Apolipoprotein D

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Apolipoprotein D
Protein APOD PDB 2APD.png
Rendering based on PDB 2APD.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbol APOD
External IDs OMIM107740 MGI88056 HomoloGene1246 GeneCards: APOD Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE APOD 201525 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 347 11815
Ensembl ENSG00000189058 ENSMUSG00000022548
UniProt P05090 P51910
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001647 NM_007470
RefSeq (protein) NP_001638 NP_031496
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
195.3 – 195.31 Mb
Chr 16:
31.3 – 31.31 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOD gene.[1][2][3] Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced in the liver, apolipoprotein D is mainly produced in the brain and testes.[4]

Function[edit]

Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. It is a glycoprotein of estimated molecular weight 33 KDa. Apo-D is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism.[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

APOD is a biomarker of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). APOD is an androgen up-regulated gene in normal scrotal fibroblast cells in comparison to CAIS labia majora cells.[5]

APOD is associated with neurological disorders and nerve injury, especially related to myelin sheath. APOD was shown to be elevated in a rat model of stroke.[4] APOD is elevated in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Drayna DT, McLean JW, Wion KL, Trent JM, Drabkin HA, Lawn RM (Aug 1987). "Human apolipoprotein D gene: gene sequence, chromosome localization, and homology to the alpha 2u-globulin superfamily". DNA 6 (3): 199–204. doi:10.1089/dna.1987.6.199. PMID 2439269. 
  2. ^ Drayna D, Fielding C, McLean J, Baer B, Castro G, Chen E, Comstock L, Henzel W, Kohr W, Rhee L, et al. (Jan 1987). "Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA". J Biol Chem 261 (35): 16535–9. PMID 3453108. 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: APOD apolipoprotein D". 
  4. ^ a b c Muffat J, Walker DW (2010). "Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging and age-related diseases". Cell Cycle (journal) 9 (2): 269–273. PMC 3691099. PMID 20023409. 
  5. ^ Appari M, Werner R, Wünsch L, Cario G, Demeter J, Hiort O, Riepe F, Brooks JD, Holterhus PM (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a putative biomarker of androgen receptor function in androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Mol. Med. 87 (6): 623–32. doi:10.1007/s00109-009-0462-3. PMID 19330472. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Rassart E, Bedirian A, Do Carmo S, et al. (2000). "Apolipoprotein D". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1482 (1–2): 185–98. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00162-X. PMID 11058760. 
  • Peitsch MC, Boguski MS (1991). "Is apolipoprotein D a mammalian bilin-binding protein?". New Biol. 2 (2): 197–206. PMID 2083249. 

External links[edit]