Apolipoprotein D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APODgene. Unlike other lipoproteins, which are mainly produced in the liver, apolipoprotein D is mainly produced in the brain and testes.
Apolipoprotein D (Apo-D) is a component of high-density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. It is a glycoprotein of estimated molecular weight 33 KDa. Apo-D is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism.ApoD has also been shown to be an important link in the transient interaction between HDL and LDL particles and between HDL particles and cells.
^Appari M, Werner R, Wünsch L, Cario G, Demeter J, Hiort O, Riepe F, Brooks JD, Holterhus PM (June 2009). "Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a putative biomarker of androgen receptor function in androgen insensitivity syndrome". J. Mol. Med.87 (6): 623–32. doi:10.1007/s00109-009-0462-3. PMID19330472.
Yang CY, Gu ZW, Blanco-Vaca F, et al. (1994). "Structure of human apolipoprotein D: locations of the intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide links". Biochemistry33 (41): 12451–5. doi:10.1021/bi00207a011. PMID7918467.
Holzfeind P, Merschak P, Dieplinger H, Redl B (1996). "The human lacrimal gland synthesizes apolipoprotein D mRNA in addition to tear prealbumin mRNA, both species encoding members of the lipocalin superfamily". Exp. Eye Res.61 (4): 495–500. doi:10.1016/S0014-4835(05)80145-9. PMID8549691.
Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, et al. (1999). "Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes". Nat. Genet.22 (3): 231–8. doi:10.1038/10290. PMID10391209.
Liu Z, Chang GQ, Leibowitz SF (2001). "Apolipoprotein D interacts with the long-form leptin receptor: a hypothalamic function in the control of energy homeostasis". FASEB J.15 (7): 1329–31. doi:10.1096/fj.00-0530fje. PMID11344130.
Desai PP, Hendrie HC, Evans RM, et al. (2003). "Genetic variation in apolipoprotein D affects the risk of Alzheimer disease in African-Americans". Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.116 (1): 98–101. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.10798. PMID12497622.
Thomas EA, Laws SM, Sutcliffe JG, et al. (2003). "Apolipoprotein D levels are elevated in prefrontal cortex of subjects with Alzheimer's disease: no relation to apolipoprotein E expression or genotype". Biol. Psychiatry54 (2): 136–41. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01976-5. PMID12873803.