Aktau

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Aktau
Ақтау (Kazakh)
Актау(Russian)
Skyline of Aktau
Official seal of Aktau
Seal
Aktau is located in Kazakhstan
Aktau
Aktau
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 43°39′N 51°9′E / 43.650°N 51.150°E / 43.650; 51.150Coordinates: 43°39′N 51°9′E / 43.650°N 51.150°E / 43.650; 51.150
Country Kazakhstan
Province Mangystau Province
Founded 1961
Government
 • Akim (mayor) Edil Zhanbyrshin
Area
 • Total 140 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation -8 m (−26 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Total 178,187
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+5 (UTC+5)
Postal code 130000
Area code(s) +7 7292
Vehicle registration 12, R
Website aktau.gov.kz

Aktau (Kazakh: Ақтау, Russian: Актау), formerly known as Shevchenko (Russian: Шевченко, 1964–1991), is one of the biggest cities of western Kazakhstan, and the country's main seaport on the Caspian Sea. It is located on the Mangyshlak Peninsula and is the capital of Mangystau Province. Aktau literally means "white mountain" in Kazakh, so named after the cliffs overlooking the sea. Population: 166,962 (2009 Census results);[1] 143,396 (1999 Census results).[1]

Aktau is known for its unique block address system. The streets of the city have no names, and all addresses in Aktau consist of three numbers: the microdistrict (block) number, the building number and the apartment number. This is because Aktau was originally planned as a camp for the workers of the oil industry.[2]

History[edit]

The territory of Aktau was once inhabited by ancient tribes of Scythians. Archeological finds in the area include old settlements and utensils. Aktau was founded in 1961 as a covert settlement, Guriyev-20, when development of uranium deposits was started.[3] In 1963 the settlement was open and gained status of a city. From 1963 to 1991, the city was named Shevchenko to honour the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko, who was once exiled to this then remote location because of his political views. The name Aktau was given in 1991 as the Soviet Union collapsed and Kazakhstan gained independence.

Construction[edit]

Aktau was once the site of a nuclear power station. The BN-350 FBR went online in 1973, and closed in 1999. In addition to producing plutonium, BN-350 was also used to provide power and for desalination to supply fresh water to the city. The long-term plans of the Government of Kazakhstan include the construction of a new nuclear power station to be built near the current one. The current station is not considered powerful enough to supply the fresh water and energy needed when the new district Aktau-City is constructed, doubling the current area and size of the city.

Transport[edit]

Aktau has an international airport, a railway station, and a developed seaport.[4] Buses and taxis are the principal means of public transport within the city.

In 2013 Kazakhstan will halt the transit of grain through the Black Sea and instead use Aktau where cars will go through the Caspian Sea and then through Azerbaijan and Georgia to get to Turkey. This decision is due to the opening of the railway connecting Georgia and Turkey, scheduled for early 2014.[5]

Climate and leisure[edit]

Aktau experiences a desert climate (Köppen BWk), with dry summers and mild winters, with a mean January temperature of 0.5 °C (32.9 °F), and a mean July temperature of 25.55 °C (78.0 °F).

The beach season lasts from May to September, with an average sea temperature of 21 °C (70 °F). Aktau has both rocky hills and sandy beaches along the seashore. There are several modern resorts on the coast to the south of the city. The beaches of the Caspian shore are popular in the summer, due to the hot climate of the season. Tourists come mainly from other parts of Kazakhstan.

Climate data for Aktau
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1
(34)
2
(36)
6
(43)
14
(57)
22
(72)
26
(79)
29
(84)
28
(82)
23
(73)
16
(61)
9
(48)
3
(37)
14.9
(58.8)
Average low °C (°F) −2
(28)
−2
(28)
1
(34)
7
(45)
15
(59)
19
(66)
22
(72)
21
(70)
16
(61)
9
(48)
3
(37)
0
(32)
9.1
(48.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 8
(0.31)
9
(0.35)
15
(0.59)
17
(0.67)
20
(0.79)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
17
(0.67)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
16
(0.63)
182
(7.16)
Source: Svali.ru[6]

Sights[edit]

Aktau is a relatively young city. The architecture is a mix of modern glass business centres and residences and typical Soviet blocks of apartments. There is a lighthouse in Aktau installed on top of an apartment building.[7]

The main attraction in the city remains the Caspian Sea with its long side walks and beaches. Other sights include:

  • World War II Eternal Flame Memorial
  • MiG Monument at the Victory Mall
  • Regional Studies and History Museum
  • The Drama Theatre
  • Yntymak Square
  • Monuments of Famous people of the past: Kashagan, Zhalau Mynbayev and Taras Shevchenko
Panorama of Night Aktau
Shevchenko monument in Aktau
View of the seaside

Time capsule[edit]

In 1967 the people of Aktau erected a Time capsule to send a message to future generations of the Mangyshlak Peninsula, including names of people who helped to build the town in the desert. The letter was put in a metallic cylinder in a triangular marble urn. It is to be opened in November 2017.[2] The capsule is located in 2nd microdistrict, opposite to 'Kazakhstan Trade Center.'

Aktau city project[edit]

Entrance to the city

On September 11, 2007 President Nursultan Nazarbayev gave a start to the project Aktau city in order to develop tourism and attract investments.[8] A totally new city will be built to the north-west of the current city with 4 millions sq. meters of residential and business buildings to be constructed. The architecture style will be derived from UAE's construction experience under the patronage of Sheikh Abdullah ibn Zaid Al Nahayan. In August 2013, nevertheless, the project has been called off.[9]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Aktau is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Население Республики Казахстан" (in Russian). Департамент социальной и демографической статистики. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Aktau: Years, people, memories... Ogni.kz on 13 October 2011
  3. ^ "Пионеры Запада" (in (Russian)). Np.kz. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  4. ^ "Aktau Port". Port Aktau. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  5. ^ "Kazakhstan to Leave Black Sea Grain Route". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 8 August 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  6. ^ "Svali.ru" (in Russian). Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  7. ^ Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of Kazakhstan". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 
  8. ^ New city project Khabar news agency
  9. ^ http://www.lada.kz/aktau_news/society/10772-aydarbaev-aktau-siti-ne-budet.html
  10. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  11. ^ "Twinning with Aktau" (in (Russian)). Izvestia.kz. 2005-08-02. Retrieved 2013-05-29. 
  12. ^ Visit of M.Saakashvili to Kazakhstan 31 Channel March 31, 2005
  13. ^ KZ-Today September 11, 2006

External links[edit]