Appalachian Spring is a composition by Aaron Copland that premiered in 1944 and has achieved widespread and enduring popularity as an orchestral suite. The ballet, scored for a thirteen-member chamber orchestra, was created upon commission of choreographer and dancer Martha Graham (1894–1991) with funds from the Coolidge Foundation; it premiered on Monday, October 30, 1944, at the Library of Congress in Washington DC, with Martha Graham dancing the lead role. The set was designed by the Japanese American sculptor Isamu Noguchi (1904–1988). Copland was awarded the 1945 Pulitzer Prize for Music for his achievement.
Sample of the opening movement in Copland's ballet
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In 1945, Copland was commissioned by conductor Artur Rodzinski to rearrange the ballet work as an orchestral suite, preserving most of the music. The ballet and orchestral work were well received. The latter was credited as more important in popularizing the composer. In 1972, Boosey & Hawkes published a version of the suite fusing the structure of the orchestral suite with the scoring of the original ballet: double string quartet, bass, flute, clarinet, bassoon, and piano. All three versions continue to be performed in full. In 1991, Hugh Wolff recorded the complete ballet as first arranged with the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra for Teldec. 
In 1954, Eugene Ormandy asked Copland to expand the orchestration for the full score of the ballet. This version was recorded by Michael Tilson Thomas and the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra for RCA Victor in May 1999.
Originally, Copland did not have a title for the work, referring to it simply as Ballet for Martha. Shortly before the premiere, Graham suggested Appalachian Spring, a phrase from a Hart Crane poem, "The Dance" from a collection of poems in his book "The Bridge."
O Appalachian Spring! I gained the ledge;
Steep, inaccessible smile that eastward bends
And northward reaches in that violet wedge
Because he composed the music without the benefit of knowing what the title was going to be, Copland was often amused when people told him he captured the beauty of the Appalachians in his music, a fact he alluded to in an interview with NPR's Fred Calland. Little known is that the word "spring" denotes a source of water in the Crane poem; however the poem is a journey to meet springtime.
Storyline of the ballet
The story told is a spring celebration of the American pioneers of the 19th century after building a new Pennsylvania farmhouse. Among the central characters are a bride, a groom, a Pioneer Woman, a preacher and his congregation.
Form of the piece
The orchestral suite is divided into eight sections. Copland describes each scene thus:
- Very slowly. Introduction of the characters, one by one, in a suffused light.
- Fast/Allegro. Sudden burst of unison strings in A major arpeggios starts the action. A sentiment both elated and religious gives the keynote to this scene.
- Moderate/Moderato. Duo for the Bride and her Intended – scene of tenderness and passion.
- Quite fast. The Revivalist and his flock. Folksy feeling – suggestions of square dances and country fiddlers.
- Still faster/Subito Allegro. Solo dance of the Bride – presentiment of motherhood. Extremes of joy and fear and wonder.
- Very slowly (as at first). Transition scene to music reminiscent of the introduction.
- Calm and flowing/Doppio Movimento. Scenes of daily activity for the Bride and her Farmer husband. There are five variations on a Shaker theme. The theme, sung by a solo clarinet, was taken from a collection of Shaker melodies compiled by Edward D. Andrews, and published under the title "The Gift to Be Simple." The melody borrowed and used almost literally is called "Simple Gifts."
- Moderate. Coda/Moderato - Coda. The Bride takes her place among her neighbors. At the end the couple are left "quiet and strong in their new house." Muted strings intone a hushed prayerlike chorale passage. The close is reminiscent of the opening music.
The original ballet version is divided into 14 movements. The movements that do not appear in the orchestral suite occur mostly between the 7th and last movement as variations on the Shaker melody Simple Gifts (1848). The second variation provides a lyrical treatment in the low register while the third contrasts starkly in a fast staccato. The last two variations of this section use only a part of the folk tune, first an extraction treated as a pastoral variation and then as a majestic closing. In the ballet, but not the suite, there is an intermediary section that moves away from the folk tune preceding the final two variations.
|Works inspired by Simple Gifts|
|Works inspired by Shakers|
Known as the Shaker Melody, Shaker Song, and the Shaker Hymn, the music Copland based his ending variations on was actually called "Simple Gifts". This same Shaker tune was used by Sydney Carter in a widely recognized hymn entitled "Lord of the Dance".(cf. Lord of the Dance (hymn)). Copland published independent arrangements of this section for band (1958) and orchestra (1967) titled Variations on a Shaker Melody.
- Dickinson, Peter (2002). Copland Connotations. Rochester: Boydell Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-85115-902-7.
- Pulitzer winners for Music category
- Milestones of the Millennium: Appalachian Spring
- Kamien, Roger. Music: An Appreciation. Mcgraw-Hill College; 3rd edition (August 1, 1997) ISBN 0-07-036521-0
- Aaron Copland Collection: Works List. Retrieved May 16, 2005.
- DeLapp, Jennifer. The Aaron Copland Centennial: Program Notes. Retrieved May 16, 2005.
- Hall, Roger Lee. Aaron Copland and Simple Gifts Retrieved June 5, 2010.
- Appalachian Spring. Dance Pages. Retrieved May 17, 2005.
- Ledbetter, Steven. Copland, Appalachian Spring. Pro Arte, 1996. Retrieved May 17, 2005.
- Scher, Valerie. "A 'fortuitous collaboration' led to 'Appalachian Spring'". The San Diego Union Tribune, March 6, 2005. Retrieved May 17, 2005.
- Mack, Linda. St. Joseph Pro Musica Program Notes. May 31, 1992. Retrieved May 18, 2005.
- Aaron Copland Meets the Shakers
- Correspondence of Aaron Copland concerning Appalachian Spring held by the Library of Congress
- Keeping Score: Copland and the American Sound Multimedia website produced by the San Francisco Symphony
- NPR's Performance Today Milestones of the Millennium: Appalachian Spring with Rob Kapilow and John Adams
- Press Release of Air & Simple Gifts featured on Yo-Yo Ma's website.
- Program notes from Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra
- Tales from the Stave: Appalachian Spring - BBC Radio 4 explores the manuscript score.
- Video - Aaron Copland - Appalachian Spring - Ballet (1 of 4) (08:05).
- Video - Aaron Copland - Appalachian Spring - Ballet (2 of 4) (09:04).
- Video - Aaron Copland - Appalachian Spring - Ballet (3 of 4) (07:33).
- Video - Aaron Copland - Appalachian Spring - Ballet (4 of 4) (07:10).