The Macintosh (// MAK-in-tosh), marketed as Mac, is a line of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. It is targeted mainly at the home, education, and creative professional markets.
The line includes the descendants of the first commercially successful personal computer that was sold without a programming language package and instead introduced a desktop publishing package, a mouse and a graphical user interface, all three novelties at the time.
It also includes descendants of the entry-level Mac mini desktop model, the Mac Pro tower graphics workstation, and the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued on January 31, 2011.
Apple Inc.'s then-chairman Steve Jobs introduced the first Macintosh on January 24, 1984. It became The Macintosh product line saw success through the end of the decade, though popularity dropped in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted toward the "Wintel" platform: IBM PC compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows with an Intel processor. In 1998, Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the all-in-one iMac, which proved to be a sales success and saw the brand revitalized.
Production of the Mac is based on a vertical integration model. Apple facilitates all aspects of its hardware and creates its own operating system that is pre-installed on all Mac computers, unlike most IBM PC compatibles, where multiple sellers create and integrate hardware intended to run another company's operating software. Apple exclusively produces Mac hardware, choosing internal systems, designs, and prices. Apple uses third party components, however, such as graphics subsystems from Nvidia, Intel, and AMD. Current Mac CPUs use Intel's X86-64 architecture. The earliest models (1984–1994) used Motorola's 68k, and models from 1994 until 2006 used the AIM alliance's PowerPC. Apple also develops the operating system for the Mac, OS X, currently on version 10.8 "Mountain Lion". The modern Mac, like other personal computers, is capable of running alternative operating systems such as Linux, FreeBSD, and, in the case of Intel-based Macs, Microsoft Windows. However, Apple does not license OS X for use on non-Apple computers.
Development and introduction
The Macintosh project began in 1976 with Jeff Raskin, an Apple employee who envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer. He wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the name had to be changed for legal reasons as it was too close, phonetically, to that of the McIntosh audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested a release of the name so that Apple could use it, but was denied, forcing Apple to eventually buy the rights to use the name. Raskin was authorized to start hiring for the project in September 1979, and he began to look for an engineer who could put together a prototype. Bill Atkinson, a member of Apple's Lisa team (which was developing a similar higher-end computer,) introduced him to Burrell Smith, a self-taught engineer who worked as a service technician and had been hired earlier that year. Over the years, Raskin assembled a large development team that designed and built the original Macintosh hardware and the original version of the Mac OS operating system that the computer ran. Besides Raskin, Atkinson and Smith, the team included George Crow, Chris Espinosa, Joanna Hoffman, Bruce Horn, Susan Kare, Andy Hertzfeld, Guy Kawasaki, Daniel Kottke, and Jerry Manock.
Smith's first Macintosh board was built to Raskin's design specifications: it had 64 kilobytes (kB) of RAM, used the Motorola 6809E microprocessor, and was capable of supporting a 256×256-pixel black-and-white bitmap display. Bud Tribble, a member of the Mac team, was interested in running the Lisa's graphical programs on the Macintosh, and asked Smith whether he could incorporate the Lisa's Motorola 68000 microprocessor into the Mac while still keeping the production cost down. By December 1980, Smith had succeeded in designing a board that not only used the 68000, but increased its speed from 5 MHz to 8 MHz; this board also had the capacity to support a 384×256-pixel display. Smith's design used fewer RAM chips than the Lisa, which made production of the board significantly more cost-efficient. The final Mac design was self-contained and had the complete QuickDraw picture language and interpreter in 64 kB of ROM – far more than most other computers; it had 128 kB of RAM, in the form of sixteen 64 kilobit (kb) RAM chips soldered to the logicboard. Though there were no memory slots, its RAM was expandable to 512 kB by means of soldering sixteen IC sockets to accept 256 kb RAM chips in place of the factory-installed chips. The final product's screen was a 9-inch, 512x342 pixel monochrome display, exceeding the size of the planned screen. In 1988, Apple sued Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard on the grounds that they infringed Apple's copyrighted GUI, citing (among other things) the use of rectangular, overlapping, and resizable windows. After four years, the case was decided against Apple, as were later appeals. Apple's actions were criticized by some in the software community, including the Free Software Foundation (FSF), who felt Apple was trying to monopolize on GUIs in general, and boycotted GNU software for the Macintosh platform for seven years.
With the new Motorola 68030 processor came the Macintosh IIx in 1988, which had benefited from internal improvements, including an on-board MMU. It was followed in 1989 by the Macintosh IIcx, a more compact version with fewer slots  and a version of the Mac SE powered by the 16 MHz 68030, the Macintosh SE/30. Later that year, the Macintosh IIci, running at 25 MHz, was the first Mac to be "32-bit clean." This allowed it to natively support more than 8 MB of RAM, unlike its predecessors, which had "32-bit dirty" ROMs (8 of the 32 bits available for addressing were used for OS-level flags). System 7 was the first Macintosh operating system to support 32-bit addressing. The following year, the Macintosh IIfx, starting at US$9,900, was unveiled. Apart from its fast 40 MHz 68030 processor, it had significant internal architectural improvements, including faster memory and two Apple II CPUs dedicated to I/O processing.
Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released in May 1990 as a less expensive alternative to the Macintosh platform, which began to approach the Macintosh operating system in both performance and feature set. In response, Apple introduced a range of relatively inexpensive Macs in October 1990. The Macintosh Classic, essentially a less expensive version of the Macintosh SE, was the least expensive Mac offered until early 2001. The 68020-powered Macintosh LC, in its distinctive "pizza box" case, offered color graphics and was accompanied by a new, low-cost 512×384 pixel monitor. The Macintosh IIsi was essentially a 20 MHz IIci with only one expansion slot. All three machines sold well, although Apple's profit margin on them was considerably lower than that on earlier models.
Apple improved Macintosh computers by introducing models equipped with newly available processors from the 68k lineup. The Macintosh Classic II and Macintosh LC II, which used a 16 MHz 68030 CPU, were joined in 1991 by the Macintosh Quadra 700 and 900, the first Macs to employ the faster Motorola 68040 processor. In 1994, Apple abandoned Motorola CPUs for the RISC PowerPC architecture developed by the AIM alliance of Apple Computer, IBM, and Motorola. The Power Macintosh line, the first to use the new chips, proved to be highly successful, with over a million PowerPC units sold in nine months.
It wasn't long until Apple released their first portable computers, beginning with the Macintosh Portable released in 1990. Although due to considerable design issues, it was soon replaced in 1991 with the first of the PowerBook line: the PowerBook 100, a miniaturized Portable; the 16 MHz 68030 PowerBook 140; and the 25 MHz 68030 PowerBook 170. They were the first portable computers with the keyboard behind a palm rest and a built-in pointing device (a trackball) in front of the keyboard. The 1993 PowerBook 165c was Apple's first portable computer to feature a color screen, displaying 256 colors with 640 x 400-pixel resolution. The second generation of PowerBooks, the 68040-equipped 500 series, introduced trackpads, integrated stereo speakers, and built-in Ethernet to the laptop form factor in 1994.
As for Mac OS, System 7 was a 32-bit rewrite from Pascal to C++ that introduced virtual memory and improved the handling of color graphics, as well as memory addressing, networking, and co-operative multitasking. Also during this time, the Macintosh began to shed the "Snow White" design language, along with the expensive consulting fees they were paying to Frogdesign. Apple instead brought the design work in-house by establishing the Apple Industrial Design Group, becoming responsible for crafting a new look for all Apple products.
Despite these technical and commercial successes, Microsoft and Intel began to rapidly lower Apple's market share with the introduction of the Windows 95 operating system and Pentium processors. These significantly enhanced the multimedia capability and performance of IBM PC compatible computers, and brought Windows closer to the Mac GUI. Furthermore, Apple had created too many similar models that confused potential buyers. At one point, its product lineup was subdivided into Classic, LC, II, Quadra, Performa, and Centris models, with essentially the same computer being sold under a number of different names. These models competed against Macintosh clones, hardware manufactured by third-parties that ran Apple's System 7. This succeeded in increasing the Macintosh's market share somewhat, and provided cheaper hardware for consumers, but hurt Apple financially as existing Apple customers began to buy cheaper clones while Apple shouldered the burden of developing the platform.
When Steve Jobs returned to Apple in 1997 following the company's purchase of NeXT, he ordered that the OS that had been previewed as version 7.7 be branded Mac OS 8 (in place of the never-to-appear Copland OS). Since Apple had licensed only System 7 to third-parties, this move effectively ended the clone line. The decision caused significant financial losses for companies like Motorola, who produced the StarMax; Umax, who produced the SuperMac; and Power Computing, who offered several lines Mac clones, including the PowerWave, PowerTower, and PowerTower Pro. These companies had invested substantial resources in creating their own Mac-compatible hardware. Apple bought out Power Computing's license, but allowed Umax to continue selling Mac clones until their license expired, as they had a sizeable presence in the lower-end segment that Apple did not.
In 1998, Apple introduced its new iMac which, like the original 128K Mac, was an all-in-one computer. Its translucent plastic case, originally Bondi blue and later various additional colors, is considered an industrial design landmark of the late 1990s. The iMac did away with most of Apple's standard (and usually proprietary) connections, such as SCSI and ADB, in favor of two USB ports. It replaced a floppy disk drive with a CD-ROM drive for installing software, but was incapable of writing to CDs or other media without external third-party hardware. The iMac proved to be phenomenally successful, with 800,000 units sold in 139 days. It made the company an annual profit of US$309 million, Apple's first profitable year since Michael Spindler took over as CEO in 1995. This aesthetic was applied to the Power Macintosh and later the iBook, Apple's first consumer-level laptop computer, filling the missing quadrant of Apple's "four-square product matrix" (desktop and portable products for both consumers and professionals). More than 140,000 pre-orders were placed before it started shipping in September, and by October proved to be a large success.
In early 2001, Apple began shipping computers with CD-RW drives and emphasized the Mac's ability to play DVDs by including DVD-ROM and DVD-RAM drives as standard. Steve Jobs admitted that Apple had been "late to the party" on writable CD technology, but felt that Macs could become a "digital hub" that linked and enabled an "emerging digital lifestyle". Apple would later introduce an update to its iTunes music player software that enabled it to burn CDs, along with a controversial "Rip, Mix, Burn" advertising campaign that some felt encouraged media piracy. This accompanied the release of the iPod, Apple's first successful handheld device. Apple continued to launch products, such as the unsuccessful Power Mac G4 Cube, the education-oriented eMac, and the titanium (and later aluminium) PowerBook G4 laptop for professionals.
The original iMac used a PowerPC G3 processor, but G4 and G5 chips were soon added, both accompanied by complete case redesigns that dropped the array of colors in favor of white plastic. As of 2007, all iMacs use aluminium cases. On January 11, 2005, Apple announced the Mac Mini, priced at US$499, making it the cheapest Mac.
Mac OS continued to evolve up to version 9.2.2, including retrofits such as the addition of a nanokernel and support for Multiprocessing Services 2.0 in Mac OS 8.6, though its dated architecture made replacement necessary. Initially developed in the Pascal programming language, it was substantially rewritten in C++ for System 7. From its beginnings on an 8 MHz machine with 128 KB of RAM, it had grown to support Apple's latest 1 GHz G4-equipped Macs. Since its architecture was laid down, features that were already common on Apple's competition, like preemptive multitasking and protected memory, had become feasible on the kind of hardware Apple manufactured. As such, Apple introduced Mac OS X, a fully overhauled Unix-based successor to Mac OS 9. OS X uses Darwin, XNU, and Mach as foundations, and is based on NeXTSTEP. It was released to the public in September 2000, as the Mac OS X Public Beta, featuring a revamped user interface called "Aqua". At US$29.99, it allowed adventurous Mac users to sample Apple's new operating system and provide feedback for the actual release. The initial version of Mac OS X, 10.0 "Cheetah", was released on March 24, 2001. Older Mac OS applications could still run under early Mac OS X versions, using an environment called "Classic". Subsequent releases of Mac OS X included 10.1 "Puma" (September 25, 2001), 10.2 "Jaguar" (August 24, 2002), 10.3 "Panther" (October 24, 2003) and 10.4 "Tiger" (April 29, 2005).
Transition to Intel
Apple discontinued the use of PowerPC microprocessors in 2006. At WWDC 2005, Steve Jobs revealed this transition, also noting that Mac OS X was always developed to run on both the Intel and PowerPC architectures. All new Macs now use x86 processors made by Intel, and some were renamed as a result. Intel-based Macs running OS X 10.6 and below (support has been discontinued since 10.7) can run pre-existing software developed for PowerPC using an emulator called Rosetta, although at noticeably slower speeds than native programs. The Classic environment is unavailable on the Intel architecture, though. Intel chips introduced the potential to run the Microsoft Windows operating system natively on Apple hardware, without emulation software such as Virtual PC. In March 2006, a group of hackers announced that they were able to run Windows XP on an Intel-based Mac. The group released their software as open source and has posted it for download on their website. On April 5, 2006, Apple announced the availability of the public beta of Boot Camp, software that allows owners of Intel-based Macs to install Windows XP on their machines; later versions added support for Windows Vista and Windows 7. Classic was discontinued in Mac OS X 10.5, and Boot Camp became a standard feature on Intel-based Macs.
Starting in 2006, Apple's industrial design shifted to favor aluminum, which was used in the construction of the first MacBook Pro. Glass was added in 2008 with the introduction of the unibody MacBook Pro. These materials are billed as environmentally friendly. The iMac, MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, and Mac Mini lines currently all use aluminum enclosures, and are now made of a single unibody. Chief designer Jonathan Ive continues to guide products towards a minimalist and simple feel, including eliminating of replaceable batteries in notebooks. Multi-touch gestures from the iPhone's interface have been applied to the Mac line in the form of touch pads on notebooks and the Magic Mouse and Magic Trackpad for desktops.
In recent years, Apple has seen a significant boost in sales of Macs. This has been attributed, in part, to the success of the iPod and the iPhone, a halo effect whereby satisfied iPod or iPhone owners purchase more Apple equipment, as well as the use of Intel microprocessors. From 2001 to 2008, Mac sales increased continuously on an annual basis. Apple reported worldwide sales of 3.36 million Macs during the 2009 holiday season. As of Mid-2011, the Macintosh continues to enjoy rapid market share increase in the US, growing from 7.3% of all computer shipments in 2010 to 9.3% in 2011. On February 24, 2011, Apple became the first company to bring to market a computer that utilized Intel's new Thunderbolt (codename Light Peak) I/O interface. Using the same physical interface as a Mini DisplayPort, and backwards compatible with that standard, Thunderbolt boasts two-way transfer speeds of 10 Gbit/s.
Timeline of Macintosh models
Entry-level desktop that ships without keyboard, mouse, or monitor; uses Intel Core i5 or Intel Core i7 processors
All-in-one available in 21.5" and 27" models; uses Intel Core i5 or Intel Core i7 processors
Highly customizable workstation desktop; uses Intel Xeon processors
11.6" and 13.3" models; uses Intel Core i5 or Intel Core i7 processors
13.3" and 15.4" models; uses Intel Core i5 or Intel Core i7 processors
|Server||Mac Mini Server
An additional Mac Mini configuration that ships with Mac OS X Server installed.
|Mac Pro Server
An additional Mac Pro server configuration that ships with Mac OS X Server installed.
Hardware and software
Apple directly sub-contracts hardware production to Asian original equipment manufacturers such as Asus, maintaining a high degree of control over the end product. By contrast, most other companies (including Microsoft) create software that can be run on hardware produced by a variety of third-parties such as Dell, HP/Compaq, and Lenovo. Consequently, the Macintosh buyer has comparably fewer options.
The current Mac product family uses Intel x86-64 processors. Apple introduced an emulator during the transition from PowerPC chips (called Rosetta), much as it did during the transition from Motorola 68000 architecture a decade earlier. The Macintosh is the only mainstream computer platform to have successfully transitioned to a new CPU architecture, and has done so twice. All current Mac models ship with at least 2 GB of RAM as standard. Current Mac computers use ATI Radeon or nVidia GeForce graphics cards as well as Intel graphics built into the main CPU. All current Macs (except for the MacBook Air, Mac Mini, and MacBook Pro with Retina Display) ship with an optical media drive that includes a dual-function DVD/CD burner. Apple refers to this as a SuperDrive. Current Macs include two standard data transfer ports: USB and FireWire (except for the MacBook Air, which does not include FireWire). MacBook Pro, iMac, MacBook Air, and Mac Mini computers now also feature the "Thunderbolt" port, which Apple says can transfer data at speeds up to 10 gigabits per second. USB was introduced in the 1998 iMac G3 and is ubiquitous today, while FireWire is mainly reserved for high-performance devices such as hard drives or video cameras. Starting with the then-new iMac G5, released in October 2005, Apple started to include built-in iSight cameras on appropriate models, and a media center interface called Front Row that can be operated by an Apple Remote or keyboard for accessing media stored on the computer. Front Row has been discontinued as of 2011, however, and the Apple Remote is no longer bundled with new Macs.
Apple was initially reluctant to embrace mice with multiple buttons and scroll wheels. Macs did not natively support pointing devices that featured multiple buttons, even from third parties, until Mac OS X arrived in 2001. Apple continued to offer only single button mice, in both wired and Bluetooth wireless versions, until August 2005, when it introduced the Mighty Mouse. While it looked like a traditional one-button mouse, it actually had four buttons and a scroll ball, capable of independent x- and y-axis movement. A Bluetooth version followed in July 2006. In October 2009, Apple introduced the Magic Mouse, which uses multi-touch gesture recognition (similar to that of the iPhone) instead of a physical scroll wheel or ball. It is available only in a wireless configuration, but the wired Mighty Mouse (re-branded as "Apple Mouse") is still available as an alternative. Since 2010, Apple has also offered the Magic Trackpad as a means to control Macintosh desktop computers in a way similar to laptops.
The original Macintosh was the first successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface devoid of a command line. It used a desktop metaphor, depicting real-world objects like documents and a trashcan as icons onscreen. The System software was introduced in 1984 with the first Macintosh and renamed Mac OS in 1997. It continued to evolve until version 9.2.2. In 2001, Apple introduced Mac OS X, based on Darwin and NEXTSTEP; its new features included the Dock and the Aqua user interface. During the transition, Apple included an emulator known as Classic, allowing users to run Mac OS 9 applications under Mac OS X 10.4 and earlier on PowerPC machines. The most recent version is Mac OS X v10.7 "Lion." In addition to Lion, all new Macs are bundled with assorted Apple-produced applications, including iLife, the Safari web browser and the iTunes media player. Apple introduced Mac OS X 10.7 in 2010, and it was made available in the summer of 2011. Lion includes many new features, such as Mission Control, the Mac App Store (available to Mac OS X v10.6.6 "Snow Leopard." users by software update), Launchpad, an application viewer and launcher akin to the iOS Home Screen, and Resume, a feature similar to the hibernate function found in Microsoft Windows.
Historically, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that affect Microsoft Windows users. Mac OS X has a smaller usage share compared to Microsoft Windows (roughly 5% and 92%, respectively), but it also has secure UNIX roots. Worms, as well as potential vulnerabilities were noted in February 2006, which led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware. Increasing market share coincided with additional reports of a variety of attacks. Apple releases security updates for its software. In early 2011, Mac OS X experienced a large increase in malware attacks, and malware such as Mac Defender, MacProtector, and MacGuard were seen as an increasing problem for Mac users. At first, the malware installer required the user to enter the administrative password, but later versions were able to install without user input Initially, Apple support staff were instructed not to assist in the removal of the malware or admit the existence of the malware issue, but as the malware spread, a support document was issued. Apple announced an OS X update to fix the problem. An estimated 100,000 users were affected.
Originally, the hardware architecture was so closely tied to the Mac OS operating system that it was impossible to boot an alternative operating system. The most common workaround, used even by Apple for A/UX, was to boot into Mac OS and then to hand over control to a program that took over the system and acted as a bootloader. This technique was no longer necessary with the introduction of Open Firmware-based PCI Macs, though it was formerly used for convenience on many Old World ROM systems due to bugs in the firmware implementation. Now, Mac hardware boots directly from Open Firmware (most PowerPC-based Macs) or EFI (all Intel-based Macs), and Macs are no longer limited to running just Mac OS X.
Following the release of Intel-based Macs, third-party platform virtualization software such as Parallels Desktop, VMware Fusion, and VirtualBox began to emerge. These programs allow users to run Microsoft Windows or previously Windows-only software on Macs at near native speed. Apple also released Boot Camp and Mac-specific Windows drivers that help users to install Windows XP or Vista and natively dual boot between Mac OS X and Windows. Though not condoned by Apple, it is possible to run the Linux operating system using Boot camp or other virtualization workarounds.
Because Mac OS X is a UNIX-like operating system, borrowing heavily from FreeBSD, many applications written for Linux or BSD run on Mac OS X, often using X11. Apple's smaller market share than Microsoft's means that a smaller range of shareware is available, but many popular commercial software applications from large developers, such as Microsoft's Office and Adobe's Photoshop are ported to both Mac OS and Windows. A large amount of open-source software applications, like the Firefox web browser and the OpenOffice.org office suite, are cross-platform, and thereby also run natively on the Mac.
Apple hyped the introduction of the original Mac with their "1984" commercial that aired during that year's Super Bowl. It was supplemented by a number of printed pamphlets and other TV ads demonstrating the new interface and emphasizing the mouse. Many more brochures for new models like the Macintosh Plus and the Performa followed. In the 1990s, Apple started the "What's on your PowerBook?" campaign, with print ads and television commercials featuring celebrities describing how the PowerBook helps them in their businesses and everyday lives. In 1995, Apple responded to the introduction of Windows 95 with several print ads and a television commercial demonstrating its disadvantages and lack of innovation. In 1997, the Think Different campaign introduced Apple's new slogan, and in 2002 the Switch campaign followed. The most recent advertising strategy by Apple is the Get a Mac campaign, with North American, UK, and Japanese variants.
Apple introduces new products at "special events" hosted at the Apple Town Hall auditorium, and at keynotes at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference. Formerly, it also announced new products at trade shows like the Apple Expo and the Macworld Expo. The events typically draw a large gathering of media representatives and spectators, and are preceded by speculation about possible new products. In the past, special events have been used to unveil Apple's desktop and notebook computers, such as the iMac and MacBook, and other consumer electronic devices like the iPod, Apple TV, and iPhone. The keynotes as well as provide updates on sales and market share statistics. Apple has begun to focus its advertising on its retail stores instead of these trade shows; the company's last Macworld keynote was in 2009.
Since the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple has struggled to gain a significant share of the personal computer market. At first, the Macintosh 128K suffered from a dearth of available software compared to IBM's PC, resulting in disappointing sales in 1984 and 1985. It took 74 days for 50,000 units to sell. Market share is measured by browser hits, sales and installed base. If using the browser metric, Mac market share has increased substantially in 2007. If measuring market share by installed base, there were more than 20 million Mac users by 1997, compared to an installed base of around 340 million Windows PCs. Statistics from late 2003 indicate that Apple had 2.06 percent of the desktop share in the United States that had increased to 2.88 percent by Q4 2004. As of October 2006, research firms IDC and Gartner reported that Apple's market share in the U.S. had increased to about 6 percent. Figures from December 2006, showing a market share around 6 percent (IDC) and 6.1 percent (Gartner) are based on a more than 30 percent increase in unit sale from 2005 to 2006. The installed base of Mac computers is hard to determine, with numbers ranging from 5% (estimated in 2009) to 16% (estimated in 2005). Mac OS X's share of the OS market increased from 7.31% in December 2007 to 9.63% in December 2008, which is a 32% increase in market share during 2008, compared with a 22% increase during 2007.
By March 2011, OS X market share in North America had increased to slightly over 14%. Whether the size of the Mac's market share and installed base is relevant, and to whom, is a hotly debated issue. Industry pundits have often called attention to the Mac's relatively small market share to predict Apple's impending doom, particularly in the early and mid-1990s when the company's future seemed bleakest. Others argue that market share is the wrong way to judge the Mac's success. Apple has positioned the Mac as a higher-end personal computer, and so it may be misleading to compare it to a budget PC. Because the overall market for personal computers has grown rapidly, the Mac's increasing sales numbers are effectively swamped by the industry's expanding sales volume as a whole. Apple's small market share, then, gives the impression that fewer people are using Macs than did ten years ago, when exactly the opposite is true. Soaring sales of the iPhone and iPad mean that the portion of Apple's profits represented by the Macintosh has declined in 2010, dropping to 24% from 46% two years earlier. Others try to de-emphasize market share, citing that it is rarely brought up in other industries. Regardless of the Mac's market share, Apple has remained profitable since Steve Jobs' return and the company's subsequent reorganization. Notably, a report published in the first quarter of 2008 found that Apple had a 14% market share in the personal computer market in the US, including 66% of all computers over $1,000. Market research indicates that Apple draws its customer base from a higher-income demographic than the mainstream personal computer market.
According to a recent Gartner report, Apple devices (Mac & iOS combined) are expected to outsell all Windows devices for the first time in 2013.
- Apple Inc. litigation
- Apple community
- History of computing hardware (1960s-present)
- List of Macintosh models by case type
- List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type
- List of Macintosh software
- List of Macintosh software published by Microsoft
- Macintosh User Groups
- Mac gaming
- Reality distortion field
- Lilith (computer)
- "Define Macintosh". Dictionary.com. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
- Brian Harvey (1994): Is Programing Obsolete?, Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, accessed, and archived 14 June 2013 by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6HMvs40Qe
- "When was desktop publishing invented?". Archived from the original on April 20, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- Polsson, Ken (July 29, 2009). "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers". Retrieved August 27, 2009. See May 3, 1984.
- "Xserve Transition Guide". November 5, 2010. Retrieved November 5, 2010.
- Edwards, Benj (August 15, 2008). "Eight ways the iMac changed computing". Macworld. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- Global Market Share of Leading Operating Systems Worldwide - Statistics from January 2009 to September 2012, StatCounter, October 2012.
- Raskin, Jef (1996). "Recollections of the Macintosh project". Articles from Jef Raskin about the history of the Macintosh. Retrieved November 27, 2008.
- Apple confidential 2.0: the definitive history of the world's most colorful company, Owen W. Linzmayer, ISBN 978-1-59327-010-0
- Hertzfeld, Andy. "The father of the Macintosh". Folklore.org. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Crow, George. "The Original Macintosh". Folklore.org. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- Kottke, Dan. "The Original Macintosh". Folklore.org. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- Manock, Jerry. "The Original Macintosh". Folklore.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- Kawasaki, Guy (January 26, 2009). "Macintosh 25th Anniversary Reunion: Where Did Time Go?". Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- Hertzfeld, Andy. "Five different Macintoshes". Folklore.org. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Free Software Foundation (June 11, 1988). "Special Report: Apple's New Look and Feel". GNU's Bulletin 1 (5). Retrieved April 25, 2006.
- Free Software Foundation (1995-01). "End of Apple Boycott". GNU's Bulletin 1 (18). Retrieved April 25, 2006.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh IIx from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh IIcx from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh SE/30 from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh IIci from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- Knight, Dan (2001-01). "32-bit Addressing on Older Macs". Low End Mac. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh IIfx from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
- Fisher, Lawrence M. (October 15, 1990). "Less-Costly Apple Line To Be Presented Today". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2008.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh LC from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh IIsi from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Fisher, Lawrence M. (January 18, 1991). "I.B.M. Surprises Wall Street With Strong Quarterly Net; Apple Posts 20.6% Rise". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2008.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh Classic II from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh LC II from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh Quadra 700 from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Technical specifications of Macintosh Quadra 900 from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Hormby, Thomas (January 3, 2005). "Apple's Transition to PowerPC put in perspective". Kaomso. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- Polsson, Ken (December 16, 2007). "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers". Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- Polsson, Ken. "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers". Retrieved November 18, 2007.
- Jade, Kasper (February 16, 2007). "Apple to re-enter the sub-notebook market". AppleInsider. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- Technical specifications of PowerBook 165c from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- Technical specifications of PowerBook 520 from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Kunkel, Paul (October 1, 1997). AppleDesign: The work of the Apple Industrial Design Group. Rick English (photographs). New York City: Graphis Inc. ISBN 1888001259.
- Apple Computer (June 19, 1995). "Macintosh Centris, Quadra 660AV: Description (Discontinued)". Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- EveryMac.com (October 27, 2009). "Umax Mac Clones (MacOS-Compatible Systems)". Retrieved November 11, 2009.
- EveryMac.com (October 27, 2009). "PowerComputing Mac Clones (MacOS-Compatible Systems)". Retrieved November 11, 2009.
- Knight, Dan (August 30, 2007). "1997: Apple Squeezes Mac Clones Out of the Market". Low End Mac. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- Engst, Adam (January 23, 2009). "The six worst Apple products of all time". Macworld. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- Spooner, John (January 23, 1999). "Compaq hopes to follow iMac". ZDNet. Retrieved May 10, 2012.
- Technical specifications of iMac G3 from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- "800,000 iMacs Sold in First 139 Days". Apple. January 5, 1999. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
- Markoff, John (October 15, 1998). "COMPANY REPORTS; Apple's First Annual Profit Since 1995". The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
- "iBook: An iMac to Go".
- "Apple Averages Three Thousand iBooks Per Day In Pre-orders!". The Mac Observer. August 31, 1999. Retrieved December 24, 2007.
- "PC Data Ranks iBook Number One Portable in U.S.". Apple. January 25, 2000. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- "Speed, Song Highlight Apple Product Announcements".
- "Apple picks up the beat with CD-RW drives".
- "The Complete iTunes History – SoundJam MP to iTunes 9".
- "About the Macintosh Cube" (PDF). Apple. 2000. Retrieved October 9, 2008.
- Markoff, John; Hansell, Saul (January 12, 2005). "Apple Changes Course With Low-Priced Mac". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2006.
- Apple unveils low-cost 'Mac mini'. BBC News. January 11, 2005. Retrieved April 28, 2010
- "Apple Developer Connection – Overview of the PowerPC System Software". Apple. Retrieved May 11, 2009.
- Biersdorfer, J.D. (September 14, 2000). "Apple Breaks The Mold". The New York Times. Retrieved January 16, 2008.
- Technical specifications of MacBook Pro from Apple's knowledge base and from EveryMac.com. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- "Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006". Apple. June 6, 2005. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- Michaels, Philip (January 2, 2010). "Apple's most significant products of the decade". Macworld. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- "WWDC 2005 Keynote Live Update". Macworld. June 6, 2005. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- "Hackers get Windows XP to run on a Mac". MSNBC (AP). March 17, 2006. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- "Boot Camp". Apple. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- Dalrymple, Jim (March 5, 2006). "New Apple software lets Intel Macs boot Windows". Macworld. Retrieved May 14, 2010.
- "The story behind Apple's environmental footprint.". Apple. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Camen, Kroc. "Apple Updates Mac Mini. Aluminium, HDMI, SD card slot". OSNews. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "New MacBook Family Redefines Notebook Design". Apple. October 14, 2008. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Lam, Brian (October 20, 2009). "Apple iMac Hands On". Gizmodo. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
- Kahney, Leander (June 25, 2003). "Design According to Ive". Wired. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Nosowitz, Dan (November 7, 2009). "Watch Jonathan Ive's Segment in Objectified". Gizmodo. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- "Apple Updates MacBook Pro Family with New Models & Innovative Built-in Battery for Up to 40% Longer Battery Life". Apple. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Black Friday: Unusual Apple Deals, InformationWeek, November 23, 2012.
- Apple Aims for the Masses With a Cheaper iPhone
- Windows or Mac? Apple Says Both
- "Apple Reports First Quarter Results". Apple. January 25, 2009.
- "Apple’s Mac market share grows 18.9% in first quarter". Loopinsight.com. April 13, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "Thunderbolt Technology: The Fastest Data Connection to Your PC Just Arrived".
- Dvorak, John C. (March 18, 2003). "Apple Switch". PC Magazine.
- Micheals, Phillip. "New Mac minis add Thunderbolt, lose optical drive". Macworld. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Apple Introduces the New iMac G5". Apple. October 12, 2005. Retrieved July 12, 2006.
- Breen, Christopher. "Farewell Front Row". Macworld. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
- "Eek! A Two-Button Mac Mouse?". Wired. October 30, 2000. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- "Apple Introduces Mighty Mouse". Apple. August 2, 2005. Retrieved July 12, 2006.
- "Apple Debuts Wireless Mighty Mouse". Apple. July 25, 2006. Retrieved November 30, 2007.
- "Apple Introduces Magic Mouse—The World's First Multi-Touch Mouse". Apple. October 20, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Welch, John (January 6, 2007). "Review: Mac OS X Shines In Comparison With Windows Vista". Information Week. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
- Granneman, Scott (October 6, 2003). "Linux vs. Windows Viruses". The Register. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
- Gruber, John (June 4, 2004). "Broken Windows". Daring Fireball. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- "Operating System Market Share". September 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2009.
- Roberts, Paul (February 21, 2006). "New Safari Flaw, Worms Turn Spotlight on Apple Security". eWeek. Retrieved November 23, 2007.
- Conneally, Tim (August 28, 2009). "'Macs don't get viruses' myth dissolves before public's eyes". BetaNews.com.
- "Apple security updates". Apple. January 21, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2009.
- Grimes, Roger A. (May 23, 2011). "7 questions about the Mac malware scare | Security". InfoWorld. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "Mac Security Boasts Threatened by Malware Surge – International Business Times". Ibtimes.com. May 26, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Trenholm, Rich (May 20, 2011). "Apple tells support staff not to confirm Mac Defender infections". UK: Crave. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Seltzer, Larry (May 25, 2011). "Mac Defender 2.0 Released – Security Watch". PC Mag. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Lucas, Paul (June 4, 2005). "Paul J. Lucas's Mac Mini running Linux". Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Hoover, Lisa (April 11, 2008). "Virtualization Makes Running Linux a Snap". Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Pogue, David; Joseph Schorr (1993). Macworld Macintosh SECRETS. San Mateo: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc. p. 251. ISBN 1-56884-025-X.
- "Get a Mac advertisements". Apple. Retrieved January 29, 2007.
- "Get a Mac". Apple. Retrieved February 3, 2007.
- "Apple Announces Its Last Year at Macworld". Apple. December 16, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
- Polsson, Ken (July 29, 2009). "Chronology of Apple Computer Personal Computers". Retrieved August 27, 2009. See April 7, 1984.
- "Trends in Mac market share". Ars Technica. April 5, 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- "Apple Developer News, No. 87". Apple Computer. December 19, 1997. Retrieved April 24, 2006.[dead link]
- "Nearly 600 Million Computers-in-Use in Year 2000". Computer Industry Almanac Inc. November 3, 1998. Retrieved June 1, 2006.
- Dalrymple, Jim (April 20, 2005). "Apple desktop market share on the rise; will the Mac mini, iPod help?". Macworld. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Dalrymple, Jim (October 19, 2006). "Apple's Mac market share tops 5% with over 30% growth". Macworld. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
- "Operating System Market Share". Hitslink. July 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- MacDailyNews (June 15, 2005). "16% of computer users are unaffected by viruses, malware because they use Apple Macs". Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Gruber, John (July 23, 2003). "Market Share". Daring Fireball. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Brockmeier, Joe (May 13, 2003). "What Will It Take To Put Apple Back on Top?". NewsFactor Magazine online. Retrieved April 24, 2006.[dead link]
- "Despite growing sales, Mac's share of Apple profits wanes".
- Toporek, Chuck (August 22, 2001). "Apple, Market Share, and Who Cares?". O'Reilly macdevcenter.com. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Spero, Ricky (July 14, 2004). "Apple Posts Profit of $61 million; Revenue Jumps 30%". The Mac Observer. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Wilcox, Joe. "Macs Defy Windows' Gravity". Apple Watch. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
- Fried, Ian (July 12, 2002). "Are Mac users smarter?". news.com. Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Apple & Raskin, Jef (1992). Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines. Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 0-201-62216-5.
- Apple. "Press release Library". Retrieved November 18, 2007.
- Deutschman, Alan (2001). The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0433-8.
- Hertzfeld, Andy. "folklore.org: Macintosh stories". Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Hertzfeld, Andy (2004). Revolution in the Valley. O'Reilly Books. ISBN 0-596-00719-1.
- Kahney, Leander (2004). The Cult of Mac. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-886411-83-2.
- Kawasaki, Guy (1989). The Macintosh Way. Scott Foresman Trade. ISBN 0-673-46175-0.
- Kelby, Scott (2002). Macintosh... The Naked Truth. New Riders Press. ISBN 0-7357-1284-0.
- Knight, Dan (2005). "Macintosh History: 1984". Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Levy, Steven (2000). Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029177-6.
- Linzmayer, Owen (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0. No Starch Press. ISBN 1-59327-010-0.
- Page, Ian (2007). "MacTracker Macintosh model database 4.3.1". Retrieved November 31, 2007.
- Sanford, Glen (2006). "Apple History". Retrieved April 24, 2006.
- Singh, Amit (2005). "A History of Apple's Operating Systems". Retrieved April 24, 2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Apple Macintosh|