An apostolic administrator in the Roman Catholic Church is a prelate appointed by the Pope to serve as the ordinary for an apostolic administration. An apostolic administration can either be an area that is not yet a diocese (a stable apostolic administration) or for a diocese that either has no bishop (an apostolic administrator sede vacante) or, in very rare cases, has an incapacitated bishop (apostolic administrator sede plena).
Apostolic administrators of stable administrations are equivalent in canon law with diocesan bishops, meaning they have essentially the same authority as a diocesan bishop. This type of apostolic administrator is usually the bishop of a titular see.
Administrators sede vacante or sede plena only serve in their role until a newly chosen diocesan bishop takes possession of the diocese. They are restricted by canon law in what they can do to the diocese they temporarily administer. For example, such an administrator may not sell real estate owned by the diocese. This type of administrator is commonly an auxiliary bishop of the diocese, a priest serving as the vicar general of the diocese, or the ordinary of a neighboring diocese.
Normally when a diocese falls vacant a vicar capitular/diocesan administrator is chosen locally, but the Pope, having full governmental power, can preempt this choice and name an apostolic administrator instead. Sometimes a retiring bishop is designated to be apostolic administrator until his successor takes office.
In July 2014, there were the following stable apostolic administrations, each administered by a bishop. All of these are of the Roman rite, with the following exception:
- Apostolic Administration of Southern Albania (established in 1939; suffragan of Tirana–Durrës), of the Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church
All others are of the Roman rite; most are in current or former communist countries.
- Apostolic Administration of Atyrau in Kazakhstan, suffragan of the Metropolitan of Astana;
- Apostolic Administration of the Caucasus, immediately subject to the Holy See, established in 1991 for two former Soviet Republics: Georgia (the cathedral is in its capital Tbilisi) and Armenia
- Apostolic Administration of Estonia, one of the Baltic Countries, established in 1924, with its cathedral in the capital Tallinn
- Apostolic Administration of Kyrgyzstan, a former Soviet Republic in Central Asia, immediately subject, founded in 1997 as a mission sui juris and promoted in 2006
- Apostolic Administration of Prizren, a former diocese in Kosovo (in 1969 absorbed by Skopje in the present Republic of Macedonia), restored in 2000, immediately subject
- Apostolic Administration of Uzbekistan, former Soviet Republic in Central Asia, immediately subject, founded in 1997 as a mission sui juris and promoted in 2005
- Apostolic Administration of Harbin in the People's Republic of China, immediately subject, established in 1935, with a cathedral, vacant since 1946
- Kinma (Kinmen and Matsu, under the control of the Republic of China (Taiwan)), established in 1968, led by the Archbishop of Taipei.
Diocese of Pyongyang
The Diocese of Pyongyang, North Korea: its last official bishop, Francis Hong Yong-ho, was imprisoned by the communist regime of Kim Il-sung in 1949 and later disappeared. The Archbishop of Seoul acts as the Apostolic Administrator in Pyongyang, as religion is suppressed in North Korea.
It has become not unusual that the Pope appoints an Apostolic Administrator to a diocese which is sede vacante, thus replacing the diocesan administrator. Usually, the emeritus bishop will be appointed in such a case. Presently (and in exception to the latter), the archdiocese St. Andrews and Edinburgh has Philip Tartaglia under this procedure.
Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney
In addition, the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney is a non-territorial jurisdiction, similar to a personal prelature. It is a separate particular church for traditionalist Catholics within the Brazilian Diocese of Campos, and suffragan of Niterói. The personal apostolic administration was formed by Pope John Paul II to administer to a group of traditionalist Catholic priests who reconciled with Rome on January 18, 2002. The group had been formed by bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer and had been associated with the Society of St. Pius X of Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre.
- Reorganization of occupied dioceses during World War II
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (alphabetical)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (structured view)
- List of Roman Catholic archdioceses
- List of Roman Catholic military dioceses
- List of Roman Catholic apostolic vicariates
- List of Eastern Catholic exarchates
- List of Roman Catholic apostolic prefectures
- List of Roman Catholic territorial prelatures
- List of Roman Catholic missions sui juris
- Apostolic Administrations GCatholic.org. Accessed 2014-07-11.
- Personal Apostolic Administrations GGatholic.com. Accessed 2008-04-10.
- Traditionalist schism in Brazil ends (January 18, 2002). Zenit News Agency. Accessed 2008-04-10.
- Apostolic Administration of São João Maria Vianney Catholic-Hierarchy.org. Accessed 2008-04-10.