Apolytirion

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Apolytirio(n) (also rendered as Apolyterio(n)) is the main school-leaving certificate for secondary education in Greece and Cyprus, obtained after successfully completing the third grade of Lyceum[1] It is graded on a 20-point scale.

Greece[edit]

Changes over the years[edit]

Terminology: Apolytirio, Απολυτήριο (Dhimotiki), 1976–present); Apolytirion, Απολυτήριον (Katharevousa), up until 1976).

The system and examinations accepted for entrance into highest (Greek: ανὠτατη, anotati) and higher (Greek: ανώτερη, anoteri) education in Greece went through major changes since 1980.

1984–1998[edit]

The most common/known Lyceum is the General Lyceum (Greek: Γενικὀ Λύκειο, Geniko Lykeio).

In the first 2 grades, all students are taught the same subjects. In 3rd grade, students followed a core programme of general education and each Desmi (Α, Β, Γ, and Δ) followed a specialized program (Greek: Δέσμη, Δέσμες / Desmi (singular), Desmes (plural)).[2]

An Apolytirio of Geniko Lykeio included the GPA (scale 1–20), student's conduct information and consisted of:

General Education Desmi
Religion Modern Greek & Grammar
History Mathematics (A)
Democratic Regime Physics (A,B)
Philosophy Chemistry (A,B)
English Language Human Biology (B)
Gymnastics/Physical Education Ancient Greek & Grammar (Γ)
Greek Modern Literature History (Γ)
Latin (Γ)
Sociology (Δ)/Political Economy (Δ)

From 1984 until 1998 only the total score of the Panhellenic Examinations (Greek: Πανελλήνιες / Πανελλαδικές Εξετάσεις) was accepted for the highest/higher education, Universities and Polytechnics (Highest Education) or the Technological Educational Institutes (T.E.I.) (Higher Education; by law Π.Δ. 2916/2001 in 2001 were considered to be at the same rank as Universities.

The total Score was calculated from the individual scores, with one of the subjects having a higher weight percentage. e.g. for A Desmi: Mathematics, B Desmi: Biology, etc.

The 4 Desmes (A,B,Γ and Δ) were:[3]

Desmi (Main) Subject 1 (higher % weight) Subject 2 Subject 3 Subject 4 Undergraduate Courses
A Desmi Mathematics Greek Language Physics Chemistry -> Polytechnics, Physico-Mathematical, Agricultural-Forest
B Desmi Biology Greek Language Physics Chemistry -> Medical, Dental, Pharmaceutical, Biological
Γ Desmi Ancient Greek Greek Language Latin History -> Theological, Philosophical, Law Sciences
Δ Desmi Mathematics Greek Language History Civil Economy (/Sociology) -> Political Sciences, Public Administration, Economics, Sociology

Students had to preselect their choices in a numerical order of preference—using the bases of last year's Panhellenic Examinations' only as a guide—and submit them to their school on a given deadline, using a 4-pages machine-readable document (Greek: μηχανογραφικό δελτίο, michanografiko deltio). The results of the National Examinations determined not only who will pass into highest/higher education but also next year's bases.

The total individual score for every subject was 0–160[2] which was the sum of the 2 examiners' scores based on the scale 0–80 each. A remarking by a 3rd examiner would determine the final score if there was a large difference between the first two scores.

Panhellenic National Examinations [3] Coefficient Score (scale)
Main Subject (higher % weight) 1.15 0–160
Other 3 Subjects 0.95 0–160

Maximum total score = ((160 x 1.15)+ (160 x 0.95) + (160 x 0.95) + (160 x 0.95)) x 10 = 6400 units

  • Units: (Greek: μόρια, moria (plural)), same numeric format with the bases.

First, the scores for every student and later the bases for each course were published in every school across the country, directly from the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. Bases were also being broadcast on Greek TV during the day.

It was allowed to keep the individual subjects' scores (up to 3) and resit on exams to increase the total score, but only for 2 more examinations.[3]

1999–2004[edit]

There are three grades in Eniaio Lykeio and each grade is divided in classes.

The 1st grade of Eniaio Lykeio operates as an orientation year with a general knowledge programme.

The 2nd grade includes three directions: Humanities (Θεωρητική Κατεύθυνση), Science (Θετική Κατεύθυνση) and Technology (Τεχνολογική Κατεύθυνση).

In the 3rd grade we have again the three directions but the Technology direction operates in two courses: i) the Technology and the Production course and ii) the Information Science and Services course.

In Eniaio Lykeio, there is the Support Teaching Programme. This programme can be attended by those pupils who wish to do so, regardless of their performance.

Attendance in Eniaio Lykeio is obligatory for those students who wish to continue their education in a Greek University.[4]

The access in 3rd degree Education (highest education) is permitted only with the system of Eniaio Lykeio. Right of entrance have only the holders of the Apolytirio.[5]

The written examinations in the subjects, either at school's level or at national level, count equivalently towards the Apolytirio's GPA.[6] On the contrary, for entrance in highest education only the subjects examined nationally in written form are being considered.[6] The Apolytirio is detached completely from highest education's entrance.[7]

General Education (17 Hours)
Religious Education (1)
Ancient Greek Language and Literature (1)
English (2)
Physical Education* (1)
Modern Greek Language (2)
Modern Greek Literature (2)
History (2)
Mathematics and Statistics (2)
Physics (1)
Biology (1)
Sociology (2)

Direction Subjects (11 Hours)

Humanities Direction Science Direction Technology Direction A. Technology and Production Course Technology Direction B. Information Science and Service Course
Ancient Greek (5) Mathematics (5) Mathematics (5) Mathematics (5)
History (2) Physics (3) Physics (3) Physics (3)
Latin (2.5) Chemistry (2) Chemistry-Biochemistry (2) Development of Applications in Computer Environment (2)
Greek Literature (2.5) Biology (2) Electric Technology (2) Principles of Organisation, Business Administration and Services (2)
Elective Subjects (2 Hours)
2nd Foreign Language
Principles of Economic Theory
Statistics
Logic: Theory and Practice
Computer Applications
History of Art
History of Science and Technology
Philosophy Issues
Modern Hellenic Literature

2005–2013[edit]

Panhellenic National Level Examinations involve 6–7 subjects of the General Lyceum (3rd grade).[8][9][10]

Besides the Lyceum Diploma (Apolytirio) the achievement score on a certificate awarded (Βεβαίωση, Bebaiosi) takes into account final year school grade (school level evaluation) and the grades on 6 subjects of the National Examinations.[11]

Direction: 4 subjects

General Education: 2 subjects (1: Modern Greek (compulsory) and 1: History/Mathematics and Statistics' elements/Biology/Physics)

Cyprus[edit]

Acceptance abroad[edit]

The Apolytirio may be accepted in UK and other universities.

Individuals holding this qualification can check the comparability of this award with UK NARIC; the National Agency, managed to provide (on behalf of the UK Government) the only official source of information on international qualifications to organizations recruiting from overseas and to individuals wishing to work or study in the UK[12] if they are going to study or work in the UK.

Although the total score from Panhellenic Examinations determined the entrance in higher/highest education in Greece, the GPA of the Apolytirio, is the entry qualification most often requested in order to be accepted in higher education abroad. The results of the Panhellenic Examinations are usually not requested or are referred by different names such as General Entrance Examinations.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs - Greek Education System. Last accessed May 4, 2009.". 
  2. ^ a b NARIC guide on Higher Education Systems in the European Union,Edition of 1999.
  3. ^ a b c "ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑΤΑ ΕΙΣΑΓΩΓΗΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΤΡΙΤΟΒΑΘΜΙΑ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΑΣ 1964-2006". 
  4. ^ BASIC ORGANIZATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN GREECE.
  5. ^ "Υπουργείο Εθνικής Παιδείας και Θρησκευμάτων - Νεο Σύστημα Εξετάσεων Ενιαίου Λυκείου:. Last accessed May 4, 2009.". 
  6. ^ a b ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟ ΕΘΝΙΚΗΣ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΘΡΗΣΚΕΥΜΑΤΩΝ. Δ/ΝΣΗ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΣΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΕΞΑΓΩΓΗΣ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΕΩΝ. ΓΕΝΙΚΟ ΛΥΚΕΙΟ - ΣΥΣΤΗΜΑ ΠΡΟΣΒΑΣΗΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΝΩΤΑΤΗ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗ. ΑΘΗΝΑ 2008
  7. ^ "7th GEN LYKEIO KALLITHEAS - Content:. Last accessed May 4, 2009.". 
  8. ^ "30 χρόνια πανελλαδικές η ίδια ιστορία: ταξικοί φραγμοί, αμάθεια, φροντιστήρια. Last accessed May 4, 2009.". 
  9. ^ "ΓΕΝΙΚΟΣ ΟΔΗΓΟΣ ΠΑΝΕΛΛΑΔΙΚΩΝ ΕΞΕΤΑΣΕΩΝ. Last accessed May 4, 2009.". 
  10. ^ "ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟ ΕΘΝ. ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑΣ & ΘΡΗΣΚ/ΤΩΝ. ΔΙΕΥΘΥΝΣΗ Οργάν. & Διεξ. Εξετάσεων.". 
  11. ^ "National summary sheets on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms GREECE JUNE 2008". 
  12. ^ "UK NARIC - Home. Last accessed May 4, 2009.". 
  13. ^ "The University of Western Ontario - Welcome to Western. Last accessed May 4, 2009.".