municipalities of Comonfort and San Miguel de Allende, to the east by the state of Querétaro, to the south with the municipality of Apaseo el Alto, and to the west by Celaya. The City is located at 1,767 meters on the right bank of the river watercourse Querétaro, a tributary of the Laja River, which flows into the Lerma River. The highest point of the municipality is located north of the territory in 2598 meters at the Cerro de La Rosa (whose surface shares with the territory of Celaya).

It has an area of 415.26 km², which represents 1.37% of the total area of the state. It ranks at number 20 of the 46 municipalities of Guanajuato as to Private Index for 2010, which is 0.59, much lower than the 25.7 state orography.

Streams in Apaseo el Grande

Saw Augustinian enters the town from the south and the west of Sierra Codornices. Notable elevations are the hills Santa Rosa, Pelon, El Picacho, Peña, Ojo de Agua, El Tejocote, El Cohetero, La Huerta, Jalpa, Galvanes, Mayorazgo, Vicar Estancia de las Vacas. The average height of these elevations is 2000 meters above the sea.

Hydrography[edit]

Hervideros in Caleras de Amexhe

The main body of water is the Apaseo River, a tributary of the Laja River that forms in Querétaro currents and rivers like Huipal, from the state of Querétaro, that enters streams to the municipality of San Bartolo and Ixtla and the river Apaseo el Alto. There are two springs of sulphurous water, namely the Marroquín and the Mandujano. The town also has three springs alkaline water, which are El Nacimiento, Agua Tibia and Llanitos. The waters of Cañada Mandujano Cedazo and Ojos de Apaseo el Alto, gathered in streams produce a fall of 12 meters, used to irrigate the valley lands.

Climate[edit]

It is mild and pleasant throughout the year, with a maximum temperature of 37.1 °C, and a minimum of 0.9 °C. The annual rainfall total rainfall is 606.1 millimeters. In the northern part of the municipality dry climate, annual average temperature between 12 and 22 °C, with rainfall of 400–600 mm. In the central part semi-dry climate, the less dry in this group with annual temperature between 18 and 20 °C, precipitation of 557–615 mm. In southern part warm climate with summer rain, the driest in this group with a percentage of less than 5 winter rain. Highest annual temperature of 18 °C. ratio P/T less than 43.2, and temperature variation extrema ranging from 7 to 14 °C, the warmest month is presented before June.

Vegetation[edit]

The flora of the municipality consists of deciduous forest and mesquite regarding forests houndstooth,'s early three beards, pastures as the grass, zacatón, Colorado grass, blue grama filiform glandular, garambullo, buffalo, fake grass, foxtail, woolly and wolfhounds, with forage species and huisaches, several species of cactus and casahuates, among other species.

Wildlife[edit]

Coyote

Only species that have endured heavy pressure on them, such as small mammals among which are the opossum, coyote, hare, rabbit and birds like the thrush, heal reported that due to the availability of food have been become pests, domestic sparrow and dove, among others.

Population[edit]

Based on the Census of Population and Housing 2010, conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI), the city of Apaseo el Grande has 85,319 inhabitants, of whom 41,038 are men and 44,281 are women. 28.3% of the population is under 30. Because of the construction of various housing projects in the outskirts of the metropolitan area of Querétaro, within the municipality of Apaseo el Grande, an increase in population in the coming years is expected.

Education[edit]

Township of Apaseo el Grande offers 13 degree programs in 2010. 6.5% of the population 25 years and over have higher education (technical or commercial studies completed high school, undergraduate, masters and/or PhD).

Religion[edit]

The population is mostly Catholic, with 94.4% of the population identifying with Catholicism. It was from 1980 with the entry to various communities and the county seat of other Christian groups like evangelical and Pentecostal that their number has reached 2.5% of the population.

Migration[edit]

Apaseenses migration to the United States are primarily located in Texas cities, especially Dallas, where family ties allow job opportunities are greater. North Carolina also stands as a destination. The municipality ranks 26th in Edo. Guanajuato on their migration intensity.

Economy[edit]

Photovoltaic Plant in Industrial Park La Amistad

The Municipality of Apaseo el Grande was traditionally an agricultural and livestock center, agriculture was benefited from the construction of the irrigation district of the Upper Lerma. Mainly alfalfa, beans, corn, grasses and sorghum are grown. Its residents also raise cattle, pigs and goats, stressing about other breeding fowls. These activities have been reduced percentage of the municipal contribution to GDP in recent years due to the development of several industrial zones in the township. Though industry thrives in Apaseo el Grande, its Production Services Gross Total (PBT) is 8.1%, still below the 25.1%statewide total.

Apaseo el Grande occupies a prominent place as in the state of Guanajuato for exporting. In 2011, it ranked third in the state, behind only Silao and Irapuato. The vast majority of these exports are produced in Procter & Gamble and head towards the United States and Latin America.

Apaseo el Grande ranks 6 out of 46 municipalities in per capita PBT, which is 123697.3, which is above the state value of 80315.2. But this wealth is poorly distributed among the population, since 56% of the population is considered in poverty. Source: Ministry of Economic Development Sustentable.Guanajuato

Points of interest[edit]

Casa de los Perros

Palacio de Herrera[edit]

Among the tourist attractions is the palace of Herrera (commonly called "Casa de los Perros"), an eighteenth-century colonial building. Mobile - sober baroque style this palace was commissioned Don Francisco Fernández de Herrera and Antonio Merino Areávalo, landowner and merchant. It is private, without access to the public.

Ex Hacienda El Tunal[edit]

El Tunal

Francisco Antonio Fernández de Herrera managed to own several farms and ranches, some of which were owned by his family for generations, as was the case of the Hacienda El Tunal. The hacienda was rejuvenated in the second half of the nineteenth century as the style we see now does not tell us the ruling in the eighteenth by the directions of the Bajio. Access is restricted.

Temple and Ex Convent Franciscan[edit]

This old set back to the sixteenth century, the exterior of the church and its convent are military monastic style and the interior of the temple is neoclassical. It has several chapels attached to the temple, an open chapel and atrium.

Ex Hacienda El Vicario[edit]

Hacienda El Vicario

The Vicar is a big solid construction, stunning, aesthetics and well-balanced. It is a single body, or at least so it appears from the outside. It is said that in 1814 the royalist army had stationed some elements on the estates of Apaseo and El Vicario was no exception.

Railway Station[edit]

Railway Station

It was one of the main stations of Guanajuato state for which a quarter of the products were exported, including food, the train was also used as a means of transportation until the late twentieth century by the inhabitants of Apaseo el Grande to border cities. It is now in disrepair and no public access is permitted.

Ex Hacienda La Labor[edit]

Ex Hacienda La Labor

Erected in the late eighteenth century by José Ignacio Villaseñor Cervantes, retains the outlines of its facade only altered by a neoclassical kick. His outward appearance reminds the famous Renaissance villas upstairs open a loggia of arches on columns, a tradition in our country goes back to the same phase of conquest.

Ex Hacienda de Obrajuelo[edit]

Hacienda de Obrajuelo

The Hacienda de Obrajuelo that the mid-eighteenth century was Captain Fausto Merino who donated to the congregation of clerics of Our Lady of Guadalupe de Querétaro and mid-nineteenth century Habsburg emperor Maximilian presented with the Buenavista Palace Mexico city Marshal Achille Bazaine to marry with Pepita de la Peña.

Ixtla[edit]

Capilla de Los Ángeles (Ixtla)

Located in a Township Community of Apaseo el Grande, Ixtla is the first settlement founded by Spaniards from Querétaro, in the state of Guanajuato. Its peculiarity is that it has about 34 chapels, preserved some better than others, belonging to different families that inhabited the ancient population, currently being restored some of the most emblematic chapels. San Miguel Ixtla was recognized as a town between 1550 and January 1551, a result of the application of Village for a reduction Apatzeo Indians, so their original population was mainly Otomi Indians. The family chapels were erected as part of the campaigns and Christianizing "Propaganda Fide" undertaken by Franciscans in the Otomi region (Peña, 2010).

Charrería[edit]

Escaramuzas

Charreria is the traditional sport in the history of the town and this has promoted the formation of family heritage. In 1996, The "Lienzo Charro La Guadalupana" opened, seats about 4,000 people where there have been two national championships. Besides their usual functions, the venue is also used to display other types of shows.

Festivities[edit]

Traditional Altar in Apaseo
  • Regional Fair of San Juan Bautista. It is held every year on June 24 as part of the celebration of the anniversary of the founding of the city with San Juan Bautista as patron. Beginning in 2008 further investment was made for the title of Regional Fair.
  • Circumcision of the Lord.. On January 1 highlights the festivals that take place in municipal and in San Pedro Tenango.
  • Day of the Three Kings. On January 6 a symbolic parade with the Magi and toys are given to children.
  • Semana Santa (Easter). It is known because of its processions in different villages of the town and the journey whose destination is the town of Ixtla, where they worship the Lord of Ojo Zarco.
  • Virgen del Rosario. Held on October 30.
  • Día de Muertos. Held on November 2. People perform traditional altars to honor their dead relatives in a festive atmosphere.
  • Immaculate Conception. Held on December 8.
  • Virgin of Guadalupe. La Villita has a stone with an image of the virgin where parishioners come to worship in the region.

Gastronomy[edit]

"Vacas" (Cows) is a food consisting of a stew, which may typically be crackling with potato hash and even tuna. The dish is wrapped by a thin layer of bread. There is also a sweet bread dough bread stuffed with melted cheese, known by the name "Gallo" (Rooster). Sweets are also known as the jamoncillo milk, cheeses and sausages. In recent years "gorditas" have enjoyed considerable fame among visitors who come to town to taste them.

The confluence of the Panamerican Highway and the Fee Highway, as well as its proximity to large urban centers like Celaya and Querétaro have led to the emergence of various shops alongside. Such are the cases of junkyards (auto parts), motels, wooden crafts and nightclubs like Corral de la Chiva.

Notable residents[edit]

Antonio Plaza Llamas (1830-1882), poet, soldier and journalist.

Fernando de Córdoba and Bocanegra (1565-1589). Third mayorazgo of Apaseo, Castilian and Latin poet, musician, painter and horseman. In 1586 he resigned to primogeniture and gave to a life of poverty, charity to the sick Indians, penance and contemplation.

Andres Quiles Galindo (1673-1719), a Franciscan friar and lawyer. Regent of Studies, consultant and assessor of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, proministro provincial of the Franciscan Province of San Pedro and San Pablo de Michoacan. Attorney General of the Franciscan Provinces of India. Presented by King Felipe V of Spain on February 9, 1718 as Bishop of the Diocese of León (Nicaragua) currently Archdiocese of Managua, without taking possession died in Seville on July 2, 1719.

Priest Fr. Efren Flores Rico (1889-1986) Benefactor of the city. he supported the Parochial Schools boys and girls as the congregation of Verbo Encarnado and the Marianist Brothers. He also created the first high school in 1956 with his Vicar Fr. D. Sereno and Dr. Abel Navarrol. He made possible the renovation and improvement of access across the street and the square in La Villita, a temple dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe.

Francisco Fernández de Herrera and Antonio Merino Arevalo (1755-1824), landowner and merchant, Mayor of Celaya in 1805 and second Mayor in the same city in 1810. On leaving the royal authorities Celaya by the approach of Hidalgo insurgents remained at his post, managing to avoid killings and robberies in the houses of the Spaniards by his influence with Hidalgo, Allende and other insurgent commanders.

José María Fernández de Herrera and Gomez (1788 - ). Advocate graduated in the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico. Deputy Mayor of his hometown in 1810, Governor of Querétaro by order of the viceroy, deputy to the Second General Conference, signed the Guanajuato Constitutive Act of the Mexican nation, repeatedly member municipalities of the cities of Querétaro and Celaya.

Marciano Tinajero and Estrada (1871-1957), priest, sixth Bishop of the Diocese of Querétaro. He was born on the farm of La Nopalera then Apaseo Party, now in the Municipality of Apaseo el Alto, on November 2, 1871. Course all queretan studies in various educational institutions. Consecrated priest on December 27, 1896, conciliar seminary teacher for thirteen years Querétaro, pastor of the parish of San Sebastian and Santa Ana, Chancellor of the Diocesan Curia of Querétaro, Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Querétaro. Appointed on January 8, 1932 Vicar General of the Diocese of Querétaro. Praised Bishop of Querétaro on June 2, 1933, a responsibility he held until his death on October 27, 1957.

José Rebolledo Borja (1886-1969), lawyer. On July 10, 1917 he joined the Attorney General's Office, where he served as the Federal Public Ministry, attached first to the Attorney General and subsequently assigned to the District Court in the State of Veracruz and shortly after, the District Court in the State of Michoacán. On March 24, 1924 the Supreme Court appointed Acting District Judge in the State of Jalisco, resident in the city of Guadalajara and later tenured judge, on 29 January 1925 the High Court he was ascribed to the State of Guanajuato. Since 1926 to 1935, exercised the judicial function of District Judge in the State of Jalisco, in Mexico City, in the states of Puebla and Veracruz. On September 11, 1939 the Supreme Court conferred the appointment of Circuit Judge, where he served in the Fifth Circuit Court, resident in the city of Puebla. On January 1941 he was appointed Minister of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation by the President of the Republic, Manuel Avila Camacho, became part of the First Chamber, of which he was elected President in 1949. In 1942 he worked temporarily in the Third Chamber. For a time he was a member of the former Commission on Rank. He earned his voluntary retirement in 1952.

Jesus Cabrera Muñoz Ledo (1928-2000), diplomat and politician. He studied international relations in France, Switzerland and the United States, with grants from the French government and the United Nations. He joined to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 1 March 1953. He served as Mexico's ambassador to several countries, which promoted the creation of several cultural institutions, and as Head of UN specialized agencies, including UNESCO. Sponsor of culture and arts in Mexico, and was a university faculty member of the Mexican Academy of History and Geography. He was a senator for the State of Guanajuato in the L and LI Legislatures of Congress.

Hector Mendoza Franco (1932-2010). Playwright and theater director. Study at the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences and Humanities of the UNAM, and with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, theater, Yale University (1957-1959). He was a fellow of the Mexican Center of Writers (1953-1954 and 1962-1963). Professor at the UNAM (1969-) of the National Theatre School Institute of Fine Arts (1960–82) and the Center for Experimental Theatre. In 1973 he was head of the Department of Theatre de la UNAM. Collaborating Journal of the University, and Diorama Dialogues of Culture supplement of the newspaper Excelsior. In movies he directed the short film The Shunammite, member of the band "Love, Love, Love" (1965), winner of the first Fourth of Experimental Film Competition. Author of the plays Drowning, Salpícame of Love (1964) (Manuel Eduardo de Gorostiza Prize, 1952), The Simple Things (Juan Ruiz de Alarcón Prize, 1953), La Camelia (1959), a Boeotia (1965), Los asesinos (1969), Night decisive in the life of Eva Iriarte (1984), From the day that Mr. Bernal died leaving us helpless (1981), Sudden Death (1988), and Phaedra (1988). National Arts Award in 1994. Died on December 29, 2010 in Mexico City.

Roberto Tapia Conyer (1954-) is a prominent physician epidemiologist specializing in health policy, Public Health and Master of Science from Harvard University and a PhD in Health Sciences of the National Autonomous University of México Director General of the Instituto Carlos Slim Health from 2007 to 2013. He is currently Director of the Carlos Slim Foundation and serves as Chairman of the Board of Juvenile Integration Centers.

David Rabago Oliveros: Farm Business and lender. Great benefactor of the city. Constructor of the chapel of the Virgin of Guadalupe, Ex- Health Center (now nursery DIF), the first and only cinema in town, expansion of the City Hall offices, among others.

Luis Oliveros Rabago: Re-founder of Charreria in Apaseo El Grande, through him and with the financial support of his brother, David Oliveros, the first Lienzo Charro of the municipality which was demolished recently to build a self-service store. His teaching gave continuity to the art of Charrería in this town.

Francisco Licea y Borja: Priest and benefactor. Constructor of the temples of the Preciosa Sangre and La Villita, Portals at Jardín Hidalgo and the Column of Hidalgo, Father of the Nation.

Caraveo Refugio Aguilar (1893 - 1974), poet and cousin of Gen. Marcelo Caraveo who fought with Gen. Pascual Orozco and Emiliano Zapata. The poet José Tlatelpas wrote a book on lines of high art on this character Lunita Caraveo, entitled The Child Jesus with a foreword by the Spanish poet Juan Cervera Sanchis.

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