Application layer

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In the Internet model, the application layer is an abstraction layer reserved for communications protocols and methods designed for process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) computer network. Application layer protocols use the underlying transport layer protocols to establish process-to-process connections via ports.[1]

In the OSI model, the definition of its application layer is narrower in scope. The OSI model defines the application layer as being the user interface – responsible for displaying the information received to the user. The OSI application layer is responsible for displaying data and images to the user in a human-recognizable format and to interface with the presentation layer below it.[2]

OSI separates functionality above the transport layer at two additional levels, the session layer and the presentation layer, specifying strict modular separation of functionality at these layers. It also provides protocol implementations for each layer.

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