Apostles' Creed

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The Apostles' Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum or Symbolum Apostolicum), sometimes titled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief, a creed or "symbol".[1] It is widely used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western tradition, including the Roman Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and Western Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists, and Congregationalists.

The Apostles' Creed was based on Christian theological understanding of the Canonical gospels, the letters of the New Testament and to a lesser extent the Old Testament. Its basis appears to be the old Roman Creed. Because of the early origin of its original form, it does not address some Christological issues defined in the Nicene and other Christian Creeds. It thus says nothing explicitly about the divinity of either Jesus or of the Holy Spirit. This makes it acceptable to many Arians and Unitarians. Nor does it address many other theological questions that became objects of dispute centuries later.

The first mention of the expression "Apostles' Creed" occurs in a letter of 390 from a synod in Milan and may have been associated with the belief, widely accepted in the 4th century, that, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, each of the Twelve Apostles contributed an article of a creed.[2][3][4]

Origins[edit]

The title, Symbolum Apostolicum (Symbol or Creed of the Apostles), appears for the first time in a letter, probably written by Ambrose, from a Council in Milan to Pope Siricius in about 390: "Let them give credit to the Creed of the Apostles, which the Roman Church has always kept and preserved undefiled".[5][6] But what existed at that time was not what is now known as the Apostles' Creed but a shorter statement of belief that, for instance, did not include the phrase "maker of heaven and earth", a phrase that may have been inserted only in the 7th century.[7]

The account of the origin of this creed, the forerunner and principal source of the Apostles' Creed,[8] as having been jointly created by the Apostles under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, with each of the twelve contributing one of the articles, was already current at that time.[6]

The earlier text evolved from simpler texts based on Matthew 28:19,[6] part of the Great Commission, and it has been argued that it was already in written form by the late 2nd century (c. 180).[6][9][10]

While the individual statements of belief that are included in the Apostles' Creed – even those not found in the Old Roman Symbol – are found in various writings by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Novatian, Marcellus, Rufinus, Ambrose, Augustine, Nicetus, and Eusebius Gallus,[11] the earliest appearance of what we know as the Apostles' Creed was in the De singulis libris canonicis scarapsus ("Excerpt from Individual Canonical Books") of St. Pirminius (Migne, Patrologia Latina 89, 1029 ff.), written between 710 and 714.[12] Bettenson and Maunder state that it is first from Dicta Abbatis Pirminii de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus (idem quod excarpsus, excerpt), c.750.[13] This longer Creed seems to have arisen in what is now France and Spain. Charlemagne imposed it throughout his dominions, and it was finally accepted in Rome, where the old Roman Creed or similar formulas had survived for centuries.[6] It has been argued nonetheless that it dates from the second half of the 5th century, though no earlier.[14]

Some have suggested that the Apostles' Creed was spliced together with phrases from the New Testament.[15] For instance, the phrase "descendit ad inferos" ("he descended into hell") echoes Ephesians 4:9, "κατέβη εἰς τὰ κατώτερα μέρη τῆς γῆς" ("he descended into the lower, earthly regions").

This phrase and that on the communion of saints are articles found in the Apostles' Creed, but not in the old Roman Creed nor in the Nicene Creed.

Musical settings[edit]

Musical settings of the Symbolum Apostolorum as a motet are rare. The French composer Le Brung published one Latin setting in 1540, the Spanish composer Fernando de las Infantas published two in 1578.

More recently, in 1979 John Michael Talbot, a Third Order Franciscan, composed and recorded "Creed" on his album, The Lord's Supper.[16] Rich Mullins and Beaker also composed a musical setting titled "Creed", released on Mullins' 1993 album A Liturgy, a Legacy, & a Ragamuffin Band.[17] The song "Creed" on Petra's 1990 album Beyond Belief is loosely based on the Apostles' Creed.[18]

In 1991, GIA published a hymn text directly based on the Apostles' Creed, called "I Believe in God Almighty." It has been sung to hymn tunes from Wales, Holland, and Ireland. [19]

Text in Latin[edit]

Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, Creatorem caeli et terrae,
et in Iesum Christum, Filium Eius unicum, Dominum nostrum,
qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria Virgine,
passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus, et sepultus,
descendit ad inferos, tertia die resurrexit a mortuis,
ascendit ad caelos, sedet ad dexteram Patris omnipotentis,
inde venturus est iudicare vivos et mortuos.
Credo in Spiritum Sanctum,
sanctam Ecclesiam catholicam, sanctorum communionem,
remissionem peccatorum,
carnis resurrectionem,
vitam aeternam.
Amen.[20]

English translations[edit]

Catholic Church[edit]

Church of England[edit]

In the Church of England there are currently two authorized forms of the creed: that of the Book of Common Prayer (1662) and that of Common Worship (2000).

Lutheran Church[edit]

The Church of Denmark still uses the phrase "We renounce the devil and all his doings and all his beings" as the beginning of this creed, before the line "We believe in God etc.". This is mostly due to the influence of Grundtvig. See Den apostolske trosbekendelse.

Unity of the Brethren[edit]

In the version recited by Unity churches, the only variation from the Lutheran Creed is "I believe in the holy Christian Church," instead of the "catholic Church."

United Methodist Church[edit]

The United Methodists commonly incorporate the Apostles' Creed into their worship services. The version which is most often used is located at #881 in the United Methodist Hymnal, one of their most popular hymnals and one with a heritage to John Wesley, founder of Methodism.[33][34] It is notable for omitting the line "he descended into hell", but is otherwise very similar to the Book of Common Prayer version. The 1989 Hymnal has both the traditional version and the 1988 ecumenical version (see below), which includes "he descended to the dead."

The United Methodist Hymnal also contains (at #882) what it terms the "Ecumenical Version" of this creed which is the ecumenically accepted modern translation of the International Committee on English Texts (1975)as amended by the subsequent successor body, the English Language Liturgical Consultation (1987).[35] This form of the Apostles' Creed can be found incorporated into the Eucharistic and Baptismal Liturgies in the Hymnal and in The United Methodist Book of Worship, and hence it is growing in popularity and use. *The word "catholic" is intentionally left lowercase in the sense that the word catholic applies to the universal and ecumenical Christian church.

Ecumenical version of the English Language Liturgical Consultation[edit]

The English Language Liturgical Consultation (ELLC) is an international ecumenical group whose primary purpose is to provide ecumenically accepted texts for those who use English in their liturgy. In 1988 it produced a translation of the Apostles' Creed, distinguished among other things by its avoidance of the word "his" in relation to God. The text is as follows:[36]

I believe in God, the Father almighty,
creator of heaven and earth.
I believe in Jesus Christ, God's only Son, our Lord,
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit,
born of the Virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate,
was crucified, died, and was buried;
he descended into hell.
On the third day he rose again;
he ascended into heaven,
he is seated at the right hand of the Father,
and he will come to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit,
the holy catholic Church,
the communion of saints,
the forgiveness of sins,
the resurrection of the body,
and the life everlasting. Amen.

Liturgical use in Western Christianity[edit]

The liturgical communities in western Christianity that derive their rituals from the Roman Missal, including those particular communities which use the Roman Missal itself (Roman Catholics), the Book of Common Prayer (Anglicans / Episcopalians), the Lutheran Book of Worship (ELCA Lutherans), Lutheran Service Book (Missouri-Synod Lutherans), and The United Methodist Book of Worship (The United Methodist Church) use the Apostles' Creed and interrogative forms of it in their rites of Baptism, which they consider to be the first sacrament of initiation into the Church.

Roman Catholic Church[edit]

Rite of Baptism[edit]

An interrogative form of the Apostles' Creed is used in the Rite of Baptism (for both children and adults). The minister of baptism asks the following questions (ICEL, 1974):

Do you believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth?
Do you believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord, who was born of the Virgin Mary, was crucified, died, and was buried, rose from the dead, and is now seated at the right hand of the Father?
Do you believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting?

To each question, the catechumen, or, in the case of an infant, the parents and sponsor(s) (godparent(s)) in his or her place, answers "I do." Then the celebrant says:

This is our faith. This is the faith of the Church. We are proud to profess it, in Christ Jesus our Lord.

And all respond: Amen.

Profession of faith at Mass[edit]

Since the 2002 edition, the Apostles' Creed is included in the Roman Missal with the indication, "Instead of the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, especially during Lent and Easter time, the baptismal Symbol of the Roman Church, known as the Apostles' Creed, may be used."[37] Previously the Nicene Creed was the only profession of faith that the Missal gave for use at Mass, except in Masses for children; but in some countries use of the Apostles' Creed was already permitted.

Anglican Communion[edit]

The Apostles' Creed is used in the non-Eucharistic services of Matins and Evening Prayer (Evensong). It is invoked after the recitation or singing of the Canticles, and it is the only part of the services in which the congregation traditionally turns to face the altar, if they are seated transversely in the quire.

Episcopal Church (United States)[edit]

The Episcopal Church uses the Apostles' Creed as a Baptismal Covenant for those who are to receive the Rite of Baptism. Regardless of age, candidates are to be sponsored by parents and/or godparents. Youths able to understand the significance of the Rite may go through the ritual speaking for themselves. Younger children and infants rely on their sponsors to act upon their behalf.

1. The celebrant calls for the candidates for Baptism to be presented.

2. The catechumen or sponsors state their request for Baptism.

3a. If the catechumen is of age, the celebrant will ask him or her if he or she desires Baptism, to which the catechumen will respond: "I do."

3b. If the candidate relies on sponsors, the celebrant asks them if they will raise the child in "the Christian faith and life" (ECUSA BCP), and will raise the child through "prayers and witness to grow into the full stature of Christ" to which the parents will state to each, "I will, with God's help."

4. A series of questions is then asked, to which the reply is always "I renounce them":

Do you renounce Satan and all the spiritual forces of wickedness that rebel against God?
Do you renounce the evil powers of this world which corrupt and destroy the creatures of God?
Do you renounce all sinful desires that draw you from the love of God?

5. The second half of the query is asked, to which the reply is always "I do":

Do you turn to Jesus Christ and accept him as your Savior?
Do you put your whole trust in his grace and love?
Do you promise to follow and obey him as your Lord?

6. The Apostles' Creed is then recited by candidates, sponsors and congregation, each section of the Creed being an answer to the celebrant's question, 'Do you believe in God the Father (God the Son, God the Holy Spirit)?'

Lutheran Church[edit]

Lutherans, like Roman Catholics, use the Apostles' Creed during the Sacrament of Baptism:

Do you believe in God, the Father almighty, maker of heaven and earth?
Do you believe in Jesus Christ, His only son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, and born of the virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried. He descended into hell. On the third day He rose again from the dead. He ascended into heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. From thence He will come to judge the living and the dead?
Do you believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting?

Following each question, the candidate answers by saying "Yes, I believe". If the candidate is a child, the godparents are to answer the questions.[38]

Methodism[edit]

Methodists use the Apostles' Creed as part of their baptismal rites in the form of an interrogatory addressed to the candidate(s) for baptism and the whole congregation as a way of professing the faith within the context of the Church's sacramental act. For infants, it is the professing of the faith by the parents, sponsors, and congregation on behalf of the candidate(s); for confirmands, it is the professing of the faith before and among the congregation. For the congregation, it is a reaffirmation of their professed faith.

Do you believe in God?
I believe in God, the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth.
Do you believe in Jesus Christ?
I believe in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord,who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried; he descended to the dead. On the third day he rose again; he ascended into heaven, is seated at the right hand of the Father, and will come again to judge the living and the dead.
Do you believe in the Holy Spirit?
I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Not in the sense that the word "symbol" has in modern English, but in the original meaning of the word, derived from "Latin symbolum, sign, token, from Greek σύμβολον, token for identification (by comparing with its counterpart), from συμβάλλειν, to throw together, compare" (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language).
  2. ^ Jack Rogers, Presbyterian Creeds (Westminster John Knox Press 1985 ISBN 978-0-664-25496-4), pp. 62–63
  3. ^ "James Orr: The Apostles' Creed, in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". Reformed.org. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  4. ^ Apostles Creed
  5. ^ St. Ambrose of Milan. "St. Ambrose of Milan, Letter 42:5". Tertullian.org. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Apostles' Creed in Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), p. 90
  7. ^ Gardiner Mumford Day,The Apostles' Creed: an interpretation for today (Scribner, 1963), p. 33
  8. ^ Arthur Cushman McGiffert, The Apostles' Creed: Its Origin, Its Purpose, and Its Historical Interpretation (2008 ISBN 0-559-85199-5), p. 42
  9. ^ Documents of the Christian Church, 2nd edn, edited by Henry Bettenson (London, 1963), 23.
  10. ^ Joseph Lynch, The Medieval Church (Longman: London and NY, 1992), 7.
  11. ^ "Creeds of Christendom, with a History and Critical notes. Volume II. The History of Creeds. | Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org. 2005-07-13. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  12. ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Creeds, third edition, (London: Longman, Green & Co, 1972), 398–434
  13. ^ Bettenson, Henry, and Chris Maunder. Documents of the Christian Church. 3 ed. New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 1999. p. 26. Print.
  14. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Origin of the Creed. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01629a.htm
  15. ^ Wolfgang Trillhaas, "Creeds, Lutheran Attitude Toward" in The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church edited by Julius Bodensieck (Minneapolis: Augsburg, Vol. A-E, p. 629)
  16. ^ Smith, Michael G., "Troubador of the Kingdom", Christianity Today 1 Feb 1985 p.88.
  17. ^ Powell, Mark Allan (2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music, Hendrickson Publishers. p.615. ISBN 1-56563-679-1
  18. ^ Powell, Mark Allan (2002). p.696.
  19. ^ http://www.hymnary.org/text/i_believe_in_god_almighty
  20. ^ "Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae". Vatican.va. 1992-06-25. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  21. ^ "English translation of the Apostles' Creed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church". Va. 1997-03-25. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  22. ^ "Part I, Section II". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  23. ^ Order of Mass
  24. ^ Order of Mass
  25. ^ "The Book of Common Prayer (original text)" (PDF). Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  26. ^ "The Order for Morning Prayer". Cofe.anglican.org. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  27. ^ "The Order for Evening Prayer". Cofe.anglican.org. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  28. ^ "Creeds and Authorized Affirmations of Faith". Churchofengland.org. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  29. ^ Lutheran Service Book, (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 159, 175, 192, 207; Lutheran Worship, (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1982), 142, 167, 186; The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod has a slightly different text posted on their website [1],[dead link] and the version used by the German Lutheran Trinity Church Melbourne is also slightly different.
  30. ^ Lutheran Service Book, (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2006), 159, 175, 192, 207.
  31. ^ Evangelical Lutheran Church in America: The Apostles' Creed
  32. ^ This ecumenical version of the English Language Liturgical Consultation (ELLC) and its predecessor. the International Consultation on English Texts (ICET) is included in Evangelical Lutheran Worship, the primary worship resource for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada.
  33. ^ "Catalyst: Contemporary Evangelical Perspectives". Catalystresources.org. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  34. ^ "Catalyst: Contemporary Evangelical Perspectives". Catalystresources.org. Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  35. ^ The Worship Resources of the United Methodist Hymnal, ed. Hoyt Hickman, 1989, p. 200
  36. ^ "Worship - Evangelical Lutheran Church in America". Renewingworship.org. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  37. ^ "Order of Mass, 19". Clerus.org. Retrieved 2011-05-19. 
  38. ^ Lutheran Service Book, "Rite of Baptism".
  39. ^ "The United Methodist Hymnal", Baptismal Covenant I, p.35

Further reading[edit]

  • Lochman, Jan Milič (1999), "Apostles' Creed", in Fahlbusch, Erwin, Encyclopedia of Christianity 1, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, pp. 109–110, ISBN 0-8028-2413-7 

External links[edit]

English translations[edit]