Aquilonia is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, part of the Campania region of southern Italy. It is situated in mountainous terrain in the eastern part of Avellino, at an elevation of 750 metres (2,460 ft). On 23 July 1930 a major earthquake destroyed the town, and it was rebuilt at a higher location nearby.
The Lombards called the town Carbonara or Carunar, supposedly because a major local occupation was charcoal making. In 1861, after the unification of Italy, the town was renamed Aquilonia based on a 16th-century assumption that this was the site of the Battle of Aquilonia between the Rome and the Samnites.