Apoorva Raagangal

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Apoorva Raagangal
Apoorva Raagangal poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by K. Balachander
Produced by V. Govindarajan
J. Duraisamy
Written by K. Balachander
Starring Kamal Haasan
Major Sundarrajan
Music by M. S. Viswanathan
Cinematography B. S. Lokanath
Edited by N. R. Kittu
Kalakendra Movies
Distributed by Kalakendra Movies
Release dates
18 August 1975
Running time
146 minutes
Country India
Language Tamil

Apoorva Raagangal (English: Rare Melodies) is a 1975 Indian Tamil social drama film directed by K. Balachander. The film features Kamal Haasan, Srividya in lead roles while Rajinikanth, Jayasudha, Nagesh, Major Sundarrajan play supporting roles. The film was produced by V. Govindarajan and J. Duraisamy under the production banner Kalakendra Films. The soundtrack and score were composed by M. S. Viswanathan while the lyrics for all tracks were written by Kannadasan.

The plot is loosely based on 1973 American film 40 Carats. The film was controversial upon release as it examines relationships between people with wide age gaps, which challenged Indian social mores. The film is about Prasanna (Kamal) who falls in love with Bhairavi (Srividya) who is elder than him while his father is drawn to Bhairavi's daughter Ranjini (Jayasudha). Rest of the film revolves around the four characters and their problems.

It won three National Film Awards and three Filmfare Awards South. It was later remade by Balachander into Hindi as Ek Nai Paheli with Kamal Haasan and Hema Malini as the leads. The film marked the screen debut of Rajinikanth.[1][2] Apoorva Raagangal released on 18 August 1975 and was a success. It was also remade into Telugu as Thoorpu Padamara.


Prasanna (Kamal Haasan) is nursed back to health by a classical singer Bhairavi (Srividya) after a bloody street-side fight. The two are slowly drawn to each other and decide to marry in spite of their age difference and a past relationship that Bhairavi is still inextricably tied to. In the meantime, Prasanna's father (Major Sundararajan) embarks on a relationship with the young Ranjini (Jayasudha). We soon find out that Ranjini is Bhiaravi's daughter (born to her out of wedlock). Both relationships arrive at a dilemma with an unexpected twist when Bhairavi's long-lost husband (Rajinikanth) comes into picture.




The 1973 American film 40 Carats directed by Milton Katselas was based on the play of the same name written by Jay Presson Allen. It narrated the story of Ann Stanley (Liv Ullmann), a widow who falls in love with the much younger Peter Latham (Edward Albert). K. Balachander adapted the screenplay of 40 Carats for his film Apoorva Raagangal.[3]

V. Govindarajan and J. Duraisamy produced the film under their production banner, Kalakendra Films. B. S. Loganathan was chosen as the cinematographer and N. R. Kittu as the editor, while Ramasamy was chosen as the art director.[4] According to Balachander, he was also inspired by a riddle which featured in one of the stories of Vikram and Betal.[5] Writer N. R. Dasan, however, stated that Apoorva Raagangal was his script. When the matter was taken to the Madras High Court, it did not accept Dasan's contention for the script, hence handing the rights to Balachander.[5]


"Sometimes you aim for it. If you aim for it seriously, you succeed. Of course when I introduced him in Apoorva Raagangal, it was only a small role, but people would remember him because he comes in the climax. So I thought, I’ll give this particular role to him".

 – Balachander, on how Rajinikanth was cast.[6]

The film became the onscreen debut of Rajinikanth, who went on to become one of Tamil cinema's most successful actors. During his stay at the Film Chamber Institute in Chennai, Rajinikanth, then known by his real name, Shivaji Rao Gaekwad, was performing in a stage play and attracted the attention of Balachander.[7] When he came for the audition, Shivaji Rao imitated Sivaji Ganesan to prove his mettle to Balachander. Known for his insight, Balachander wanted Shivaji Rao to showcase his inborn ability for the next audition, by being unique, without imitating anyone. Shivaji Rao, took his advice seriously, and two days later, the actor took a cigar in his hand, and threw it stylishly into his mouth. His mannerisms were impressive and unique, which Balachander had not seen in any other actors.[8][9] The director advised him to learn to speak Tamil, a recommendation that Shivaji Rao quickly followed.[10][11][12]

Balachander renamed Shivaji Rao as Rajinikanth, named after a character from Balachander's film Major Chandrakanth (1966) on 27 March 1975; the name means "Colour of Night" which refers to Rajinikanth's skin colour.[6][9][13] Balachander, gave Rajinikanth a relatively small role as an abusive husband of Srividya in the film.[14][15] Several years later, Rajinikanth's friend Raja Bahaddur recalled, "When he came to Bangalore, he told me about Balachander’s suggestion. Since my mother tongue is Tamil, we decided to speak in Tamil to each other. He picked up the language very fast and returned to Balachander. At that time, Balachander was launching his movie Apoorva Ragangal and cast him in it. Rajini hasn’t looked back".[11] According to Sathyanarayana, "That first shot of the gate opening was shot five or six times, It was excellent! Even the onlookers remarked that this new find had style. But who was he, they wondered. It created a flutter".[6][12] Balachander revealed that Rajinikanth's first shot of opening the gate was deliberate and was representative of the actor making an entry into cinema through the film.[16] Rajinikanth's make-up was done by R. Sundaramoorthy.[17]

Srividya was assigned to play the prominent character Bhairavi.[18] Jayasudha was recruited to play as Srividya's daughter. Recalling her experience, Jayasudha said that it was tough portraying the role of a young girl falling in love with an old man, "and Balachander Sir was a very tough taskmaster. He would not be satisfied unless he got 100 per cent from you. He used to reprimand me and shout at me if I messed up. I used to cry on the sets".[19] Apoorva Raagangal was Kamal Haasan's first major break as a lead actor;[20] he spent seven months learning to play the mridangam for his role.[21][22] For the role, Haasan wore his moustache thin and kept his hair long and he wore flares and short sleeved polos.[23]


Balachander wanted to shoot directly in houses without erecting sets to give authenticity to what he wanted to convey in the film, with the help of B. S. Lokanath, the film's cinematographer, he found houses which belonged to the sons of the owners of AVM Productions.[24] This was the first Tamil film to be shot in real houses without the use of any sets.[5]

The first day of filming was done in the Cashew farms of VGP Golden Beach with the song "Athisaya Raagam". Instead of using a trolley, the camera was moved manually by the cameraman while shooting for the song, making Apoorva Raagangal the first Tamil film to do so.[5]

During the initial phases of shooting the film, Rajinikanth was finding the going difficult and was constantly being instructed by Balachander. The comedian Nagesh, one of the actors in the film, observed the newcomer’s difficulty. He called Rajinikanth over and said, "Don’t get tensed up. Just imitate whatever Balachander is doing. That’s what I’m doing as well".[11][6][25]

Themes and influences[edit]

The film deals with the concept of relationships between people with wide age gaps, which challenged Indian social mores.[26][27][28] It showed a young man who falls in love with an elderly woman who belongs to the age of his mother while young woman is attracted to man of her father's age.[29] According to Naman Ramachandran, Pandiyan's (Rajini) character is not entirely negative. Pandiyan does not appear as a villain; in fact, he comes across as a saint. Pandiyan commits no villainous act. Rather, he voluntarily agrees to stay away from Bhairavi when he finds out that she is happy with Prasanna. Three things that happen immediately after Pandiyan’s death conclusively prove that the film doesn’t see him as a villain. First, mournful music swells on the soundtrack, of a kind usually accorded to the death of a character who elicits sympathy; second, Bhairavi wipes off her sindoor, like a widow would after her husband’s death; and third, Pandiyan’s dead fingers are found to be clutching a note that says his last wish is to see the raga and taala meet, a clear reference to the proposed joint performance of the singing Bhairavi and the mridangam-playing Prasanna. So, Rajinikanth did not debut as a villain.[6]

Southdreamz in their review mentioned that Apoorva Raagangal was the suitable title for the movie by which KB hinted the ragas to each of the characters. Kamalhassan as Prasanna, Srividya as Bairavi, Rajnikanth as Abaswaram and Jeyasudha as Ranjani were all named after ragas.[30]


The soundtrack was scored by M. S. Viswanathan and lyrics by Kannadasan.[31] The song "Adhisaya Raagam" is based on Mahathi Raga.[32] Hindu wrote:"Adisaya Ragam starts off beautifully in Mahati raga and in the stanza that begins with ‘Oru Puram Paarthaal’, suddenly shifts to Bhairavi. Once again Yesudas breathes life into these lines and the noteworthy phrase in this stanza is ‘Maru Puram Paarthaal Kaaviri…’ — the twisty sangati connecting the dhaivata-nishada-shadja deserves special mention".[33] The song "Ezhu Swarangalukkul" is based on Panthuvarali raga and the song became a rage provided major breakthrough for its singer Vani Jayaram.[34][35] The song "Kelviyin Nayagane" was based in Durbarikanada Raga.[36] Singer Balamurali Krishna recalled when the film was released "I ran into M.S. Vishwanathan in AIR who was setting music for the movie. As the story revolved around strange relationships, the music director wanted to introduce new ragas to go with the ambient theme. I offered my `Mahati' scale and the Records created then are history now".[37]

No. Title Singer(s) Length
1. "Athisaya Raagam"   K. J. Yesudas 04:02
2. "Kai Kotti Siripaargal"   Siyak Mohammed 03:05
3. "Kelviyin Nayagane"   Vani Jayaram 07:25
4. "Yezhu Swarangalukkul"   Vani Jayaram, B. S. Sasirekha 06:08


The film was released in August 18, 1975 and became successful at box office. When the film was released in Bangalore’s Kapali cinema, Rajini and his friend Raja Bahadur went to watch the film. "Nobody knew that he had acted in a film, We saw the film. When we came out, he started crying. I asked him, “Why are you crying?” He said, “I’m on the screen finally, I’m so happy. These are tears of joy" said Raja Bahadur.[6][38] The film duly completed a 100-day run and to mark it, Balachander held a ceremony to reward his cast and crew in Madras.[6]

Critical reception[edit]

Apoorva Ragangal received widespread critical acclaim. On 22 August 1975, The Hindu said: "K. Balachander has contributed a unique story, dialogues and superb direction in Kala Kendra's Apoorva Ragangal. A film with a revolutionary offbeat theme it provides poetic experience."[39] On 31 August 1975, Dr. M. S. Udhayamurthy, writing for Ananda Vikatan, appreciated the film overwhelmingly for its quality: "One big musical concert happens before our eyes through this film... The film shows rare struggles of love and we get involved with the characters so much that we forget that they are artistes who are enacting their roles and start living with them and empathize with them at the end."[40]

The Times of India wrote:"This K Balachander film was innovative for the way it brought out the O Henry sort of twist in the plot. [..] It was experimental in bringing out complexities involved in relationships and how certain relationships, no matter what, do not leave you and emerge abruptly to create new equations.[28] Hindu wrote that it:"was bold and unapologetic about love transcending age, caste and all barriers one can think of".[41] Behindwoods wrote:"It was a powerful subject handled with the deft touch of the true auteur".[42]

In 2011, after Balachander had been given the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, Rediff named the film one of Balachander's best and wrote, "Many filmmakers of that time would have hesitated to touch a subject like this, particularly at a time when relationships were still being gingerly tested on celluloid. But not K Balachander".[43] In 2003, Rediff wrote, "In an era where every other moviemaker claims to have come up with a daring, original, premise, this 28-year-old film is worth remembering. A trademark K Balachander film, this was the first to showcase Kamal’s histrionic abilities".[44]


23rd National Film Awards
Filmfare Awards South


" I remember one sequence in Balachander's ``Apoorva Ragangal''. The shadow of the woman upstairs drying her hair falls across the path of the rebellious young man sneaking out of the house. It is enough to stop him. This scene could have been dramatic, with lot of dialogue. Instead you get a silent visual".

 - Mani Ratnam describing about the scene from the film in an interview.[45]

The film continued a trend of films with different themes that focused on realism. A reality show with the same name produced by Maxima Media was aired on Vijay TV in 2002.[46] In December 2014, Dhriti Sharma of Zee News included the film in her list, "9 best films of K Balachander!",[47] The film is also ranked number one in The New Indian Express's list, "K Balachander's 10 Most Memorable Movies".[48] and number two in Rediff.com's list "Kamal Haasan's 60 years of excellence".[49] On 26 February 2014, Aboorva Nayagan, an exhaustive repository of Haasan's achievements and contributions to Tamil cinema was released, and borrows its title from this film (albeit with a different spelling) and Haasan's Nayakan (1987).[50]


In 1976, Apoorva Raagangal was remade in Telugu as Thoorpu Padamara. The remake was directed by Dasari Narayana Rao and featured Murali Mohan and Narasimharaju in lead roles while Srividya reprised her character and Madhavi did the character of Jayasudha.[40][51] In 1984, film was remade in Hindi as Ek Nai Paheli. Directed by K. Balachander again, Hindi remake featured Kamal Haasan reprising his role from original while Raaj Kumar, Hema Malini and Padmini Kolhapure were featured in lead roles.[52][53]


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