|Location||Doswell, Virginia, United States|
|General Manager||Pat Jones|
|Opened||May 3, 1975|
|Previous names||Paramount's Kings Dominion - 1993 to 2006|
|Operating season||Late March/Early April-Late October/Early November|
|Area||400 acres (1.6 km2)|
The 400-acre (1.6 km2) park opened in 1975 and is currently owned by Cedar Fair and offers over 60 rides, shows and attractions including 14 roller coasters and a 20-acre (81,000 m2) water park. The name given to the park is derived from the name of its sister park, Kings Island, and the nickname for the state of Virginia, "Old Dominion".
- 1 History
- 2 Areas and attractions
- 3 Incidents
- 4 Fast Lane
- 5 Halloween Haunt
- 6 Timeline
- 7 Retired rides and attractions
- 8 Kings Dominion logos
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Early history as Kings Dominion (1972-83)
Following the success of Kings Island in Mason, Ohio, Family Leisure Centers (a partnership formed between Taft Broadcasting Company and Top Value Enterprises) decided to expand into a new region of the country by opening a second park. A 400-acre (1.6 km2) site was chosen in Doswell, Virginia in the heart of the Mid-Atlantic, and construction began on October 1, 1972. The new park was designed with Kings Island in mind as the blueprint using similar themes, rides, and activities.
Kings Dominion officially opened on May 3, 1975 offering fifteen attractions including the Rebel Yell, the Lion Country Safari Monorail, Galaxie, and a junior wooden roller coaster known as Scooby Doo. Also present at the opening was a log flume, steam train, a collection of flat rides and a cable-car sky ride that transported visitors between Old Virginia and The Happy Land of Hanna-Barbera. In addition, Kings Dominion's 1/3-scale replica of the Eiffel Tower and the International Street Fountain greet visitors near the main entrance to the park. Original themed areas included The Happy Land of Hanna-Barbera, International Street, Lion Country Safari, Old Virginia, and Coney Island.
Kings Dominion added their fourth roller coaster, a Schwarzkopf shuttle loop known as the King Kobra, in 1977. The King Kobra featured a 50-ton counter weight drop launch and was the park's first launched roller coaster. It was in the park for nine seasons before being relocated to Jolly Roger Amusement Park in Ocean City, Maryland and later to Hopi Hari in Brazil where it exists today as Katapul. Also in 1977, Kings Dominion was one of several amusement parks serving as location for the film Rollercoaster.
A campground was completed in time for the 1978 season and the park's well-known Lost World mountain debuted in 1979. Originally, the Lost World featured three rides: a flume ride called Voyage to Atlantis, a children's attraction mine ride known as Land of the Dooz, and a rotor called Time Shaft. Only a year later in 1980, the flume ride was rethemed Haunted River. Kings Dominion later expanded Old Virginia with the addition of the park's second wooden roller coaster, the Grizzly, in 1982 and a river rapids ride called White Water Canyon in 1983.
Growth under KECO management (1983-92)
Taft Broadcasting Company sold its theme park division in late 1983 for $167.5 million to Kings Entertainment Company (KECO), a new company formed by senior executives and general managers of Taft's Amusement Park Group. Three parks were involved in the sale — Kings Island, Kings Dominion, and Carowinds — along with a 20-percent stake in Canada's Wonderland. American Financial Group later purchased KECO in 1987 but allowed KECO to continue to manage operations at the amusement parks.
One of the first additions under the new management group was Berserker — a looping starship ride added to International Street in 1984. Also that year, Smurf Mountain replaced the mine ride Land of the Dooz, transforming the Lost World into The Smurfs theme. Kings Dominion unveiled a TOGO stand-up roller coaster in 1986 called Shockwave, the first of three roller coasters to be added under KECO. Shockwave has one loop like the older King Kobra but adds a helix. King Kobra was removed at the end of the season. A water slide complex known as Racing Rivers opened in 1987, and Avalanche, which remains the only Mack bobsled roller coaster in the United States, debuted the following year in 1988. The trains of Avalanche are themed after bobsleds from various countries including the United States, France, Germany, Canada and Switzerland creating the experience of a bobsled race in the Winter Olympics.
Kings Dominion continued to expand over the next few seasons starting with Hanna-Barbera Land in 1990 with the addition of more children's flat rides. A new, looping roller coaster from Arrow Dynamics called Anaconda was introduced the following year in 1991 featuring the world's first underwater tunnel which travels under part of Lake Charles. Anaconda was also originally billed as having six loops, but unlike Arrow's six-inversion coaster Drachen Fire that opened at Busch Gardens Williamsburg the following year, the Anaconda actually has only four inversions: a vertical loop, a sidewinder, and two consecutive corkscrews.
A new 20-acre (81,000 m2) water park addition called Hurricane Reef opened in 1992. To build the water park, Kings Dominion filled in two-thirds of Lake Charles near the Candy Apple Grove region of the park. Originally it featured the Monsoon Chutes (two pairs of free-fall body slides, at 70 and 50 feet (15 m) high, respectively), the Torrential Twist (two enclosed body slides which wrapped around each other), the Pipeline (four open body slides), Cyclone (three enclosed body slides, the center of which was a free-fall), Tidal Wave (two open slides, which riders rode on inner tubes), Splash Island (an area for children with five water slides), and a lazy river.
Paramount era (1993-2006)
Kings Dominion continued its growth when it became part of Paramount Parks in 1993 and switched its name to Paramount's Kings Dominion. New attractions and areas of the park themed to Paramount's television shows and films appeared at Paramount's Kings Dominion almost every season that they were under Paramount's ownership. In 1993, they added a motion simulator attraction, originally featuring the Days of Thunder film, and Lion County Safari was removed at the end of the season. The 1994 season saw the addition of a new area of the park themed to the 1992 Paramount motion picture Wayne's World, which featured their third full-size wooden roller coaster, Hurler, a shop called the Rock Shop, and a Stan Mikita's restaurant similar to the one featured in the film. Since then, the Wayne's World section has been merged into the Candy Apple Grove (since renamed the Grove); the Stan Mikita's was converted to the Juke Box Diner, and the Hurler no longer has Wayne's World theming, except for a few spray painted "Wayne's World" logos near the exit of the ride. In the next year, another children's area, known as Nickelodeon Splat City, opened near the Shockwave roller coaster, this was a product of Viacom purchasing Paramount in 1994. This was later converted into Nick Central. Also Smurf Mountain was removed in 1995, leaving a dormant fiberglass mountain in the back of the park.
In 1996, Kings Dominion introduced its second launched roller coaster, and first LIM-launched roller coaster, The Outer Limits: Flight of Fear. The Outer Limits has a 56 miles per hour (90 km/h) launch, four inversions, and an identical "spaghetti bowl" layout to Flight of Fear at Kings Island. Almost as notable as the launch of The Outer Limits was the fact that the entire ride was in semi-darkness; the riders could not see where they were going. Five years after The Outer Limits opened, Paramount Parks' licensing agreement to use theming from the television show after which the ride was named expired; the Outer Limits-related theming in the ride and its queue was removed, and the ride was renamed Flight of Fear.
1997 featured the debut of KidZville, a re-theming of the Hanna-Barbera section. The park added the new Taxi Jam roller coaster, and Scooby's Playpark became a construction themed playpen called Kidz Construction Company. Yogi's Cave was rethemed to Treasure Cave and many rides in KidZville, such as Scooby Doo's Ghoster Coaster, George Jetson's Spaceport, and Huck's Hot Rods, continued to bear the names of Hanna-Barbera characters.
Kings Dominion continued what became a trend of adding launched roller coasters in 1998, when they opened Volcano, The Blast Coaster in the former Lost World mountain. The mountain's previous rides had all been removed several years prior, and Volcano gave the mountain a major transformation. Volcano, which was manufactured by Intamin, was the world's first LIM-launched inverted roller coaster. The ride featured two separate launch sections, an Immelman style loop out of the top of the mountain, and three heartline rolls on the way back down. Volcano was themed to the 1997 film Volcano; the other Paramount Parks added inverted or suspended roller coasters themed to Top Gun around the same time. During the next two seasons, Kings Dominion expanded Hurricane Reef behind the Rebel Yell and renamed it WaterWorks. The new portion of WaterWorks includes Pipeline Peak, a set of four enclosed water slides, one of which (the Night Slider) is the world's tallest dark free-fall slide. In 2000, Nick Central opened on what was Nick Splat City and part of Kidzville.
The park added its third launched roller coaster, Hypersonic XLC, in 2001. Hypersonic XLC, a Thrust Air 2000 air-launched coaster made by S&S Power, launched riders from 0 to 80 miles per hour (130 km/h) in 1.5 seconds, taking them up an 87-degree incline and down an 87-degree drop. The entire ride takes about 25 seconds. Hypersonic XLC broke down frequently and was closed for the first three months of its second season; no other Paramount Parks installed a similar ride. Nevertheless, Hypersonic XLC helped establish Kings Dominion's reputation as "the launched coaster capital of the world". Hypersonic XLC was removed after the 2007 season.
The early 2000s saw Kings Dominion opening new rides similar to existing rides at other Paramount Parks. In 2002, the park opened its new wild mouse roller coaster, Ricochet. Carowinds also installed their Ricochet in 2002. Diamond Falls, the Shoot-the-Chutes ride closed that season, leading to several seasons of speculation from park visitors over which ride would take its place. The 2003 season saw Kings Dominion become the final of several of the Paramount Parks to open a Drop Zone: Stunt Tower, now Drop Tower: Scream Zone. The 305-foot-high (93 m) Drop Zone at Kings Dominion was the tallest freefall ride in the world at the time it opened. In 2004, Kings Dominion added Scooby-Doo! And the Haunted Mansion; similar Scooby Doo-themed dark rides had opened at three other Paramount Parks during the three previous seasons. In the next season, Kings Dominion added an inverted top spin called Tomb Raider: Firefall, now The Crypt, which was an outdoor version of a similar ride named Tomb Raider: The Ride, also now The Crypt, at Kings Island. The differences between the two were that at Kings Dominion riders' feet dangle freely and at Kings Island there is a floor. In the 2006 season, Kings Dominion opened the Italian Job Turbo Coaster, its fourth launched roller coaster. Unlike the previously built launched coasters at Kings Dominion, each of which was faster than its predecessor, the Italian Job Turbo Coaster is designed more as a family ride and features several launches at 40 miles per hour (64 km/h). The coaster would later be renamed the Backlot Stunt Coaster in 2008. It is similar to the Backlot Stunt Coaster rides at Kings Island and Canada's Wonderland, which both opened in 2005.
On May 22, 2006, Cedar Fair Entertainment Co. announced that they were purchasing all five Paramount Parks. The sale was finalized on June 30, 2006 for $1.24 billion. The park retained its Paramount's Kings Dominion name through the end of the 2006 season and dropped Paramount from the name at the beginning of the 2007 season.
Cedar Fair era (2007-present)
Control of the Paramount Parks had been transferred from Viacom to CBS Corporation at the start of the 2007 season. For the 2007 season, the park lowered its single-day admission by $5 to $44.95, one year after Cedar Point had made the same change to their ticket prices. This was the first time that Kings Dominion has ever lowered their ticket prices for a full season. In addition, they brought back their Starlight discount, which allows admission to the park for $29.99 after 4pm. Kings Dominion expanded WaterWorks for the 2007 season, adding a second wave pool called Tidal Wave Bay, a four-person family raft slide called Zoom Flume, and a ProSlide Tornado.
During the Cedar Fair era, the park introduced Halloween Haunt. While the park had always had a Halloween event, the new HAUNT event has been received very well.
In December 2006, Kings Dominion also put Hypersonic XLC up for sale. The park announced plans to keep it running until a buyer was found. It remained in operation during the 2007 season and was closed and dismantled several weeks before the 2008 season started. Also during the 2007-2008 offseason, Cedar Fair renamed the park's last two rides to open with Paramount theming. Drop Zone Stunt Tower became Drop Tower Scream Zone, The Italian Job: Turbo Coaster became Backlot Stunt Coaster, and Tomb Raider: Firefall received the name The Crypt. The Paramount Theater also changed its name to Kings Dominion Theater.
The 2008 and 2009 seasons saw Kings Dominion receive three rides which had operated at Geauga Lake during its dry amusement park's final season. On October 23, 2007, Kings Dominion announced that Dominator, a floorless roller coaster, would be moved to Kings Dominion and located in the International Street section. Dominator opened on May 24, 2008, becoming Kings Dominion's first roller coaster with five inversions. For the 2009 season, two flat rides once located at Geauga Lake, like Dominator, opened in 2009. Located near Rebel Yell, Americana became Kings Dominion's first Ferris wheel. El Dorado, a pendulum ride, opened in the former site of Hypersonic XLC next to the Xtreme Skyflyer.
For the 2010 season, Kings Dominion opened Intimidator 305, a 305-foot-tall (93 m) gigacoaster by Intamin. The ride features a cable lift hill, an 85° first drop and a maximum speed of at least 90 mph (140 km/h). The ride, which is themed to NASCAR driver Dale Earnhardt, was announced on August 20, 2009, and represents the park's largest-ever capital investment. It is open as of May 2010. Also for the 2010 season, the Kidzville and Nickelodeon Universe areas of the park are being re-themed to Planet Snoopy, as are the children's areas at Canada's Wonderland and Kings Island. The park has renamed the Hanna-Barbera themed rides in Kidzville to match the Planet Snoopy theme, ending the park's 35-year run with Scooby Doo and other Hanna-Barbera characters.
For the 2012 season, Kings Dominion installed WindSeeker in the Grove section of the park next to the Juke Box Diner. There are other versions of the ride in Cedar Fair parks such as Canada's Wonderland, Cedar Point, Kings Island, Knott's Berry Farm, and Carowinds. The ride stands 301 feet (92 m) and gives riders a view of the surrounding area. Kings Dominion also added Dinosaurs Alive!, an upcharge dinosaur walkthrough exhibit, located in the Old Virginia section of the park. This attraction also appears at Kings Island, Cedar Point, and Canada's Wonderland.
For the 2013 season, Planet Snoopy merged with KidZville during a 7-acre (2.8 ha) expansion to form the largest Planet Snoopy in the Cedar Fair chain. There are now 18 attractions covering 14 acres (5.7 ha).
For the 2014 season, Kings Dominion commemorated the 40th anniversary of Lion Country Safari and the preview-opening of Kings Dominion by returning park icons from past eras. These icons included the return of the classic singing mushrooms, the repainting of Anaconda, an improved queue line for Volcano: The Blast Coaster, the return of classic blue ice cream, among other additions. The 2014 season also saw the return of the iconic floral clock, the popular clown band, and the renaming of Johnny's and Trail's End Grill restaurants to their original names, Dinner Bell and Hungry Hippo, respectively. New lighting packages were added to the International Street fountains and Rebel Yell. The Congo and Grove sections of the park returned to their original themes, Safari Village and Candy Apple Grove, respectively.
For the 2015 season, Kings Dominion will continue celebrating their 40th anniversary with a major expansion to WaterWorks water park. The expansion will include a new 65-foot tall slide complex featuring three different attractions called Paradise Plunge, Aqua Blast, and Thunder Falls; a new children's area called Splash Island; expanded cabana areas, updated bathhouses, and other improvements to the area.
Areas and attractions
International Street is the park's main entry area, featuring a 320-foot long fountain pool in the center of the walkway leading up to the 1/3 scale replica of the Eiffel Tower at the end of the street. The area is themed to a showcase of various European architectures, featuring shops and restaurants of different cultures. Originally, only the walkway and its shops were considered part of the International Street area; during the park's Paramount seasons, the boundaries of International Street expanded to include the Action Theater.
|Action Theater||1993||A 3-D theater which currently houses "The Lost World 3D". Formerly known as The Paramount Action F/X Theater (1998–2008), Days Of Thunder (1993–1997), "SpongeBob Squarepants 3D" (2003–2011), "Dinosaurs: Giants of Patagonia" (2012-2013)|
|Berserker||1984||Intamin||A Looping Starship ride.||4|
|Dominator||2008||Bolliger & Mabillard||A floorless roller coaster. Originally from Geauga Lake in Ohio.||5|
|Eiffel Tower||1975||Intamin||An approximately one-third scale replica of the Eiffel Tower in Paris at 315 feet (96 m) and 450 tons. There is an exact replica of this Eiffel Tower at Kings Island.||2|
Along with International Street, Old Virginia is the only original section of Kings Dominion that has kept its same name throughout the park's history. This area has a distinct old-fashioned country theme with colonial-themed props (including a replica of the Liberty Bell), music, and architecture. In the 1970s, Old Virginia had an Intamin Flying Dutchman flat ride called Jamestown Landing; behind it, Old Virginia had a 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge steam train ride, Old Dominion Line, which ran through the woods in the back of the park. Jamestown Landing closed by 1980; the Old Dominion Line stayed until it closed in the 1990s.
|Blue Ridge Tollway||1975||Passenger-driven cars that ride along on a guide rail.||2|
|Dinosaurs Alive!||2012||Dinosaurs Unearthed||A pay-per-entry walkthrough Dinosaur attraction.|
|Flying Eagles||1975||Bish-Rocco||A Flying Scooters type ride.||2|
|Grizzly||1982||Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters||A wooden roller coaster. A similar one exists at Canada's Wonderland.||4|
|Kings Dominion Theatre||A theater that currently houses KD40 - On Stage. Originally named The Mason-Dixon Music Hall and Paramount Theatre during the Paramount era|
|Shenandoah Lumber Company||Arrow Dynamics||A log flume ride.||4|
|Thunder Raceway||1995||R.E. Enterprises||Pay-per-ride Go-kart racing track.||4|
|White Water Canyon||1983||Intamin||A River rafting ride. Originally White Water Rafting Adventure.||4|
Candy Apple Grove
Originally, Candy Apple Grove was known as Coney Island in 1975, then was introduced in 1976. In the 1990s, Candy Apple Grove lost much of its theming and was renamed as the Grove in 2001 until 2013. Candy Apple Grove is Kings Dominion's largest area in the park. The area opened with an orchard theme complete with large candy apples, the popular animatronic Singing Mushrooms, and three apple-themed rides: Apple Turnover, Bad Apple, and Adam's Apple. As part of Kings Dominion's 40th anniversary celebration, the Grove was rethemed to Candy Apple Grove with the return of its original theme including the newly developed Singing Mushrooms, floral clock, and the popular clown band.
In addition to rides, the area features carnival games, an arcade, fast-food restaurants, and a gift shop. The newest ride in Candy Apple Grove, WindSeeker, opened in 2012.
|Americana||2009||A ferris wheel that previously operated at Geauga Lake from 1999 until 2007.||2|
|Bad Apple||2002||HUSS||HUSS Troika. Formerly known as Triple Spin from 2002-2013||3|
|Carousel||1975||Philadelphia Toboggan Company||A wooden carousel; one of the last wooden carousels operating in the world.||1|
|Drop Tower: Scream Zone||2003||Intamin||A Gyro drop tower.||4|
|Grove Stage||2013||Performance stage that currently houses Rockin' Country and Karaoke Superstars|
|Hurler||1994||International Coasters, Inc.||A triple out-and-back wooden roller coaster.||4|
|Rebel Yell||1975||Philadelphia Toboggan Company||A racing dual-tracked wooden roller coaster.||4|
|Ricochet||2002||Mack Rides||A wild mouse roller coaster.||4|
|Shockwave||1986||TOGO||A stand-up roller coaster.||5|
|Wave Swinger||1975||Zierer||A suspended swing ride that rotates with a wave motion lifting riders more than 30 feet (9.1 m) in the air.||3|
|WindSeeker||2012||Mondial||A tower swinger ride featuring two-person swings that slowly rotate and ascend the 301-foot (92 m) tower until reaching the top where speeds increase up to 30 miles per hour (48 km/h).||4|
|Xtreme SkyFlyer||1996||Skycoaster||Pay-per-ride double skycoaster||5|
Safari Village (formerly named Congo) is Kings Dominion's easternmost and predominantly African-themed section. It was inspired by one of the park's original attractions, the Lion Country Safari. Containing a boat ride and a monorail train through a nature preserve, the safari attraction closed in the 1990s.
|Anaconda||1991||Arrow Dynamics||A custom looping roller coaster. It was the first coaster to feature an underwater tunnel and the first coaster at Kings Dominion to feature more than one inversion.||5|
|Avalanche||1988||Mack Rides||A bobsled roller coaster that is the only Mack bobsled coaster currently operating in the United States.||3|
|Backlot Stunt Coaster||2006||Premier Rides||A family LIM-launched roller coaster based on the chase sequence of the 2003 remake of The Italian Job. Riders launch into a parking garage, dodge police cars, and are attacked by a helicopter, which ignites fire all around riders before hitting a second launch section, sending riders into pitch black darkness. Formerly known as The Italian Job: Stunt Track (2005–2007).||5|
|The Crypt||2005||HUSS||A suspended top spin. Formerly known as Tomb Raider: Firefall (2005–2007).||5|
|Flight of Fear||1996||Premier Rides||A LIM-launched roller coaster prototype. Over-the-Shoulder harnesses were removed and replaced with lap bars in 2001. Formerly known as Outer Limits: Flight of Fear (1996–2000).||5|
|Intimidator 305||2010||Intamin||A giga coaster that is the newest roller coaster at Kings Dominion and one of the tallest in the world. The name is in reference to NASCAR driver Dale Earnhardt, "The Intimidator", and the coaster's 305-foot (93 m) lift hill.||5|
|Scrambler||2000||Eli Bridge Company||A classic scrambler ride.||3|
|Volcano, The Blast Coaster||1998||Intamin||A launched inverted roller coaster. The largest of its kind in the world. It is an enclosed roller coaster since the station is located inside a model of a giant Volcano.||5|
The section originally opened as Nickelodeon Splat City in 1996, and was later renamed Nickelodeon Central in 2000. It was re-themed to the Peanuts for the 2010 season. In 2013, Cedar Fair merged the KidZville section of the park and introduce 12 new and re-themed attractions.
|Attractions||Height Requirement||Thrill level|
|Boo Blasters on Boo Hill||Under 46" with adult||2|
|Lucy's Crabbie Cabbies||Under 54"||2|
|Flying Ace||Over 44" or with adult||3|
|Great Pumpkin Coaster||40" or with adult||2|
|Joe Cool's Driving School||Between 40" and 60"||2|
|Peanuts Road Rally||Under 54"||1|
|Snoopy vs. Red Baron||Between 36" and 54"||2|
|Snoopy's Moon Bounce||Between 36" and 54"||2|
|Peanuts Turnpike||Under 54"||1|
|Woodstock Express||Over 46" or with adult||4|
|Flying Ace Balloon Race||Over 42" or with adult||2|
|Snoopy's Rocket Express||At least 36". Between 36" and 42" with adult||2|
|Charlie Brown's Wind Up||Over 42" or with adult||2|
|Lucy's Tugboat||Over 42" or with adult||2|
|Snoopy's Junction||Over 36" or with adult||1|
|Snoopy's Space Buggies||Over 36" or with adult||2|
|Woodstock Whirlybirds||Over 42" or with adult||2|
WaterWorks is Kings Dominion's water park. It opened in 1992 and is included with admission to Kings Dominion.
In the afternoon of May 27, 2014, a transformer near Safari Village blew, causing Intimidator 305, Volcano: The Blast Coaster, Anaconda, Backlot Stunt Coaster and Avalanche to halt operations immediately, with riders present. Through precautionary measures, all rides in the park except for Flying Eagles and Blue Ridge Tollway (which operates via gasoline) were ordered to halt operations immediately. No injuries or deaths of any nature were reported and all guests were safely removed from ride vehicles.
|Blue Ridge Bloodbath||Maze||2001||Old Virginia||Hillbillies|
|Cleaver Brothers Carnival||Scare zone||2012||Candy Apple Grove||Clowns|
|Club Blood||Maze||2007||Candy Apple Grove||Vampires|
|The Doll Factory||Maze||2010||Planet Snoopy||Dolls|
|Feary Tales||Scare zone||2009||Planet Snoopy||Evil fairytales|
|IronWorX||Scare zone||2010||International Street||Iron factory|
|Maze of Madness||Maze||2014||Candy Apple Grove||Mental institution|
|Necropolis||Scare zone||2010||Old Virginia||Cemetery|
|No Vacancy||Maze||2012||Old Virginia||Haunted hotel|
|Outbreak: The Evolution||Maze||2012||Safari Village||Aliens|
|PrimEvil: The Kuru Curse||Scare zone||2012||Safari Village||Cannibals|
|Slaughter House||Maze||2010||Candy Apple Grove||Slaughterhouse|
|The Lair||Scare zone||2011||Old Virginia||Vampires|
|Zombie High||Maze||2013||Candy Apple Grove||Zombies|
In 2013, the park's "Halloween Haunt" event featured a walk-through maze called Miner's Revenge. Advertisements for the attraction characterized it as "the worst coal mine accident in history," and the attraction featured depictions of dead miners' bodies that had been mangled by a mining disaster.
The attraction drew criticism in the press for being in poor taste due to the region's experience with mine disasters. Washington Post writer Peter Galuszka (author of a book on the Upper Big Branch Mine disaster) said that the attraction "hits a little too close to home for me" since "The idea of abandonment is a difficult topic for miners. At Kings Dominion, the suggestion of living miners left to die is meant to inject some enjoyable dramatic tension", while in the Washington Monthly, Kathleen Geier decried that "agonizing deaths are being served up for fun and profit to the gawking, peanut-crunching masses" and asked "What next — a thrill ride based on the Rana Plaza factory disaster in Bangladesh? Auschwitz: The Theme Park?".
Following the controversy, Kings Dominion stated that they would not operate Miner's Revenge in the future.
- 1974: Preview event featuring a film theater, Scooby-Doo (now called Woodstock Express), and Lion Country Safari.
- 1975: Grand opening
- 1976: Apple Turnover (Enterprise flat ride)
- 1977: King Kobra (Steel coaster)
- 1978: Kings Dominion Campground
- 1979: Lost World (Themed area) featuring Journey to Atlantis, Land of the Dooz and Time Shaft
- 1980: Haunted River replaced Journey to Atlantis
- 1982: Grizzly and Amphitheater
- 1983: White Water Canyon; Galaxie coaster closed
- 1984: Berserker; Smurf Mountain replaced Land of the Dooz
- 1985: Diamond Falls and Scooby's Play Park
- 1986: Shockwave; King Kobra removed
- 1987: Racing Rivers
- 1988: Avalanche
- 1989: Sky Pilot (replaced Monster)
- 1990: Hanna-Barbera Land expansion
- 1991: Anaconda
- 1992: Hurricane Reef (Water park)
- 1993: Days of Thunder
- 1994: Hurler; Old Dominion Line steam train removed
- 1995: Nickelodeon Splat City; Smurf Mountain, The Time Shaft and The Haunted River are removed
- 1996: Flight of Fear and Xtreme SkyFlyer
- 1997: Taxi Jam; Hanna-Barbera Land renamed KidZville
- 1998: Volcano; Action Theater replaces Days of Thunder
- 1999: Expansion of Hurricane Reef to WaterWorks
- 2000: Nickelodeon Central; Pipeline Peak added to WaterWorks
- 2001: HyperSonic XLC (Xtreme Launch Coaster); Stan Lee's 7th Portal 3D (feature in Action Theater); Shockwave and Anaconda repainted with new colors
- 2002: Ricochet and Triple Spin; Meteor Attack (feature in Action Theater); Diamond Falls closes
- 2003: Drop Tower and SpongeBob SquarePants 3-D (feature in Action Theater)
- 2004: Scooby-Doo & The Haunted Mansion
- 2005: Tomb Raider Firefall (Now known as The Crypt)
- 2006: Backlot Stunt Coaster and Thunder Raceway Go-Karts
- 2007: Tidal Wave Bay, Tornado and Zoom Flume added to WaterWorks; FearFest becomes Halloween Haunt
- 2008: Dominator (Originally from the now closed amusement park Geauga Lake); Hypersonic XLC removed
- 2009: El Dorado and Americana (both relocated from Geauga Lake); Grizzly retracked
- 2010: Intimidator 305 (Intamin Giga Coaster); Nickelodon Central becomes Planet Snoopy; Boo Blasters on Boo Hill replaces Scooby-Doo & The Haunted Mansion; Rebel Yell retracked
- 2011: Snoopy's Starlight Spectular; Shockwave repainted a new color; Grizzly retracked; El Dorado closes
- 2012: WindSeeker and Dinosaurs Alive!; Fast Lane debuts; Dinosaur 3D replaces SpongeBob SquarePants 3-D
- 2013: Planet Snoopy 7-acre (2.8 ha) expansion and merges with KidZville; Snoopy's Splash Dance removed
- 2014: 40th Anniversary celebration; International Street fountain restored, Candy Apple Grove and Safari Village return; Volcano: The Blast Coaster and Anaconda retrofitted.
Retired rides and attractions
- 1974-1993: Lion Country Safari
- 1975-1981: Adam's Apple/Vertigo (himalaya ride)
- 1975-1984: Flying Carpets
- 1975-1984: Galaxie (Galaxi) (made by S.D.C.)
- 1975-1995: Old Dominion Line (steam train)
- 1975-1995: Sky Ride (Two entrances, one next to the Rebel Yell and one in Hanna-Barbera Land)
- 1975-1988: Bad Apple (Monster)
- 1976-1993: Apple Turnover (Enterprise ride next to Lake Charles)
- 1977-1986: King Kobra (Steel Coaster)
- 1979-1980: Lost World Mountain: Journey to Atlantis (Replaced by Haunted River)
- 1979-1995: Lost World Mountain: The Time Shaft
- 1979-1983: Lost World Mountain: Journey to the Land of Dooz
- 1980-1995: Lost World Mountain: The Haunted River
- 1984-1995: Smurf Mountain
- 1985-2002: Diamond Falls (Big Splash ride) (located where Black Lot Stunt coaster sits)
- 1987-1996: Racing Rivers (Water slide complex)
- 1989-1998: Sky Pilot (Located near Rebel Yell in Candy Apple Grove)
- 1997-2012: KidZville
- 2001-2007: Hypersonic XLC compressed air-launched coaster made by S&S Power
- 2009-2011: El Dorado (where the WindSeeker is now located)
- 1995-2012: Snoopy's Splash Dance
Kings Dominion logos
- "Directions to the Park". Kings Dominion. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- "Kings Dominion Announces Two New Rides for 2009". Kings Dominion. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
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- "Park Fun Facts". Kings Dominion. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
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- "Roller Coaster Database". King Kobra (Jolly Roger Amusement Park). Retrieved 28 July 2006.
- "Timeline: A History of Kings Island". Kings Island. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "Kings Island Development". Kings Island Archive. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "Roller Coaster Database". Search Results (Mack Bobsleds). Retrieved 28 July 2006.[dead link]
- "PkdPlace". Avalanche. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
- "Traveling Today". Calling All Thrill-Seekers! Welcome to Paramount's Kings Dominion. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- "Roller Coaster Database". Anaconda (Paramount's Kings Dominion). Retrieved 28 July 2006.
- "Richmond.com". Don’t let the heat and humidity of a Richmond summer keep you stuck to your vinyl car seats. Retrieved 28 July 2006.[dead link]
- "Paramount's Kings Dominion". WaterWorks. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- "Coaster-Net.com". Ride Gallery: Hypersonic XLC. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
- "Roller Coaster Database". Search Results (Hypersonic XLC). Retrieved 28 July 2006.
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- "Cedar Fair, L.P. To Acquire Paramount Parks". Cedar Fair. 22 May 2006. Archived from the original on 24 May 2006.
- "Cedar Fair, L.P. Completes Acquisition of the Paramount Parks". Cedar Fair. 30 June 2006. Archived from the original on 28 July 2006.
- "Paramount's Kings Dominion Press Room". Kings Dominion To Lower Daily Admission Price For the First Time. Retrieved 14 December 2006.
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- "Kings Dominion: Virginia's Premier Themed Amusement Park". Thrill Rides. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
- Kings Dominion | Virginia's Premier Themed Amusement Park (Richmond)
- "Kings Dominion Announces Two New Rides for 2009".
- "Welcome to Virginia's Premier Themed Amusement Park | Kings Dominion". Intimidator305.com. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
- Thursday, September 1, 2011 1:00 am (2011-09-01). "Kings Dominion to roll out two attractions for coming year". .timesdispatch.com. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
- "Kings Dominion announces expansion of Planet Snoopy". Richmond Times-Dispatch. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "KingsDominion". Kings Dominion Trivia Page. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
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- Ratings assigned per Kings Dominion's own system, where "1" is least intensity and "5" is most. See "Guest Assistance Guide". Kings Dominion. for more specific detailss
- "PkdPlace". 1978 Kings Dominion Map. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
- "Apple Turnover". Kings Dominion. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Mushrooms Press Release". Kings Dominion. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
- "New for the 40". Kings Dominion. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- "Carousel History". Kings Dominion. Retrieved November 27, 2013.
- "Kings Dominion to Introduce $25 Million Steel Giga-Coaster In 2010". Kings Dominion. August 20, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
- "Screams of Fright to Fill October Nights at Kings Dominion". Ultimaterollercoaster.com. 2001-09-05. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
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- "Attraction: Miner's Revenge". King's Dominion. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Galuszka, Peter (2012). Thunder on the Mountain: Death at Massey and the Dirty Secrets Behind Big Coal. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1250000217.
- Peter Galuszka (October 25, 2013). "Miners’ deaths aren’t a theme-park thrill". Washington Post. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
- Kathleen Geier (October 27, 2013). "Wost. Theme Park. Ever.". Political Animal. Washington Monthly. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kings Dominion.|
- Official website
- Kings Dominion at the Roller Coaster DataBase
- KDFans | Unofficial Fansite for Kings Dominion
- Historical Kings Dominion Gallery
- Photos of Kings Dominion c. 1981.
- Kings Dominion to open section featuring five water attractions - 1992 article from Travel Weekly announcing the opening of Hurricane Reef (requires subscription)
- Kings Dominion attraction timeline
- The people's park: Kings Dominion always takes you back - article in the Hook weekly
- Kings Dominion Timeline: 1971-2005
- Old Kings Dominion Photos: 1975-2004
- KDfansite | Unofficial Fansite of Kings Dominion
- Kings Dominion photo book from 1981
- Kings Dominion Halloween Haunt 2013 Official Attractions Page